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Okay participant from us. So if you
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just go about Slide possible but this
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one okay it's I thought it was a fast I
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think ring together information from
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lots of places constructing wonderful
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with TV But but it's necessary so that
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in this rapidly a current affair where
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it really is is very plastic introduces
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a lot of rounds into the the problem is
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that it's necessary on later on and on
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because it is the most capable
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libertarians yeah oh and it may be that
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actually problems in the cafeteria
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religion so that it was so that it
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advantage to having this show a better
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writer for us species Yeah that's a
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good point I I guess the question is I
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just don't know enough about this I'm
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not sure anybody does really is if
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you're under nutritional stress given
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that you have this very high energy
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needed the brain does that constraint
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for instance the proliferation synapses
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you have fewer options within your
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brain to work with someone possibility
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I mean I think what you're talking
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about might might morally to the second
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point that you could kind of lower
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those cost and delay the process and
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structure now or defer it at a later
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age. And yeah so I I think the second
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point is sort of what you're saying but
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I think that might have social
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ramifications circular developmentally
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delayed in some way presumably that's
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gonna have social effects that might
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not be good well no I Oh rose to well
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one of the things that the wine seven
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was about evolution evolutionary is
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actually you my different genes are
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associated with the changes that occur
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talk in nineteen ninety three weeks now
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today but we for key the onset of
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alzheimer's disease. Roll your if you
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had to choose later we had wonders. And
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a leader still via the noses. Um and he
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see a couple of years later very keen
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to to show a a psychiatrist a time from
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so decided to do but K any decided to
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do an experiment which was a remarkable
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or heat so people who have the four
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four genotype. We're fifty years of age
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didn't have alzheimer's disease but eh
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they're just of it was that that we get
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the roll you people who are three any
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compared the pet scans all those
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people. And we found again this is
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three anything. We've alice's decrease
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glucose utilisation and centres areas
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of the brain that were related to later
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developing out is taking that now over
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the years all the we down to when
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you're very young. And those
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differences or there as a result of a
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single well changing a single universe
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down to when you're right. So what you
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have is it genetic relationship between
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specific cellular metabolism very much
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a fiscal won't turn preferences are
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core functions or developing when they
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don't know doesn't have to be just
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during the period where you can be
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cruel cost the dial has been reset and
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that's also seen whimpers oh sure
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privately but no well you look that we
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have neighbours to anti war just
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lingers sixty five you're sixty five
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million years all the I IS and this
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smallest labourers of the Dallas fort
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lee. Um were incredibly smarter then
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the IRS at a very small size. But still
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but have a lot larger brainy to match
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then the wee hours. And if you look
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down their evolutionary tree changes in
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the brain occurred in the exact same
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molecules the ball people before energy
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next to it all for oh so curves some
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specific of S they could form so of a
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template for what this very interesting
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I'm not sure yeah I don't know enough
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about apply for the protein this person
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found but but okay okay the mini the
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from the and C at five years old if you
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go over the cavalry needs and over the
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logo disney's when giving for example I
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haven't really crucial all exceeding
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get under a tree she want to use due to
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your hypothesis a lot in the use of
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this caloric intake is it mainly for
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the semantic rules or you increase so
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the ratio for the re UTV station what
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what what to think about okay so if if
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caloric requirement caloric intake
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skewed cortical intake goes above
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requirements as a stage where it over
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the requirements yeah what might be
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happening yeah I think what we see from
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from the literature is that if you're
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putting on weight you're gonna put on
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more fat that engine right and that's I
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think part of what's going on at sort
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of the the problem that I set up at the
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beginning a and so is a must read for
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the green let a really great you have
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those needing for the metabolic rate of
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the brain you think about five years
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old oh seven limit yes I would assume
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that the brain in its metabolism is
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fairly capitalised you know that the
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process of brain development if
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anything is quite buffered. And that
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the other systems like how much back
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put down sort of more like bile and
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work around that I don't know that that
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that would be my intuition yeah I think
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that's I think the the day also point
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you you well after all summer well I I
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don't recall or wow oh on march to draw
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no this is just or or that are so you
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better oh no oh yeah I would be
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interesting to know if slower cognitive
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development implies kind of a lower. Um
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because use right stretched out over a
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longer period of time and I'm not sure
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but actually one of the big points that
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comes out of this for me. Um we've got
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kinda made this composite picture of
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what human might look like in a big
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cross sectional no data crunching
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exercise you don't know anything about
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this points of variable this is across
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different kids early matures late
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matures high yes yes Lois yes and so on
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right and I think this gets to that
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question we just don't know there's no
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individual level data on any of this
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really you know longitudinally so oh
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this experiment I right or or okay
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that's true cortical thickness yeah oh
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yeah I say oh one more I think we're
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now. So I I I really next really
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elegant analysis wonder thought about
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the implications for what that was the
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end of the match originally about the
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high risk of sports related to catch
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click it you have a large group of the
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egg on a small I think that it seems
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like you provide an important
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explanation for why that happens and
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then maybe a prescription about like it
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should be involved in the inside or and
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yeah football until they are older
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that's that's a really interesting
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point I actually don't even know what
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the mechanism of a concussion is you
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know what what structures are being
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impacted by that and whether that's be
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related to the synaptic processes that
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are going on here but I think it's a
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good hypothesis for sure but I don't
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think most kids are playing football at
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age five I don't know okay yeah yeah
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but The series sounds very convincing
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provided that there's a limitation of
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food but why do five years old but
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still we need a little more than that
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would not be respected that this simple
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revolutionary on such a problem. But we
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don't smoke yeah and I think the answer
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to that is in the clever line right it
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the clever line I should the beginning
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which relates body mass to that about
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right you see that there's a very tight
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relationship between body mass the
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metabolic rate across P C.'s and cross
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individuals. And why that is you know
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they're different hypotheses one has to
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do with there's a there's a model
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that's been put out that what is
00:10:02
limiting in terms of energy use is the
00:10:04
distribution of calories right so the
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circulatory system as as as a structure
00:10:09
that meets the energy expenditure that
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leads to that point seven five scale.
00:10:14
Well I mean anyway you cut it there's a
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very tight relationship between body
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size and in metabolic rate across
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different species right so there's some
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physics there's some physical reason
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for that. So I assume some trees you
00:10:27
can increase the I I mean if you start
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to exercise. So do you need a lot more
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but you don't fall you down there if
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you need more energy on a well you know
00:10:38
young boy image each about to go write
00:10:41
go white yeah and in nonetheless you do
00:10:45
find that that relationship so I assume
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that you can deviate from it you can
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expend more but there must be some cost
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longterm because in general evolution
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was kind of honing in on that on that
00:10:57
value. And and constraining it. So
00:10:59
that's that's how I think about okay

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Conference Program

Introduction to the 12th Nestlé International Nutrition Symposium
Thomas Beck, NRC Director
22 Oct. 2015 · 8:57 a.m.
418 views
Introduction to Session I - Cognitive & Brain Development
Susan Gasser, Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:04 a.m.
The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
221 views
Q&A - The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:56 a.m.
Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 10:49 a.m.
Q&A - Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:29 a.m.
Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:38 a.m.
154 views
Q&A - Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 12:10 p.m.
Introduction to Session II - Cognitive Decline
Kathinka Evers
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:02 p.m.
Brain health & brain diseases - future perspectives
Richard Frackowiak, CHUV University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:11 p.m.
Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:15 p.m.
Q&A - Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:59 p.m.
Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:21 p.m.
Q&A - Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:59 p.m.
Introduction to Session III - Nutrition & Cognitive Development
Pierre Magistretti, KAUST, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2015 · 9 a.m.
Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
129 views
Q&A - Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:53 a.m.
Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:29 a.m.
Q&A - Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:57 a.m.
Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:09 a.m.
Q&A - Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:49 a.m.
Introduction to Session IV - Decline & Nutritional Intervention
Tamas Bartfai, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 12:48 p.m.
On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:04 p.m.
Q&A - On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institutet
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:39 p.m.
Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:49 p.m.
Q&A - Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 2:32 p.m.
We are what we remember: memory and age related memory disorders
Eric R. Kandel, Columbia University, New York, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:03 p.m.
138 views
Concluding Remarks
Stefan Catsicas, Chief Technology Officer, Nestlé SA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:50 p.m.