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I say to his wife again he's still
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alive Yeah is what you get yeah it's
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it's obviously an R great pleasure you
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be here. And do carry out. So I'm
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trying to survey a vast field of
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generally called the converse I asked
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having may impact on the brain. And
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more more interestingly because of the
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particular interest of the this group
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but also of this the company how it
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impacts on society. And maybe even
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touch on some of the ethical issues
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that come up when we now know so much
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about what happens not only when we
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right. But you don't you all in those
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kinds a question so it's a it's a
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richfield. But we try to do some some
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justice to it. So I take a minute by
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reminding us what were what it is we're
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trying to do. We're trying to make sure
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this young lady grows up just fine. wax
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oh yes there's no question since I yeah
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okay for black yeah I I we need. So and
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so I don't think you know or but I I I
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don't want or So I'll ever theory about
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how the brain does all that and it's a
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chore of the neural size neural biology
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to try to figure that out and this is
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this underlying rating with its eighty
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nine billion you always use a number
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under layers count as you only have
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eighty nine million and not only
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nineteen of them or any records extant
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far fewer of them are actually from a
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low which is the house well of a human
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complexity. So it is this question is
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is not does this bring this may give us
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an organ that create just such a
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wonderful thing as the even mind and we
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wanna do it in the healthy leeway as
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possible and not try to harm. And the
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many ways that we single thought that
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so I thought I'd to start with a couple
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perspective a quick history of
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neuroscience has it was first captured
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by a group of a American and canadian
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sciences a number years ago they were
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right off the bat asking the question
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will have houses thing built. And
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asking that kinda question you had the
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car all actually sitting there in the
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left panel marquee and and I'll have
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then there were very interested in in
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the questions what are the brains
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general principles anywhere
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particularly interested in what's
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connected what they wanna know what are
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the general principles just like
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physics is interested in what are the
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general principles. And lastly started
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his career with a series of studies
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trying to figure out how and where the
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N gram memory information that we all
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experiences how how's that organise in
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the brain and it is a series of studies
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worry crisscrossed the brain cuddle up
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and every which way. And trying to do
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damage and find younger. So you get
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distracted really just never did. And
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so he came up with the theory that all
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all brain areas are story all that the
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the action of the brain as a whole is
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what determines it's function and as I
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said there was a sequel potentiality
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throughout the whole right and that was
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really a remarkable bad idea powerful
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idea that was picked up in many
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quarters in American science we great
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behaviours john he wants and it really
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turns out to watch and then and then
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lastly were post stocks that harbour
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together. And Watson when into so he is
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famous that make is famous remarks
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about that behaviourism and the
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contingencies of reward and punishment
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explain all girl on the behaviour as
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you said you're in this famous like
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give it doesn't healthy infants of my
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own specified world to bring them up
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and alternative anything bigger are
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your position she origin cheap and so
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forth. So it was a strong idea then we
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what was also enhanced by all wise to
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that was the premier basic robe
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analysis right actually was a
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physiological psychology is looking at
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quote higher order things well I was
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more of a laboratory neural those yeah
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that was always push the ideal function
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proceeds for me would take fraud. And
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yeah that's important to worry about
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onto it and just determine that the way
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we neurons to that arm new how to to
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lose the are are extra texture
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appendage was by first going out there
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and not diffuse way and then the
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function of the arms stamps back on the
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nerves exactly what those nerves would
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do in order to enable it to acts like a
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like a recorded or that it was his
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graduate student or not to then B my
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mentor writers parent it through a
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little bug into that I thought was easy
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define voices where he says lotus
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synaptic connections was conceived
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would be completely non selective
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diffuse and universal downstream
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context in other words it grew they're
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just throughout their this thing
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started behave like an armour than
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they're speak a specified so budget
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proceeds for as completely one hundred
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percent raw. And so that was not a a
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good mentor relationship there yeah so
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that was writers very himself came
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along. And just turned everything
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upside down is everybody knows movies
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were showing in the specific growth the
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nature of of growth and development in
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the nervous system later with the
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strain of experiments very simple in
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major taken from I turned upside down a
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degrees. And see the frog would adapt
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to learn to throws telling in the right
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direction so the exact opposite because
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of the surgery the frog never did and
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they would guy making the incorrect
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movement yeah into another there is a
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real experiments and says she showed
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out there fibres Woodruff specifically
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to a particular point they would plough
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through. And not make synaptic
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connections in if they were put in the
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wrong part according there had to be
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some kind of no chemical match it was
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about the size in order for the
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specificity of the brain to be realise
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and maybe that yeah oh gene studies
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were done in those days to argue for
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that point of view yeah that notion
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that there is biologic specificity that
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there's a lot as we were coming from
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the factory that the specification of
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the brain is a huge issue is a
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recurring theme a neural biology with
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modifications which are important I'll
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get to but it's also so it serves a
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basis of modern compared to work with
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the we're currently require boxer and
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john costs where it basically show that
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the basic plan for how the raiders
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organised and and the we're and saying
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throughout and all this led with this
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is this is really skipping along the
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top of a gazillion papers but I'll try
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to capture the context for one are we
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talking about all this is led to the
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notion that sort of that nature is
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destiny this cartoon captures a lot of
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the work that subsequently wish on that
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one identical twins separated parents
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but they show up at some later point
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life they were marvel at how similar
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they are and this became welded in the
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minds of many that yeah your DNA is
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your destiny and there's just a whole
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lot you can do about it. Well I think
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start to change from destiny to
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interaction while the the picture on
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the left remote sure for time shows the
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specificity of nerves going are wrong
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to a particular point space again
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underlining this neural specificity
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point whereas the the pictures to the
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right show how the synaptic density and
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like and the cat cortex varies as a
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function of the extent of exposure to
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light as it goes through a development
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so the notion was that there's activity
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dependent learning that well we know as
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maybe going to Switzerland made me
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decide which town to live in and this
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notion of the activity of the neural
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that is being carried in their own
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that's growing actually modifies the
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actual synaptic a a locality Abbott is
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of course a huge idea which has all
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sorts of implications going today. So
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if you take the break you in fifty one
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I didn't shave yet the notion was that
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there were your biology reality which
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resulted in the organism which then a
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resulted in the adult and that was a
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pretty a pretty strong of you. And then
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what happened yeah in the last sixty
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years that sixty five years is that
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everybody realise that there is a very
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dynamic nature in interaction with the
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environment such that there's all kinds
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of happy genetic forces influencing the
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developing child. And then as I'll try
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to sketch there may be psycho social
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forces that are I'm very much involved
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in taking the develop training
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continuing to modify at affecting how
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common variation well in our cognition
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lives. So these answers are are really
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answer the extent of oh it's the nature
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nurture and everybody knows there's no
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no interaction that we have in a only
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now by matter means but that doesn't
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mean we shouldn't go for Reading
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continue to examine information and try
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to understand more and that start to
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remember years ago with the
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breathtaking work of a maybe double and
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Orson weasel they said policy on this
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thing works in the sink someone
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electrodes into a primary century
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system the visual cortex to the cat as
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it were there let's start saying if we
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can see have these neurons response to
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various kinds of discrete stimulate. So
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in fact they did that and they put
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electrodes in the cat may discover the
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release things call that that actual ad
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edge detectors at they had certain
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orientation the other certain or
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organisation supporting an and then
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kind of integrating with the work of
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the runabout that also came up with the
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notion among other things of cortical
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columns and and how these portable
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columns are we're very specifically for
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a range so they can compute particular
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functions they were localise of all and
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if one could all to really understand
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the subtleties of interaction rules
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cortical files an actual mechanism
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could be hers that would explain
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whatever function was it yeah now that
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was exciting I what are you it was
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exciting to see that people in nineteen
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sixty we're thinking about you know a
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violation the red here maybe little
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fall off this cliff there yeah it
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wasn't very subtle but it was all you
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had an along in cube always all amount
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castle and the individual lecture
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approach people seem off to the races
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so much so that that I dropped what I
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was doing. And what to really from cal
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tech. And where would you wanna bring
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looking chart tomorrow it slightly and
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with that because of the split brain
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where you're referred to by the
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recogniser we thought we were gonna
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bayless sucker once and for all we know
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that a patient fixated the point you
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put some information on one side of the
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visual field the left say that they
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were gonna speaker out about it had to
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go through the corpus colossal. So we
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were gonna stick our lecture and the
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corpus calls them. And figure out the
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the brains morse code once and for all
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well and we actually just to reminisce
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a little bit we actually got rights to
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you magic sending and today as a yeah I
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so there we were in these are also not
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months of preparation which abound mean
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jack about the day comes with the cats
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prepare screen is up the projector
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showing the the edge. And electron is
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getting lowered into the corpus billows
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of the speakers are on every that
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everybody's waiting great anticipation
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without sure we'll hear the morse code.
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And what we heard was the Beatles to we
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all live in the know a separate coming
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through just as Clarence about and we
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realise that some ground loop of an
00:14:04
occurred. But but sliding very calmly
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and with a great fine and of all
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Italians now that is what I basically
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should have and we moved on to greater
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things. So ah yeah let's if years
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there's gonna select select the
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variance with fifty years it's nothing
00:14:25
in your ministry development of the
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brain imaging it was also referred to
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by darker gas or from the original
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somebody original efforts where there
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is less than that have to wrestle
00:14:36
involved in the strength to the bank
00:14:38
that to try to figure out what was
00:14:39
going on in the right to the latest
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technologies others or Miller bill in
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his new menace so it and then they have
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T magnet. So to a tenfold increase in
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the capacity. And with the high field
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madness to question the the desire is
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that maybe you could go back to those
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cortical columns I mentioned before and
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actually measure them in undergraduate
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and a regular old human looking at
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something that was a presented to them
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and then on the riddles that is carried
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out by another a Heidi Heidi feels
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under really are available in fact it's
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done that is taken look at the response
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of the cortical columns to edge
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detectors are two patterns alive you're
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moving in one direction up to the
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laughter up to the right. And then
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recording over the interior in humans.
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And noticing that the different
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cortical column this is these are
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recordings at the kilometre level of
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moving in one direction when one set of
00:15:51
the line is presented another this is a
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really ongoing research study you
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allowed me to show this to because it's
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just an example of how specific another
00:16:02
credibility dramatic. We ability to
00:16:05
study the human brain and actually has
00:16:07
been well and then I looking at
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cortical atrophy and just the
00:16:12
connections annoyingly service that
00:16:13
were mentioned earlier that are so
00:16:15
important in understanding ultimate
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technique again that these were things
00:16:20
that were started long long time ago
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but they were kinda funny in retrospect
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there's that pretty they were okay as
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opposed to what can be done now one in
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particular that we were involved in I
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was the weather march even day who was
00:16:37
actually is still there and was on for
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many years was to take cross sections
00:16:43
from have structural of our eyes. And
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map them on a piece of paper in it's
00:16:49
cross section draw them out seriously
00:16:52
and then put these together and try to
00:16:54
flatten the cortex and see if you could
00:16:56
measure the differences between the the
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Darren software patterns of individuals
00:17:02
well to do one map one person so three
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months and a lot of a lot of swearing a
00:17:08
lot of that cursing. And a lot of
00:17:10
despair. And never amount to much and
00:17:15
now your example minimalism to do this
00:17:19
here's an example from alan Evans that
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make you know where the whole thing can
00:17:23
be done with the push of the button
00:17:25
once this man has been collected and
00:17:29
with this the hope is that someday
00:17:32
there'll be a a way of basically taking
00:17:35
this picture saying variations in
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general so cool patterns along with the
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sort of along with being able to look
00:17:45
at cortical thickness of being able to
00:17:46
detect the maturity of the brain
00:17:49
throughout like a by simply of sticking
00:17:52
your head in the scanner abutting the
00:17:54
algorithms the work so innocent
00:17:56
astounding advances all with this now.
00:17:59
And the point is that these are now the
00:18:01
tools that are ready to be applied
00:18:03
gazillion problems I think most of you
00:18:05
room you think of related to your work.
00:18:08
And then finally just an advance is
00:18:10
here the incredible dances to detecting
00:18:18
connectivity in the brain will the
00:18:22
increased power the magnets will be
00:18:24
increased beauty of the algorithms to
00:18:27
look at the data point now get
00:18:30
incredibly fine to descriptions of the
00:18:34
white matter projections and with that
00:18:36
make correlations about how that
00:18:38
pattern actually re is reflected in the
00:18:40
lexical function. So yes all then and
00:18:48
always pretty pictures this all then
00:18:50
brings us up to what I really want to
00:18:53
tell you about which is that the
00:18:56
questions of how all this amounts to a
00:18:59
capacity to look at issues and and
00:19:01
brain development and their impact on
00:19:04
society and I broke down into sort of
00:19:07
what I call good news which is me good
00:19:10
medical management we can find out a
00:19:12
lot about Reading and Reading disorders
00:19:13
now and possibly proposals
00:19:15
interventions for the poor reader or
00:19:18
looking at how like an animal model in
00:19:21
concert really you model is looking at
00:19:25
the role of depression during pregnancy
00:19:28
and be a pharmacological interventions
00:19:30
I can help in that situation. And the
00:19:33
bad is is we met malnutrition issue
00:19:37
where it's impact and got a microbe
00:19:39
either yeah the brain looking at the
00:19:44
very important topic in American
00:19:46
culture not sure here as well about
00:19:49
concussions that are occurring in
00:19:51
normal sports is such an issue in the
00:19:53
united states. But there's actually
00:19:55
predictions that within five years or
00:19:58
ten years depending on who you ask
00:20:00
mother simply wanna other boys like
00:20:03
football. And I would be just a ruined
00:20:06
by Sunday afternoons for the rest of my
00:20:08
life. So that's a big issue and there's
00:20:10
a lot of interesting work going on. And
00:20:14
then finally we we very worry some
00:20:19
affect of a low SES low socioeconomic
00:20:22
status impact versus ICS on actual
00:20:26
right well so out of touch on these and
00:20:29
the roll call of that so the work that
00:20:33
is learning to read it again this is
00:20:36
and I want to emphasise its "'cause"
00:20:37
there's so much talent in this remote
00:20:39
labs to do many similar overlapping
00:20:41
okay I'm picking on some that I happen
00:20:44
to know about but there's lots of work
00:20:47
throughout the world being done on
00:20:48
these issues this is a work coming the
00:20:52
were coming from a every group brand
00:20:54
one tell yeah where they're just taking
00:20:58
the the put the fact that learning to
00:21:00
read is a big fat long process when you
00:21:03
first start to look at it looks like
00:21:05
mumble jumble it takes years to
00:21:08
practise and practise and finally. But
00:21:10
you're Reading and there's people who
00:21:13
read less well than others and they're
00:21:16
not our techniques where you can look
00:21:18
at the underlying physical changes that
00:21:20
are occurring during that really the
00:21:22
process everyone everything from the
00:21:24
neurons them I probably of the bloods
00:21:27
the the the the vascular system
00:21:29
interacts with all the cellular
00:21:31
processes the white matter connections
00:21:34
to the consulting the goes on during
00:21:40
development or Greg can be recaptured
00:21:43
out with their marriage and be
00:21:45
correlated with the state of Reading
00:21:47
capacity with a young child and so you
00:21:52
have the situation whereas say it more
00:21:54
right okay pick us up. So the studies
00:21:57
at one referred you to our by eight men
00:22:01
which a student of a bright models
00:22:03
that's tampered. And they show very
00:22:06
nicely that if you look at the the
00:22:08
argument to secure as the main
00:22:10
connection between the two language
00:22:12
areas of the brain. And you look during
00:22:15
development you see that it's
00:22:17
functional capacity grows in the normal
00:22:20
readers in is identifiable alright. But
00:22:23
you can also see that that functional
00:22:26
capacity of this the structure of
00:22:29
varies all over the place in children
00:22:32
and it turns out they can pull those
00:22:35
those subjects out. And look at their
00:22:37
individual scores and it correlates
00:22:40
very very nicely so there's a
00:22:42
phonological development is unnecessary
00:22:46
during Reading you can see where they
00:22:48
pour readers are not getting the sort
00:22:51
of functional growth in the ski pathway
00:22:55
as where good readers but are and then
00:22:58
if you look at all also the interior
00:23:00
the secular is you can also see where
00:23:05
the this is the major output from the
00:23:07
visual system too. So the auditory
00:23:09
system bit too has impairments that
00:23:13
correlate with good for Reading in this
00:23:15
would be for it complications ago on
00:23:18
within the visual Nigel main itself.
00:23:21
And so they're yeah it men and others
00:23:23
are they have phonological training to
00:23:26
deal with the argument was thinking was
00:23:28
problem. And yeah there right now
00:23:31
working on interventions of might help
00:23:33
in the visual the disruptions that they
00:23:36
could detect through this. So Reading
00:23:39
is a hard thing to do or brains one
00:23:41
bill to read. And the processes by
00:23:45
which we we get a reach train brains in
00:23:49
various degrees and some of them once
00:23:51
again and can can interventions be
00:23:55
brought to parents topic and yes it is
00:23:59
I I think so it looks very very
00:24:00
promising then the pharmacological
00:24:05
interventions during development or
00:24:08
another and here's again the somebody
00:24:10
these things that are being mentioned
00:24:12
there's like brought a mouse models and
00:24:14
they go to human models about smiles
00:24:16
and back again. And this one is because
00:24:19
result being developed in the mouse
00:24:22
model and this is a question of the
00:24:25
price and during pregnancy and the
00:24:28
consequences of D but fees to keep this
00:24:30
in mind as I told you the result
00:24:32
because if you have any a lawyer. We
00:24:35
thoughts in your mind this is where you
00:24:37
would go to work so fifteen percent a
00:24:41
weapon seven from depression during a
00:24:46
pregnancy two hundred thousand babies
00:24:48
exposed and I present a serious united
00:24:51
states figures are exposed to to
00:24:55
antidepressants that during pregnancy.
00:24:59
And so they just ask the question this
00:25:01
is a mouse that longterm effects of to
00:25:05
to hundred presents Lex approach prozac
00:25:07
and these are both search on selective
00:25:10
re uptake inhibitors. And what an end
00:25:14
user UCLA has shown is that maybe skin
00:25:20
appear that that mice exposed selects
00:25:23
row had probably changes in search on
00:25:25
the neurotransmitters work we're like
00:25:27
say age ancients as adults so one track
00:25:31
had a or positive impact in the life of
00:25:36
the serious something roughly grabs up
00:25:38
to to maybe it's like in this mouse
00:25:41
model versus the other group that was
00:25:45
treated with the other drama without
00:25:47
doing this week repeating this in men's
00:25:49
and there's indications that the idea
00:25:52
is going to hold. But just think about
00:25:55
that for a second so so there you are
00:25:59
with your child. And they're showing
00:26:02
some that's in the child goes to school
00:26:06
learns that there were these two drugs
00:26:08
among taken. She chose the wrong one
00:26:12
because that's why I'm a little lacking
00:26:14
now. I think else or for child abuse.
00:26:20
So I provide proposes bizarre scenario
00:26:23
I mean seemingly bizarre scenario yeah
00:26:28
to to and and ceases don't talk about
00:26:33
that that way he says they're already
00:26:35
thinking we legal mine on these issues
00:26:39
jumps right in and sees a case and and
00:26:43
putting aside. It's value as a social
00:26:46
good or not there is a legal argument
00:26:49
to make so these things that were doing
00:26:52
and we're all in there for the the
00:26:54
common good do have these to the
00:26:56
consequences are can have these and
00:26:58
they can ten consequences nice one
00:27:01
solution that because of a couple of
00:27:04
the less topics situation a
00:27:07
microbiology there are so many people
00:27:09
here they're more informed about this
00:27:11
than I am let me just mention of a
00:27:14
paper that has just come out of from
00:27:17
are raquel brain imaging expert is you
00:27:19
know and a student a menu go while
00:27:22
looking at possible effects of
00:27:26
malnutrition on the Michael any points
00:27:29
out the oh course not allowing other
00:27:32
big affects a on the Mike about a a of
00:27:36
true amount pictures in the developing
00:27:38
world but in the local hospital
00:27:41
demonstrated prima use another cases
00:27:43
are similar crises affecting the
00:27:46
microbe and it has a situation where
00:27:51
this very early development from from
00:27:53
birds on various as a failure to have a
00:27:59
proper microbiology for that there's
00:28:02
consequences for the nervous system the
00:28:04
long term they're proposing the fact
00:28:08
that with the details for micro bottle
00:28:11
there is a impact on now which is yeah
00:28:15
impacts like also which is going like
00:28:19
crazy a thousand days out from
00:28:21
development because it is very active
00:28:24
in the development of from all areas in
00:28:26
professional there isn't so that this
00:28:29
expression think Ascii in to a problem
00:28:33
in the developing brain and it's
00:28:35
sculpting and can go on out to as you
00:28:39
know to twenty five or thirty years.
00:28:42
And so you could just see all the
00:28:44
sudden now with modern science and
00:28:46
modern biology. Now. We use just study
00:28:49
terrible thing over in one corner of
00:28:51
the room. And that was all these
00:28:53
capacities the tie together the dynamic
00:28:56
nature of the underlying biology
00:28:58
sporting all all of our brain studies
00:29:01
see how complicated and which a new
00:29:04
explanations will look like so mark
00:29:08
sums it up in a way that that basically
00:29:11
says so yeah bring conventions. So this
00:29:17
is a this is a is is a big issue in the
00:29:20
united states somebody on on stories as
00:29:24
well we think of the enough L kind of
00:29:27
whacked brains that you see incendiary
00:29:30
the the other ones are this is called a
00:29:33
order football this year ten twelve
00:29:36
year old who boys or after getting a Y
00:29:39
two K there's a palpable affects a a in
00:29:44
that class of the young athletes well
00:29:47
and in soccer the same thing and what
00:29:50
was the females are male soccer yeah
00:29:53
there's enough work going on down to
00:29:55
suggest that there is an actual terror
00:29:57
there's a potential tearing up the
00:29:59
white matter fibres that goes on well
00:30:02
with multiple concussions and and
00:30:06
multiple impacts. And one colleague
00:30:10
jack and horn has using this technique
00:30:14
all the connect all much can show you
00:30:16
the average like drama how looks them
00:30:18
that richness of colour you see there
00:30:20
is a should "'cause" it is the signal
00:30:22
for the density and health of
00:30:23
connections between areas. And you
00:30:26
compared to people who've had multiple
00:30:28
that injuries and you see that it's a
00:30:31
very deeply affected my colleague at
00:30:34
santa Barbara got wrapped in is trying
00:30:38
to build a database re basically maps
00:30:42
onto the bright every single point the
00:30:46
fibre connections of course through
00:30:48
that point. And to be able to then be
00:30:51
able to analyse if there is a region
00:30:53
here are losing their what the cost is
00:30:55
in terms of the long term connections
00:30:58
and mapping to the to the whole the
00:31:00
whole right. So this is all coming this
00:31:03
very early days some of these things
00:31:05
are are months or a year old but yeah
00:31:09
yes with all the technological advances
00:31:12
it'll get better yeah it'll be quite
00:31:15
straight. So and then here actual
00:31:19
studies of we complete others that have
00:31:21
you know a worry shows any large impact
00:31:24
on mice my favour structure of the
00:31:26
close do you head injuries were in the
00:31:29
blue lines there you see you form a
00:31:32
colossal fibres that should all be
00:31:35
right. So then the second the last
00:31:40
thing quickly is the level of which all
00:31:43
of this is impacting us on
00:31:44
socioeconomic. Well issues. And this is
00:31:47
a new field it's early days there's
00:31:51
questions. But like everything when it
00:31:54
pops up and three or four five or ten
00:31:57
borders. There's something there that
00:31:59
has to be sturdy and study carefully
00:32:02
that is the role of potentially up
00:32:05
poverty and brain function or what's
00:32:07
called low SE as the low socioeconomic
00:32:10
status versus via C as well one of the
00:32:14
first that is was done by colleague
00:32:16
rubber knight is universally Berkeley
00:32:19
he reaches using simple a like a
00:32:21
physiologic measures ERPZ circle. And
00:32:25
he's studying the impact of a well
00:32:28
known paradigm the even have location
00:32:30
of something called a P three hundred
00:32:33
when a novel a stimulus is presented.
00:32:36
And that going through it let me just
00:32:38
say well what happens is that in low
00:32:41
SES kids there is not the ability to
00:32:45
ignore the novel stimulus an attendee
00:32:48
what's called target stimulus so
00:32:50
there's "'cause" it just disruption in
00:32:52
the measurable disruption and the
00:32:54
behaviour and then he with his
00:32:56
recording electrodes can see this
00:32:59
disruption be signified in the natural
00:33:03
physiologic record of was driven by
00:33:05
frontal processes casinos that rather
00:33:07
studies. And the notion is my goodness
00:33:11
this is no bearing on that yeah this is
00:33:12
no injury of that type is the summed
00:33:17
affect low SES environment verses
00:33:22
regular now that's that's a strong
00:33:24
claim that is the claim that is the
00:33:26
data. And it is it is verified by a
00:33:34
number of other studies but there is
00:33:37
one big issue in this field is not yeah
00:33:40
then dressed. And then is is it
00:33:42
absolutely ICS are relative to yeah so
00:33:46
can you can you take a person who has a
00:33:49
job in town a it makes the fifty
00:33:52
thousand dollars a year. And a so you
00:33:55
live in new York city you have that
00:33:57
income your policy yes whereas if you
00:34:01
move the home a K and you have that
00:34:04
same cabinets a man can your high CS
00:34:07
and so it's how you perceive yourself
00:34:09
and the socioeconomic status. I that
00:34:12
would be a relative judgement versus an
00:34:14
absolute sort of measurement and they
00:34:17
haven't done those controls yeah that
00:34:19
in a way that comes out that's gonna be
00:34:22
enters can you make yourself sick wine
00:34:25
not thinking of that your life is as it
00:34:29
has it's worth the matter what you read
00:34:30
and so forth it's so too early to to
00:34:33
look at those matters but you see them
00:34:35
coming down the pike. And finally the
00:34:38
individual variation that we all know
00:34:42
about all parents know that they have a
00:34:44
theory about nature child development
00:34:48
when their first child was born no
00:34:51
wonder second child was born they have
00:34:52
two theories and then the third and so
00:34:56
forth. So the the individual variation
00:34:59
is a part of our lives that we on it.
00:35:03
But then again there's all kinds of
00:35:06
studies that show the the highly varied
00:35:09
ways which are brains are built this
00:35:12
study shows in particular we variations
00:35:15
from a set point and for different
00:35:17
subjects of what how we bring organises
00:35:20
housing project it's one of the fibres
00:35:22
are it's corpus colosseum and that was
00:35:25
assume to have different names that on
00:35:28
cognitive integration between the
00:35:29
hemispheres or still you will number
00:35:32
years ago looking at the variation that
00:35:35
that contributes to the average summary
00:35:38
we see an egg brain activation that
00:35:41
study. And we all worry very used to
00:35:43
seeing these average pictures but then
00:35:46
we find out that if you look at the
00:35:48
twenty or thirty or forty subjects to
00:35:50
go into that the actual responses quite
00:35:53
diverse. And that how people are
00:35:57
responding to assess the merely is
00:35:59
different. So we live any pictures of
00:36:02
this kind of variability or just
00:36:03
getting better. So we we were in the
00:36:07
world were we were are in an age of I I
00:36:11
we're we're gonna call narrow the
00:36:13
virtually the germans pinpoint. Um
00:36:16
mostly by john yeah have reality that
00:36:19
in MIT where he he basically goes
00:36:22
through. And shows that so there's any
00:36:26
number of areas will be basically
00:36:28
reading. Um what are some of the
00:36:30
elements your alcoholism a criminal or
00:36:33
other rear as they can be predicted by
00:36:37
the brain scans of the person because
00:36:39
of their brains can X versus why you
00:36:42
can predict their their future are
00:36:44
behaviour and this is an incredible
00:36:47
power tool that is calm as a result of
00:36:51
the neural advances in our technology
00:36:54
which we're having as I say huge impact
00:36:57
on on how we manage our society. And so
00:37:01
there's the agency called the neural
00:37:02
diversity is upon us citizen's upon
00:37:05
this whole complex thing we already
00:37:07
know about how the brain wind interact.
00:37:10
And how the rights to social
00:37:12
structures. And it winds up with this
00:37:17
age of diversity. And if you read your
00:37:19
science magazine or nature excuse me do
00:37:23
you do that later this we there is is a
00:37:27
very powerful suggestion that one can
00:37:33
now what I read a process the brains of
00:37:38
people. And look at the correlations of
00:37:41
activity in the variance areas
00:37:43
adventures figure out a fingerprint as
00:37:46
it were of that mister Jones this is
00:37:49
this thing is rooted project there's
00:37:51
only one and then you send that into
00:37:54
two hundred other people and we'll it
00:37:58
find Richard marx's see whether
00:38:00
correlation fig in finds it ninety
00:38:02
eight percent of the time according to
00:38:05
the new study so implication of this
00:38:07
for the criminal law system this huge
00:38:11
we can now say that the centre is the
00:38:14
person because we have his brain print
00:38:17
buttons and so forth. So ah that's a
00:38:20
rex time I think we you hear the
00:38:24
studies unit here an extra couple days
00:38:27
in the advances at every level of it.
00:38:29
It's can places sits atop into a better
00:38:33
human neuroscience with that are fuse
00:38:36
for advanced technology and then what
00:38:38
are those going to do the need for how
00:38:40
we run our society is is just simply.
00:38:44
So tying all of this into ethical
00:38:49
social issues of the day is a part of
00:38:53
the story and a part of the work that
00:38:55
rolling and I think we should be adds

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Conference Program

Introduction to the 12th Nestlé International Nutrition Symposium
Thomas Beck, NRC Director
22 Oct. 2015 · 8:57 a.m.
418 views
Introduction to Session I - Cognitive & Brain Development
Susan Gasser, Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:04 a.m.
The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
221 views
Q&A - The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:56 a.m.
Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 10:49 a.m.
Q&A - Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:29 a.m.
Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:38 a.m.
154 views
Q&A - Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 12:10 p.m.
Introduction to Session II - Cognitive Decline
Kathinka Evers
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:02 p.m.
Brain health & brain diseases - future perspectives
Richard Frackowiak, CHUV University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:11 p.m.
Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:15 p.m.
Q&A - Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:59 p.m.
Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:21 p.m.
Q&A - Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:59 p.m.
Introduction to Session III - Nutrition & Cognitive Development
Pierre Magistretti, KAUST, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2015 · 9 a.m.
Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
129 views
Q&A - Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:53 a.m.
Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:29 a.m.
Q&A - Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:57 a.m.
Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:09 a.m.
Q&A - Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:49 a.m.
Introduction to Session IV - Decline & Nutritional Intervention
Tamas Bartfai, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 12:48 p.m.
On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:04 p.m.
Q&A - On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institutet
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:39 p.m.
Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:49 p.m.
Q&A - Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 2:32 p.m.
We are what we remember: memory and age related memory disorders
Eric R. Kandel, Columbia University, New York, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:03 p.m.
138 views
Concluding Remarks
Stefan Catsicas, Chief Technology Officer, Nestlé SA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:50 p.m.