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Very nice over men in next
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presentation. Thank you actually a lot
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of But even also a similar type of
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chemical topics like see it must only
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tabulation crew course with that
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policeman calculate a quantitative also
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quite a quite glycogen story. But I
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didn't hear anything about I think it
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might and so I sure there must be also
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a big role for equipment at least in
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extra side no interaction I totally
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agree I don't again that's why in the
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introduction I trying to say make W and
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is because I'm sure and I think we we
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really know very little about so that
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and I hope this is the beginning for
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opening a number of questions in
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understanding how metabolism work
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particularly interesting is inactivity
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the pattern processes right yeah okay I
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don't know so much into this kind of
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sorry I forgot a natural Stockholm not
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working directly with DC so in order to
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I try to see how the rest will see that
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I see like like to myself. And the
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wonder that is this really memory
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because if I well switch in the I got
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an electric shock and a lot of the
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other oh it's a it sometime costs. And
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like in you again. I didn't see me is
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the number that was so well eh that's
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another see what we reality drive check
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which means that after some time. And
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they start to to actually go in just to
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be sure that actually get shot so I
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kinda want is the switch between this.
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And the problems between four your you
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which ones are a wonderful question I
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yes I mean there are number of
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experiments that that do that or at
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least attempt to do as much as possible
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the first thing I wanna say that there
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is individual variability in Newman
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says in France so some then let's say
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with point six million pairs shock it's
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by which are one single if that they
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don't going for a very long time you
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know we can wait eighteen minutes and
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they don't want to go in and not and
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not the right they way they have a
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latency but that they go man. So first
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of all there is individual variability
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which would be interesting to
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understand why maybe you know this
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curiosity to enter again and the second
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thing is what we need to think the lab
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is exactly what you are saying so we
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don and number of controls and for
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example is it an society is it that you
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know they on more because they are
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anxious but is it memory unexciting. So
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that can be dissected with the number
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of behaviours. And unsightly test for
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example and we see that anxiety tasks
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or not changing a response is yeah they
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have a latency. So with the number of
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test we can can close with with some
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certainty that is more the association
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and the memory of it rather than
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something else that is more controlling
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the expression of that behaviour but
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that I think I wanna say is that we are
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interested very much in this time is
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one important back about and this is
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ensures like the brain remains healthy
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so if it is a single event what happens
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over time is that the memory first
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strengthens without doing anything just
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time I mean something is happening in
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the brain clearly we can talk about
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that perhaps is that yeah division of
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that race maybe implicitly activation
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silly another type of explicit
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deactivation as well. I mean mine very
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what sense if some a close of
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experience has in the time after the
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experience we keep thinking about it.
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So that's so the activation and we have
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starting very much the activation of
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the memory three of the member yeah
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what dollars to the memory trace and
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that is interesting that in the first
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temporal window after the experience
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retrieving the memory makes the memory
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changeable. So memories as I mention
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easily by initially and then become
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stable recipient to interference is and
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the first phase is gene expression and
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so if we wait a few days and we
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interfere with gene expression
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memorised five is not gonna be
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disrupted anymore. And I'm talking
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about tip count so that number is
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considered to be stable but three three
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five makes the memory lay by again and
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again for a limited temperament which
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is I mean interesting time round window
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of opportunity because in that temporal
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we we that we can modulate memory we
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can time that we can we can so for a a
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clean application is very interesting
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what happens we time if we wait several
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weeks. And we retrieve the memory man
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with doesn't does not become anybody
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anymore but is more it becomes more
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prone to extinction meaning if we
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exposed to the context without the
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shot. They actually diminish they avoid
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those response and they to into the
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dark side more quickly exactly what
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what are saying. So that's why I'm
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saying this is an interesting process
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that keeps our our selves say so one of
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those experience should not lead to PD
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the so we I am the changes that
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occurred in the brain need that memory
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to weaken to change the quality and to
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be more sensitive to extinction and
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there for them to explore other places
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the mayor and members of of another six
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P okay we have several questions so I'm
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gonna keep agree but it was interesting
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the short out and I I I I just I don't
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know the yeah yeah ah yeah that's yeah
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I don't know or from the that is
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because we have a you also want to do
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you do some jokes wear for civil
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defence almost what oh oh oh oh oh
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discussion was or is so this is you got
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you of a Selassie this oh this is a
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button was over this structures that
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that's too that it is almost one only
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factor oh yes yeah you're right that's
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actually yeah that's but I don't know O
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you IE oh have you have you C so you
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you buy one know we need a source for a
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lot well that we are not you should not
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one oh I see okay this see important
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issue because finally spot wrong. And
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this and that and you know what as
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going oh oh oh oh oh oh okay well and
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in in that what she wants and this
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services by that and you can buy simple
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to use the money and like you have to
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use on you but I'm oh that's used and
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is gonna concentration has a for the us
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have you have part that you to but
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usually what alright. I that's a little
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to wonderful questions I'm gonna start
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with that you have to to be more read
00:09:18
the other is that really the longer the
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the my answer. So we don't have to what
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we did was to test whether I do have
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one sector alright you sort receptors
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and immediately has men and we so these
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are local or the it that they old what
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I and I just to try different and we
00:09:37
found that idea one is that there is
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not for use idea to reset the that
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mediates memory has we didn't as the
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hybrids yeah but definitely I do want
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receptor had no effect. And those that
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to that very different insulin and I do
00:09:54
wanna sectors lead to grow. And I just
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noticed at least two realises on Monday
00:09:58
gradation many different and oh or I
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don't think that right right if it if
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in the time and we didn't terrorist
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unit but we know there is that
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distinction between those normal
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directness for the alone we have worked
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extensively on that because actually
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with the reconsideration memory
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retrieval giving the opportunity to
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distract the memories again this was
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talks to be a wonderful potential
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intervention for BT is the as well as
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addiction. So we treat the memory of
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that trauma member becomes lay by we
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block re consolidation things that
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might be good. And proper on honest
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been shown to block three consolidation
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we have no a few condition when we try
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to do you need with about that was
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perfect. So this is not all bad news
00:10:57
because perhaps reconciliation is
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actually working with the I mean the
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lawn modulate. And I've had that could
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be compounds or intervention that will
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decrease the emulsion on real operation
00:11:12
of the memory not the content not
00:11:14
people come for the pen than content we
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don't know that and we are standing now
00:11:19
experiments to test that but will maybe
00:11:24
three avoidance propellant injection
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systemic we we have done a lot of
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studies with that no effect what had
00:11:32
the fact is global gotta gotta sectors
00:11:34
doc just I you four eight six known
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also as if it place. So that is another
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pathway because is not clearly right
00:11:43
but more studies need to be done with
00:11:46
the lactate metabolism we didn't look
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at the consolidation yeah so that could
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be a number of of potential questions
00:11:54
that and interesting and lastly
00:11:57
standing all these compounds on fear
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condition task that that I don. T is
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not the yes memories of PBSD are not of
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the same quality of these memories
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right we all started that because we
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wanted to look very consolidation of
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fat. But the more I started that the
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more I know that the memories that are
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pathological like those of the inverted
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you are not of the same quality still
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we could not as the compounds on or
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monthly conditioning members that we
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have to that that a tedious D type of
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models. And then we have the one that
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we actually have a need or or or or
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that or or you yes. I was you you were
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out somebody. But everybody else is
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that you know well question is what oh
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oh oh stores or you know that see that
00:13:04
oh sure we have to pass that we don't
00:13:09
know the effect we see they have a very
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strong. But the second thing it they
00:13:13
probably have to be given together with
00:13:16
activity. So we cannot just be proper
00:13:18
analogue weeks later right we need to
00:13:22
have the memory trace reactivated and
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that's why the reconciliation brought
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about is interesting but I agree with
00:13:29
you for prevention not after where
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memories consolidated then either has a
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different one what what is from recent
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you you simplistic in part of their he
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can store on normal I remotely and we
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should not remote. But you can that we
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see if we easy. I mean people for what
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I think that's not what we have done
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just you what you have to be losing
00:14:00
you'll oh what patients are you talking
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about it's it's okay or don okay I
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thought oh I remote vehicle what was
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what right so we we didn't ask you get
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these affect some sort of memory but
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there is a paper from all boards like
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looking at working memory. So it's a
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short term memory effect again
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targeting they campus so there is a lot
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to be done right because working memory
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in numerous is more cortical so we need
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to know more about the region
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specificity time short the bus as long
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as well. But that is these people are
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suggesting that working memory is
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actually block if like which analysis
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Oh on a spectrum SI One would be
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interesting they don't like us so once
00:15:00
in the on the CC conformal from while.
00:15:02
she almost have to so inside the cell
00:15:11
is a series and then you know you can
00:15:15
do it smart minutes Daniel so
00:15:19
concentration this increased activity
00:15:22
if you see this concentration Drexel S
00:15:26
concentration then celebrates. This
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whole using food industry actually as a
00:15:32
result select it as signal to result no
00:15:37
concentration zero it's high
00:15:39
concentration. So we need to this
00:15:42
project that's about it one one yes we
00:15:47
didn't do an experiment the absolutely
00:15:49
it's a it's a wonderful suggestion with
00:15:51
the we know that they know now if they
00:15:55
did I think that blocks but yeah we we
00:15:57
should do that yeah what what what what
00:16:01
what what what you do that's true but I
00:16:06
I don't going for the so and then he's
00:16:09
like this. And this relates to so
00:16:12
because oh I just want some of yeah we
00:16:18
we didn't use high concentrations of
00:16:20
what I mean it's an easy it's an is
00:16:22
experiment to do Actually I think a
00:16:24
very much enjoyed a problem where a lot
00:16:26
of nutritionists knock your socks I it
00:16:30
struck me that the second approach you
00:16:32
could take because your initials that
00:16:35
shot survival comes in their clothes
00:16:39
for us and and like at a time. And then
00:16:43
you do not have access to working sure
00:16:48
the there are times design what about
00:16:50
the same way the results the same way
00:16:53
we didn't have like that within have a
00:16:55
yeah we we need to ten different types
00:16:58
of memory different types of memory
00:17:00
systems the valence clearly if there is
00:17:03
an emotional valence. That's gonna be
00:17:06
an interesting set of questions I don't
00:17:11
know of anybody I mean can be someplace
00:17:13
preferences being actually started so
00:17:16
that is a you know and memory come
00:17:25
evoked by a drug did you use cocaine by
00:17:29
so and and yeah yeah scrollable well
00:17:33
cinema we you know like you know it is
00:17:37
so it's not only have those that one is
00:17:40
but no I I agree the different types of
00:17:43
memories needs to be tested to see what
00:17:45
is the problem well actually two three
00:17:51
for yeah I so I was different. So and
00:17:59
you know they're in stock and this was
00:18:02
different then generating seats fancy
00:18:05
from like as opposed to like all since
00:18:09
one goes where rescue than or know that
00:18:15
they're they're both going into that
00:18:18
yeah million dollar question I don't
00:18:20
know if you have lost as expected but
00:18:23
you know I I give you my answer and
00:18:25
that yeah okay okay add to that so this
00:18:29
such as that like it does something
00:18:31
different than logos right. And so as
00:18:34
we have seen glucose and others into
00:18:38
ask site because these from the that as
00:18:42
a sites are connected to the black. So
00:18:44
the group as it is entering ostracised
00:18:48
and there is gonna go like politically
00:18:51
or it can form glycogen. I mean at one
00:18:54
point in time. And there's gonna be the
00:18:58
restoring of the glycogen stores
00:19:02
probably curiously that that is the
00:19:04
research was suggesting that so that we
00:19:07
have enough then to be use. So and then
00:19:11
lactate transporting to notice is gonna
00:19:13
be supplying the energy to also volume
00:19:19
they high oxidative the problem is that
00:19:23
that we do curly overalls and as I
00:19:26
mentioned oxidation too much of station
00:19:29
willing to done. So they like they
00:19:32
instead of glucose will also have a in
00:19:36
every docks modulation. And in ensuring
00:19:40
that ensuring that they'll mail stays
00:19:42
as is cat for neurons to work well I
00:19:46
mean prolog stay because when the these
00:19:49
high energy them and these required the
00:19:54
note on itself cannot be used so why
00:20:00
glucose versus glycogen they all are
00:20:03
entering through astral sites. And one
00:20:08
can think that are most use when there
00:20:10
is an activity that that process high
00:20:12
energy them and we're gonna use we're
00:20:15
gonna call loopholes in and use like
00:20:17
like all these this weather was also
00:20:20
gonna use the glycogen storage
00:20:22
depending on how much energy is
00:20:24
required and then like this formation
00:20:26
and like to disallow supply energy and
00:20:29
something else for most is system on us
00:20:31
the functional or were I'm sorry yeah

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Conference Program

Introduction to the 12th Nestlé International Nutrition Symposium
Thomas Beck, NRC Director
22 Oct. 2015 · 8:57 a.m.
418 views
Introduction to Session I - Cognitive & Brain Development
Susan Gasser, Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:04 a.m.
The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
221 views
Q&A - The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:56 a.m.
Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 10:49 a.m.
Q&A - Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:29 a.m.
Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:38 a.m.
154 views
Q&A - Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 12:10 p.m.
Introduction to Session II - Cognitive Decline
Kathinka Evers
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:02 p.m.
Brain health & brain diseases - future perspectives
Richard Frackowiak, CHUV University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:11 p.m.
Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:15 p.m.
Q&A - Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:59 p.m.
Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:21 p.m.
Q&A - Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:59 p.m.
Introduction to Session III - Nutrition & Cognitive Development
Pierre Magistretti, KAUST, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2015 · 9 a.m.
Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
129 views
Q&A - Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:53 a.m.
Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:29 a.m.
Q&A - Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:57 a.m.
Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:09 a.m.
Q&A - Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:49 a.m.
Introduction to Session IV - Decline & Nutritional Intervention
Tamas Bartfai, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 12:48 p.m.
On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:04 p.m.
Q&A - On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institutet
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:39 p.m.
Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:49 p.m.
Q&A - Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 2:32 p.m.
We are what we remember: memory and age related memory disorders
Eric R. Kandel, Columbia University, New York, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:03 p.m.
138 views
Concluding Remarks
Stefan Catsicas, Chief Technology Officer, Nestlé SA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:50 p.m.

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