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And we'll come back for the second
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session of today's conference my name
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is Kathy okay yeah that's I'm a
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professor of philosophy from and also
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the university in sweden. And the have
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the pleasure of chairing the second
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session of today. So I would like first
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of all to thank the organisers for
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having invited me to this conference is
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extremely interesting and it's a
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pleasure to be here no at some show
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that the first session made imminently
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clear in your membranes neuronal
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development is comparatively long
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compared to other animals in the
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membrane maturation takes place during
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the course of an approximately fifteen
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year long period. And following both
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during which and to some extent of to
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which it is subject to cultural
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influences both or the individual level
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and on the social group level across
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generations during this relatively low
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post natal period of your brain
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maturation when the brain develops in
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relationship with the environment. Um
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critical and reciprocal relationships
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take place between the brain and it's
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physical social cultural environments
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this period we may say since this stage
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for the full grown individuals
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cognitive capacity is it may herald
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future health or disorders and decline
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cognitive disorders significantly
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impact the cognitive capabilities of
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the individual to the point where
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normal functioning in society becomes
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impossible without treatment there is a
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variety of different times going to be
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dementia developmental disorders motor
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skill disorders and also or substance
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infused cognitive impairment like most
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and mental disorders there is also a
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variety of course since they include
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hormonal imbalances genetic
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predisposition in environmental factors
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and here we are specifically back to
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the infant or lack of proper nutrients
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an interaction during vulnerable stages
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of cognitive development. Um and make
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was very seriously impediments there is
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also substance abuser physical injury.
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But I think the most important. And in
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this context is that the absence of
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adequate stimulation especially in the
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in infant we foresee irreversible
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damage to the cerebral network oh not
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much about the brain has grown
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enormously in recent decades. But the
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knowledge we have and the abundance of
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dot that we have remains comparatively
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fragment we it yeah I an integrated
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view on the brain household function we
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also lack an integrated understanding
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of the brain on the subject of reality
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to which it gives rise maybe
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consciousness now we're hoping that the
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different neuroscience and and I see T
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projects that Chelsea in the light of
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day in recent years one of the most
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important ones being the human brain
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project may help us accelerated
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progress towards a multilevel
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understanding of the human brain
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appended diagnoses and treatment of
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brain diseases. And brain is bad
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information and communications
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technologies. However. I think that
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what we need to be aware of is that
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knowledge of the anatomy and physiology
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of the human brain is insufficient if
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we are wanting to understand and really
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help the situation from people who
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suffer from cognitive disorders and
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mental disorders the subjective
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perspective is also extremely positive
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important to understand the patient
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perspective one illustration as that I
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will give is that the cognitive decline
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and the cognitive disorder from which a
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person's office is often accompanied by
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strong emotional disturbances it can be
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very anxiety provoking frightening and
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jen generally worry some as a condition
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no that yeah and the worry that the
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patient may experience depends in part
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on the inside that he or she may have
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into the condition. And now for a long
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time and the possibility of having
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inside in for example the development
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of frontal temporal dementia was
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contest it it was it was criteria not
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the disease that and the patient had an
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an absence of the insight that was and
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also that's over in a in a study in two
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thousand and seven that I conducted
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together with your psychologists that
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oops on the university. We found that
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comes to forty percent of the patients
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did have to Janet insight into that
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context yeah it's a group of patients
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was smaller but still in view of the
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fact that we were contrasting a cool
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condition the results were
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statistically significant. Now the
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point being not only and that there is
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a diagnostic relevant factor here. But
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also that understanding that the
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patient might have inside will or
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showed affect the way that the
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caregivers three and relate to the
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patient think clinical context another
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very dramatic discovery in recent years
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concerns the detention of residual
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awareness this a residual consciousness
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a most nations who suffer from
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consciousness disorders such as colonel
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or vegetative states the use of newer
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technology has managed testicle yeah
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given rise to the possibility of
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detecting that there is in fact some
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residual awareness in some of these
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patients not many very far from the
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majority of them but some of them. So
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you know the great challenge amongst
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men is to assess this consciousness
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assess the subjective awareness of
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these patients how do they feed want to
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they fee. And a very big challenge yeah
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concerns the variability that we have
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between different brains because even
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within health brains that variability
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is enormous to the point that we may
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wonder how we communicated to we don't
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communicate I would suspect that we
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communicate for less than we think we
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do but we do. However in the case of
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the then made brain the problems of
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communications problem of understanding
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that subjective point of view is
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arguably increased so my point being
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that it's extremely important where we
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try to understand cognitive
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capabilities cognitive development the
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cognitive decline is to understand the
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necessity of developing both an
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integrated an overarching view of the
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brain and brain functions and an
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understanding from the introspective
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subjective point of view at challenge
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that is increased when we are talking
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about people who have damage brains and
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live in that sense in an alternative or
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alternate reality okay is this very
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brief and very general background I am
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delighted to present three topics for
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two days second session professor wish
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what thinks it's a deep fatigue sets
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we'll discuss the role of innate
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immunity sensors in regulating age
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related information a cognitive
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science. And dietary metabolites that
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regulate the apply muscle professor
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Rudolph Tennessee will describe what
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genetics teaches us about the etiology
00:08:22
of alzheimer's disease and brain
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ageing. And our first speaker
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preference of Richard Franco yeah we'll
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analyse how classification of disease
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might evolve in the age of the
00:08:34
informatics and what impact this could
00:08:37
hop on dementia diagnosis prognosis and
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treatment. So I'm also research to

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Conference Program

Introduction to the 12th Nestlé International Nutrition Symposium
Thomas Beck, NRC Director
22 Oct. 2015 · 8:57 a.m.
418 views
Introduction to Session I - Cognitive & Brain Development
Susan Gasser, Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:04 a.m.
The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
221 views
Q&A - The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:56 a.m.
Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 10:49 a.m.
Q&A - Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:29 a.m.
Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:38 a.m.
154 views
Q&A - Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 12:10 p.m.
Introduction to Session II - Cognitive Decline
Kathinka Evers
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:02 p.m.
Brain health & brain diseases - future perspectives
Richard Frackowiak, CHUV University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:11 p.m.
Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:15 p.m.
Q&A - Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:59 p.m.
Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:21 p.m.
Q&A - Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:59 p.m.
Introduction to Session III - Nutrition & Cognitive Development
Pierre Magistretti, KAUST, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2015 · 9 a.m.
Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
129 views
Q&A - Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:53 a.m.
Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:29 a.m.
Q&A - Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:57 a.m.
Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:09 a.m.
Q&A - Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:49 a.m.
Introduction to Session IV - Decline & Nutritional Intervention
Tamas Bartfai, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 12:48 p.m.
On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:04 p.m.
Q&A - On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institutet
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:39 p.m.
Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:49 p.m.
Q&A - Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 2:32 p.m.
We are what we remember: memory and age related memory disorders
Eric R. Kandel, Columbia University, New York, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:03 p.m.
138 views
Concluding Remarks
Stefan Catsicas, Chief Technology Officer, Nestlé SA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:50 p.m.