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I'd like to start by thinking organises
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by Tim it's a great nice to be here.
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And now on our to have the opportunity
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to share with you some of the work on
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going in that lab and particularly the
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project that a I'm working on in
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collaboration with yeah so today gonna
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tell you about the studies related to
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energy metabolism I mean amount of
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information any enhancement. And as you
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have for the Reading the introduction
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problem is is very important for brain
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functions not just to keep the cells
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alive but is also activity dependent
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response. Um very metabolism and
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affects how we feel how we function and
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how we and dissolve the suffering that
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apply others are linked or make calls
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this devastating diseases such as for
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the generation like alzheimer's
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disease. But also on was like Latin
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this disease epilepsy anything "'cause"
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so having a opting brain metabolism is
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important for nodding my head. And
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despite all this knowledge is mostly
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correlation now and scripting if it it
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is actually interesting that not enough
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is known about how very metabolism
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articulated. And yeah has indicated
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some of those a issues about
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entertainment companies. And the energy
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metabolism is one of the important to
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the brain because it supplies energy.
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And as we have you're not many times
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the brain requires a lot of energy to
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function much more than any other dish.
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So we need really to understand how
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energy metabolism into in the brain
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works. How it changes with different
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functions in different regions perhaps
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as we have an awful yeah in different
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stages of life in development is
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different is not a requirement of
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energy in developing brain and then in
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the normal functioning about brain
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stage as well as engaging and and all
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the diseases that are related to that
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so trying to understand the energy
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metabolism and we need to understand
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why all these energies need that SPS
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suggested most of it it goes to supply
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energy to new roles that Timit to keep
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nor as well eighty nine billion neurons
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in the human brain they require a lot
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of energy. They cannot do that out on
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the mostly as we at first and and so
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what is the answer the asset is
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circulation blond is wrong to the brain
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and the best sells make sure that no
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experience in oxygen bleach every
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single cell in the brain. But again no
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one owns cannot just make the energy
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necessary for the activity especially
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during the the cycle when we have
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awakened we function we think and
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operate. And therefore they need the
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help of either cells and the cost of
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sites that very well positioned to do
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that. And you have seen this already.
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So I just cites supposition between
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blood vessels and once and that will
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"'cause" is actually taken out by
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astral sites and and that either two
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neutrons actually inform of like that
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you know that and the and so that is a
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very interesting mechanism for the
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brain to use as energy supply and is
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not just energy as as a show you we see
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that if we supply people I
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consideration of route "'cause" persons
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like that we don't have the same effect
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so definitely like these more efficient
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or supply something in addition to
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glucose to the norton's to function why
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do we need all these interactions in
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collaboration along different cells to
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do that as a mention because neurons
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that easy fiery and that they cannot
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provide sufficiently the energy
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necessary for that there is a lot of
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oxidation and too much oxidation out
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clearly leads to problems in this
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that's reactive oxygen SP C.'s
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oxidation and if this is too much is is
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gonna be to sell that also that much so
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they had lost to sites is not only to
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supply the energy but also to make sure
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to restore common stasis. And that that
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is helping into it. And the in my time
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we have been study study the biological
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mechanism amount of memory formation
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for about twenty years now I have to
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training we don't deal with going to
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run on occasion and with we have a
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story the evening I look forward to
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that we thought this our questions on
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the mat Miriam brain because we wanted
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to understand how complex brain works
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in the memories that are relatively of
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modelling complex memory of your brain
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and so we have one is on understanding
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the GSK that is regulated in the brain
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and necessary for long term memory
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formation particularly in the
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hippocampus a region that is important
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for memories that process facts people
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and things in your must this so called
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attractive memories members of places
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context space and so on. Uh and is a
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region that is very well star they and
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as many I most of my other colleagues
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we have thought "'cause" the last
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twenty S on the genius key that is
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regulated by learning of requires
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formants of information but thinking
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about problems morals because clearly
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we need to understand what is the gene
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expression that cursing numerals to
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support a lot of memory formation. But
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when we talk about the training evil in
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the complex plane yeah and as we have
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seen notice on not the only cells that
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are working in know activity dependent
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process I became interested in
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understanding how these units works
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together particularly astra sites. And
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morons worked together a long term
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memory formation. And and well I visit
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that yeah I just it is that I think it
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was two thousand and needs. And I know
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all the details about these models are
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that is the already present that
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proposed is that as to sites and once I
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couple to take glucose taken out a
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biased of site is gonna the and broken
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trigger icon is easy to lactate and
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like transporting to notice is going to
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supply the energy and I don't have
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another things necessary for the new
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ones to process the information I
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became interested in that question
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because it make very much sense to me
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that there is a need of the out of
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energy and that's two sides to do that
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so we decided in collaboration to test
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the hypothesis in addition as yeah
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mention there is not just like college
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this coming coming from Lucas but after
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sites and not I don't see it outright
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still applied project. And like as in
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is the storage of energy so you when
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there is an activity them at the
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process nitrogen is gonna be broken the
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broken is gonna be broken down into the
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clay call is is and some are that to
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norton's. So testing design a disease.
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Uh have can actually on process known
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as consolidation consideration is the
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process that make sure that the
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learning information is gonna become a
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lot of memory not all the information
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is important. We need to select the
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important information. And to still
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important information and memory
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initially is entirely by state is
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fragile. So several type of
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interference is can actually this. This
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standardisation process on
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consolidation. And and tremendous
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amounts of memory from being formed
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store that information from these two
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and this process is made of multiple
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phases the initial phase of
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consultation a lot of memories is a
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requirement for gene expression they
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noble protein synthesis and the
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knowledge. And this continues for quite
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some time. And we have chosen to study
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the process analogously traditionally
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the hippocampus using rodents I'm gonna
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be you would describe the model and in
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a minute and the the approach is as I
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mentioned rodent mostly routes the
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majority of the the basic question with
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writing the lab are done with your and
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for anymore these these models then we
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equal to twice we use a task that is
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simple. And it's a single learning try
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a different lead into a robust a lot
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and the reason why we have changed and
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that is because we want to identify
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what changes immediately after doing it
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follow a over time this changes we need
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a single important effect and they get
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one to describe the task in a second
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and then we're going to for a lot of
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these events in brain regions as I
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mention particularly they keep
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hippocampus is one teacher that many
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interested in because I wear memory
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model more that's people company pet
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the memories the topic is known as in
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he beauty appointments or passive
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avoidance is the field based
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association the few base memory task in
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which we have a a show the boss one
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compartment is it and the other
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compartments time. They're separated by
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a door the anymore is placed into the
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little compartment that a few seconds
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later the door opens allowing the route
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to getting to the dark side of the
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chamber. And once there are is in that
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context though close this and they get
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a fruit shop. And training is complete
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it's a single learning if I had a few
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for event they also see the context
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with the fortune by entering into the
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dark side memories that at any time if
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we wanna test the short term or long
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term times by replacing the anymore
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into the it compartment opening the
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door and measuring the latency that
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they have that and you're gonna see a
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lot of stars like this a position is
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the time that they take twenty into the
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dark chamber before getting the shot so
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they only take a few seconds they are
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in they get the flowchart. But after
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that they're no remember if they have
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memory and so when we can remember
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they're gonna sure what it is it went
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into the shop compartment and you're
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gonna see that they develop well longer
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and the last latency these is that they
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become latency two days after training
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my chop point six media. And in this
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case most of the rats don't even enter
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into the dark days a lot of time here
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is nine minutes after which just have
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to get back to the okay so we this
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other and that that produces that's one
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memories but for context associated
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with a strong emotion here we I'm
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looking at regions in the brain and one
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of the biological changes occurring in
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his brain regions we start everything
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mention from the hippocampus because it
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becomes is required for the acquisition
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and consolidation of these memory. So
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we are taking out the door study which
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is the each of the processes context
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shocks association we're looking at the
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changes occurring with learning so
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we're not manipulating the brains where
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I was in the brains of these animals to
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tell us what happens after learning and
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we follow are these changes over time.
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And then we manipulate done by
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targeting the regions Stella tactically
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directly with more like a lot
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manipulation whatever is the
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information that we want to we want a
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measure or we not as with monitor
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manipulation we are looking or
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pharmacological we're looking at
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whether those changes are required for
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not too much information. And with this
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approach we have identified a number of
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players they first like what is this
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was actually to test that what we knew
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from invertebrates what are what we
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knew from about the best system was
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also apply to my million brain in my on
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normally systems and consolidation that
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requires the hippocampus. And in fact
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that was the case the activation of
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this transcription factor crevice
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required for the consolidation of this
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discuss. And not their downstream
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transcription factor not a CVP they
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direction of it in that also campus
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Caesar required for this task. And we
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have then identified a number of
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typology. So you and Dave originally
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that is from the metabolism but I would
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back to it I wanna mention that some of
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the target genes that we have
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identified with these studies in the
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pacific bizarre interesting nutrients
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one in particular that one operation is
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in something like growth factor too
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which is downstream of CPP and these
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are regulated learning if use block
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this articulation by knocking down the
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expression of I you have to insulin
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like a factors to we block long term
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memory so these reply different
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fundamentally formation and if we
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supply just two weeks training we
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actually lose the minorities
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tremendously strong increasing has one
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of the memory and long lasting we
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tested also the at their and factors
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that belong to the same the same system
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idea to insulin like a factor too is
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structurally similar to insulin doesn't
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have the same function. And the other
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memories ideas one is a high profile to
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one and insulin but not like if one
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enhances memory if injected into brain
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regions but the in fact that we see
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with the insulin is actually transient
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so I used to is among the members they
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want that has the strongest affect as
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memory intensive. And and on also
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mentally persist and you also has a
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number of interesting effective
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rescuing memory deficits. But I'm not
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gonna born with this I just wanted to
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mention because actually I learn a week
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ago that that after nine million is
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reach week idea too so that's an
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interesting okay but let's go back to
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metabolism and these mechanisms have to
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do obviously a lot with the so we send
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out to determine whether the astral
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city note on a lot they complain and is
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important for the changes of putting in
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the brain that I just mentioned that I
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mean that for a lot of memory formation
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as well a as long term memory formation
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itself. And this question was addressed
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in the had like a former postdoc in
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offices you know back in Japan because
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on that then about the student the us
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out lost to now of Rockefeller as a all
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so what they did that I could not go
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and so that they systematically asked
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the question of whatever they that the
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problem is and lactate formation and
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transport are required for a lot of
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memory formation fourteen embittered
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about that's slaughtering them
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information. And I'm gonna just
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summarise because the the car polish
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and then available to something that is
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not problems. So in the first set of
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experiments they ask if I like question
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on this is why have an effect on
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memory. And what have an effect on
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those changes that occur with the
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thing. And the answer is yes in both
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cases. So if they don't like original
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analysis by injecting directly into the
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whole study but campus bilaterally the
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AB which blocks the real the VD like
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virgin breaking down the packaging to
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local six plus a so these that when
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they know that they found that random
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information was yeah that is that to
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see what's rescue by giving lactate
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sometimes think that like it was the
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key molecules but using yeah the
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monitor mechanisms the interaction of
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those changes that I mention and we
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have to look at the numbers practise
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for elation CPP immediately gene to
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install on also adults it in the actual
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molecular interactions that depend on
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learning with lower by the AB and again
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rescue by lower so that was the first
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piece of evidence that the like the gen
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metabolism is vaudeville long term
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memory formation and the changes a that
00:18:02
on the right that the second question
00:18:05
that they they're was to measure
00:18:07
directly like that in extra people
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company with Mike today on is and what
00:18:12
they found is that after learning there
00:18:14
is an induction of like an increase in
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that the service space on the campus
00:18:21
with micro that this is the last for
00:18:23
about an hour ago was back to baseline
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after that and also that is dependent
00:18:30
on like Wichita and so the I be blocks
00:18:33
they increase of it in the yeah and
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then they ask if I like the transport
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of day by blocking specific
00:18:43
transporters that are expressed by
00:18:45
astral sides and all morons and those
00:18:47
are Monica works late transport that
00:18:50
one and four and they did that by
00:18:53
knocking down the expression of this
00:18:54
transporters in tape account by of
00:18:56
these animals and what that is what
00:19:00
they find is again memory loss rounder
00:19:02
also initialising yeah rescuing we with
00:19:05
tape but not with that we colour the
00:19:07
concentration of locals suggesting that
00:19:09
like that does something different than
00:19:11
groups. And then they went on announced
00:19:14
if we don't regulate the expression so
00:19:18
if we're not knowing expression of
00:19:19
other transport this better specific as
00:19:22
expressed by morons those are Monica
00:19:24
about to the transporters to what
00:19:28
happens to memory and what happens is
00:19:30
that memories yeah no they supply lower
00:19:33
they and they don tries to think yeah
00:19:37
because clearly the moniker box to
00:19:39
transpose it to transport in the gnomes
00:19:41
in fact that was like ben with that and
00:19:43
no no change would new was so all this
00:19:48
data in addition to LTP longterm put to
00:19:54
see a show the the the start is done in
00:19:57
the evil we collaborators amount Sinai
00:19:58
George at least that basically led to
00:20:02
these first set machines and that is
00:20:05
not easily easily waiting training they
00:20:07
campus blocking like original uses
00:20:09
crops slightly these long term memory
00:20:12
as well as the underlying molecular
00:20:13
changes. And like the rescues these
00:20:17
impairments similar results are found
00:20:19
with that. V viva transport of like
00:20:22
different most the to notice is
00:20:24
essential for long moments formation of
00:20:25
for those changes are I for long to
00:20:27
maybe consolidation acrobatic
00:20:29
concentration of those do not rescue
00:20:33
these affect so I mean is that I but
00:20:36
you know this is enough aside around
00:20:38
like that sharpening are required in
00:20:41
the heat account the scroll ultimately
00:20:43
formation but what why why like that
00:20:47
what does it do so we need to get now
00:20:49
to the next question. And the next
00:20:52
question is what type of mechanisms
00:20:54
really is required to what we're
00:20:58
thinking about the DV depend the
00:20:59
mechanisms but we really don't know we
00:21:01
need to find out which are required in
00:21:04
it and perhaps which may have enough of
00:21:08
the energy supplies to carry on so
00:21:12
clearly memory we have seen but you
00:21:13
know a number of other functions that
00:21:15
needs to be tested that brain regions
00:21:17
and systems. And and one that is a for
00:21:21
a lot of our studies in any bitterly
00:21:23
avoidance is the emotional modulation
00:21:27
consolidation was this caller actually
00:21:29
because memory long term memory
00:21:31
formation can be modulated. So
00:21:35
modulation strengthens the memory and
00:21:38
why do we have a consideration of a
00:21:40
single event is because of that event
00:21:42
is emotionally important. So our roles
00:21:45
on motivation stressed and emotional
00:21:51
regulation are important and
00:21:53
fundamental to make sure that the
00:21:56
representation of a single you was
00:21:59
gonna become a lot of memory otherwise
00:22:01
we would not about but remember what
00:22:03
happened to you last week. They X four
00:22:06
o'clock in the afternoon unless there
00:22:08
was something savoury as to that
00:22:11
moment. We don't we we for that and
00:22:15
there is a vast literature that that
00:22:18
study their role of stress around on of
00:22:20
memory and modulation. So if we have a
00:22:23
low stress we done we can for a long
00:22:26
time member is but we increase the
00:22:27
level of modulation we increase the
00:22:29
level of memories try consolidation and
00:22:34
modulation of every actual an optimal
00:22:37
no the after which if the stresses to
00:22:40
match then there is a negative effect
00:22:42
on Madison memories gonna be actually
00:22:45
yeah and these inverted you R of stress
00:22:49
on memory is and it's a very
00:22:52
interesting function because we go from
00:22:54
about the mechanisms to man adaptive
00:22:58
mechanism by changing the lot of stress
00:23:02
as so today we're gonna talk about the
00:23:04
adaptive part having an emotion having
00:23:08
a certain level of stress. And make in
00:23:11
long term memory formation and we know
00:23:16
that these modulation distant
00:23:18
modulation requires the regulation of
00:23:21
stress and not adrenaline and have of
00:23:24
course the price and as I mentioned
00:23:26
that body of literature I've started
00:23:28
inverted you curves are have a
00:23:30
documented modulation of memory I
00:23:32
mentioned you make or many others are
00:23:35
very interested in understanding this
00:23:38
modulation. And that they to stress on
00:23:41
most particularly involved in these
00:23:43
modulation as I mentioned again is not
00:23:45
a bad idea of what's going we're
00:23:48
interested in studying the role of all
00:23:51
these hormones with metabolism because
00:23:54
clearly the range gonna be very active.
00:23:57
It's an important event these arousal
00:24:00
and number adrenaline is known to be
00:24:02
coupled to glucose metabolism so the
00:24:04
ipod is is is whether or not adrenaline
00:24:09
is actually activating hydrogen
00:24:13
metabolism and the comforting to normal
00:24:16
function. And the question is been
00:24:19
addressing the lab nitrogen as are a
00:24:21
student and MDPHD student and she's
00:24:23
asking is not adrenaline in keep
00:24:25
account was working through a specific
00:24:29
mechanisms. So the first questions she
00:24:34
she on is what their if we not
00:24:38
receptors for not updating the latest
00:24:40
sectors in the keep the campus that we
00:24:43
affect amount of memory and this is we
00:24:45
we could take that these problem
00:24:48
because a a lot of studies that Donna
00:24:50
similar experiments by targeting I mean
00:24:53
dollar which is another reason that is
00:24:55
body and each of these receptors the
00:24:58
the other judges sectors another notice
00:25:00
receptors number in many groups we have
00:25:03
a product that doesn't beat the
00:25:05
receptors and we're focusing on
00:25:07
business that doesn't because there be
00:25:09
described as important for long term
00:25:11
every consolidation of modulation in a
00:25:13
meeting that I in other regions. So now
00:25:15
we're targeting the campus and she
00:25:17
asked if I log data to do just said
00:25:19
there's by injecting programmer or
00:25:22
another antagonist of big brother
00:25:24
because that those before trading what
00:25:27
do I see and you find what she sees is
00:25:29
that minimally see yeah we can start
00:25:32
date later. So long to remember really
00:25:34
that again six days a week after chaney
00:25:38
to make sure or to test whether the
00:25:41
effect is persistent and the effect
00:25:43
this persistent or memory we probably
00:25:45
on analogue onboard is impaired the
00:25:48
effect is persistent if we inject lot
00:25:53
it we propped plumber on memory is
00:25:55
rescued the effect is persistent if we
00:25:59
jack every corner concentration of
00:26:02
those the impairment remains. So again
00:26:06
like with the AB memories impact if we
00:26:09
probably it'd energy deceptive becomes
00:26:11
this and this is rest you by the by not
00:26:13
who has the next question was to look
00:26:17
at the molecular mechanism required a
00:26:18
long memory formation I'm gonna show
00:26:20
you already one we look at several. And
00:26:23
I'm gonna show you one which is whether
00:26:25
or not is the induction of the
00:26:26
immediately gene are we know it'll
00:26:28
cause in in in neurons and I mean
00:26:32
excitatory neurons in particular. And
00:26:35
as you see here the expression of arc
00:26:39
is induced after training is
00:26:41
significantly increasing the
00:26:43
hippocampus of these anyone's injection
00:26:46
of not they alone does not change these
00:26:49
adoption injection of proper problem
00:26:52
completely blocked thing that's an
00:26:56
injection of black did we prop on
00:26:59
rescuing the deficit. And this is true
00:27:02
for many other Marcus she went on and
00:27:04
then ask is it that there energy PS are
00:27:08
data that you set those important for
00:27:10
the use of lot they evoke like
00:27:13
training. So she should be Michael
00:27:15
dialysis that also people come by and
00:27:19
she actually wants to test whether
00:27:21
people one or two times or other
00:27:24
sectors are involved perhaps both are
00:27:27
involved in this in this regulation. So
00:27:32
in this case she measure design I you
00:27:36
rats injected with like pushy measure
00:27:41
the level of lower the overtime right.
00:27:44
So there is an actual name before
00:27:46
training and actually continues after
00:27:48
training for ninety minutes. And this
00:27:50
is the baseline training significantly
00:27:54
increase the level of lock that indeed
00:27:57
well for about as I said sixty seventy
00:28:02
minutes goes back to baseline after
00:28:04
that this induction of like thing is
00:28:08
completely blocked right by pro
00:28:10
parallel yeah the green line. So
00:28:13
lactate levels emails fly in with
00:28:16
proper analogue board. And then she
00:28:19
test that but I also know which are
00:28:22
selective antagonist of we don't wanna
00:28:24
sectors and found that there was no
00:28:26
effect like to increase the remains.
00:28:30
And broken so late that no of the
00:28:32
energy receptors her eyes yeah I this
00:28:35
one at one one eight five five one and
00:28:38
this completely blocking direction of
00:28:40
lactate so it is beta two sectors and
00:28:42
not with a lotta sectors that are
00:28:44
required for activities in the keep
00:28:47
account was and is a bit memory of
00:28:49
these anymore test that and we see a
00:28:52
pot on the side the any must've been
00:28:55
injected a systemic and so program
00:28:58
roadblocks beta one does not and beta
00:29:02
two blocks out of every so you these
00:29:04
beta to that is involving this memory
00:29:06
formation as well that's locked at
00:29:08
least. So we're focusing now between
00:29:11
two sectors. And also look up if we
00:29:14
enjoy it to lock ups directly in they
00:29:17
put I do we see the same F fact and the
00:29:21
answer is yes if we inject Ici memory
00:29:25
is in their the effect is sustain we
00:29:29
give a reminder shop to see whether we
00:29:31
can dress to the memory but is not what
00:29:34
I the big packs a lot of debate that
00:29:36
one block here has no effect. So again
00:29:39
confirming that is the and the next
00:29:41
question was well well you know let's
00:29:44
see what is the distribution of these
00:29:45
interceptors. So we should be the these
00:29:49
an alternate geography lookup binding
00:29:51
up with the one with that what the
00:29:52
magic receptors. And she found that
00:29:56
obviously they have a different
00:29:57
distribution this confirms previous
00:29:59
they would be discovered that and this
00:30:02
distribution is interesting because if
00:30:05
we look now we zoom into account was we
00:30:09
see that the be two hundred that
00:30:11
dollars are particularly in every in
00:30:14
the ah organs and and the in the end
00:30:17
also record how to middle one is what
00:30:20
distributed evenly. And this
00:30:22
distribution actually corresponds to
00:30:25
one in Richmond of us two sides in this
00:30:28
separate. So big oh are most likely
00:30:32
region also sites and again there is
00:30:34
some suggestion the literature the size
00:30:37
with the to the receptors are mostly
00:30:39
lost of sites and not too. So she went
00:30:42
on and then decided to not down
00:30:45
selectivity the expression of beta to
00:30:48
in that on last side in master side or
00:30:51
models using that viruses on the that
00:30:55
express sequences that will not down
00:30:59
the expression of data to sector. So I
00:31:01
say channel and a sign anything or anti
00:31:04
since it's a on the the problem
00:31:06
specific promoter at that are expressed
00:31:09
either in austin sites or select. So
00:31:13
this is an example of the virus that
00:31:15
you use these these uses they do and
00:31:18
you promote there's always on astro
00:31:20
city promoter and in fact what she sees
00:31:23
is that expression of this virus is
00:31:25
selectively master sites and not in a
00:31:29
with the emu staining that green is GSP
00:31:34
which is the violence expression the
00:31:37
right in this case is no landmark of
00:31:39
neurons and when we do the merging we
00:31:42
see that they are not in or on the
00:31:46
previous one there was there we go the
00:31:50
G of the staining so it's almost a
00:31:52
seated expression. So using these this
00:31:57
and targeting selectively I'll post
00:31:59
five should go for that debate or do I
00:32:02
the jig receptor expression is not
00:32:04
there but the bottom section. But not
00:32:07
the beetle one of the idea Steptoe
00:32:09
levels and then she look at memory and
00:32:13
watching know is that these viruses
00:32:16
that not down with that what'd you
00:32:18
after it not decided not to notice the
00:32:22
two memory impairment again defect to
00:32:24
sustain. I don't mind the shot no
00:32:27
effect now when she lactate in they
00:32:34
scrambled in the control she's you know
00:32:37
effect when she is not the way this
00:32:40
financing the SHR and a guess a bit too
00:32:43
she completely rescues the effect the
00:32:46
memory M so she went on and then ask
00:32:51
what what if we target baited whether
00:32:52
just that those in or so T engineer the
00:32:55
not the writers now the promoter is not
00:32:58
seen the targets and also identified
00:33:00
the virus is targeting neural
00:33:02
selectively is is the managing and the
00:33:04
cost inning we'd mark yeah no posting
00:33:08
we just received my nose down
00:33:13
regulation of bit that what it used
00:33:15
that that expression in the people
00:33:19
problem products that are not to be the
00:33:22
one as you can see here that down
00:33:25
regulation is much smaller in agreement
00:33:28
with the idea that it with energy
00:33:29
sector in morals is actually less the
00:33:32
expression of these are sectors and
00:33:35
then should look at memory effect. And
00:33:39
the latency of these animals the in
00:33:41
infected with this virus what the beta
00:33:44
progenitor or you know and is not to
00:33:48
had no effect memory was available to
00:33:51
controls remedy was strong she tried
00:33:55
many different conditions changing they
00:34:00
week some infection that for the
00:34:02
persistence of the silencing. She
00:34:05
changes are also the shocking then
00:34:09
simply use this for weeks after
00:34:12
infection these is we the two weeks and
00:34:15
four weeks we point six million solo
00:34:18
what initial intensity to see shouldn't
00:34:20
see any effect thus far we have not
00:34:22
seen and I like targeting by based on
00:34:27
what to reduce that there's you know
00:34:29
tones. So in conclusion we have that
00:34:32
people are on with the to other
00:34:33
notables that those on them information
00:34:36
still sitting rather than whether or
00:34:37
not not and a not even be a bit that
00:34:39
was registered those honest side to
00:34:41
mediate not that really long term
00:34:43
memory. And the underlying molecular
00:34:45
changes including also putting notice
00:34:48
productivity formation so in conclusion
00:34:50
like original is is enough to sign or
00:34:52
like the sheltering are required for
00:34:54
about a formation and stress out of
00:34:57
their mediated memory consolidation and
00:34:59
modulation anymore summary identifying
00:35:04
the the body needs regulation log
00:35:07
energy and attrition supplies for a
00:35:09
hefty break or disease throughout the
00:35:12
phases of right is greatly board and
00:35:15
chopper design don't think we have
00:35:19
think you switch on then Nestle for
00:35:21
that that many things so actually did
00:35:24
the work I already mentioned Virginia
00:35:27
guy like you know offices of your
00:35:28
status done a great collaborators
00:35:31
Pierre of course sealed vein who help
00:35:34
in there under constructions George
00:35:36
Huntley and also then posed idea a the
00:35:39
mount nine and that the VA for that
00:35:43
basically taught us how to do exercises
00:35:45
in the evil obviously the funding the
00:35:48
initial obvious adornment have them at
00:35:50
nine and this is the colour lab and I
00:35:52
need to add to the thing also double
00:35:56
yellow pollen union Michael time and
00:35:58
who had this project thank you very

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Conference Program

Introduction to the 12th Nestlé International Nutrition Symposium
Thomas Beck, NRC Director
22 Oct. 2015 · 8:57 a.m.
418 views
Introduction to Session I - Cognitive & Brain Development
Susan Gasser, Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:04 a.m.
The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
221 views
Q&A - The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:56 a.m.
Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 10:49 a.m.
Q&A - Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:29 a.m.
Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:38 a.m.
154 views
Q&A - Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 12:10 p.m.
Introduction to Session II - Cognitive Decline
Kathinka Evers
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:02 p.m.
Brain health & brain diseases - future perspectives
Richard Frackowiak, CHUV University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:11 p.m.
Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:15 p.m.
Q&A - Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:59 p.m.
Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:21 p.m.
Q&A - Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:59 p.m.
Introduction to Session III - Nutrition & Cognitive Development
Pierre Magistretti, KAUST, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2015 · 9 a.m.
Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
129 views
Q&A - Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:53 a.m.
Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:29 a.m.
Q&A - Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:57 a.m.
Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:09 a.m.
Q&A - Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:49 a.m.
Introduction to Session IV - Decline & Nutritional Intervention
Tamas Bartfai, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 12:48 p.m.
On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:04 p.m.
Q&A - On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institutet
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:39 p.m.
Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:49 p.m.
Q&A - Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 2:32 p.m.
We are what we remember: memory and age related memory disorders
Eric R. Kandel, Columbia University, New York, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:03 p.m.
138 views
Concluding Remarks
Stefan Catsicas, Chief Technology Officer, Nestlé SA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:50 p.m.

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