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This Friday morning session and
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environment nutrition and cognitive
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well and maybe I will give a brief
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introduction about metabolism brain
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energy metabolism and how that relates
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to the presentation of the morning so
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it'll probably no in fact the chairman
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of the ministry mentioned it the last
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making speech the braille despite the
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fact that it's only two percent of the
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body weight can uses essentially twenty
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twenty five percent of the energy
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whatever index to take so it's a
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relatively high energy demanding for
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now in addition to this feature which
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defines brain energy metabolism at the
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global level there is another important
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feature and that the regulation
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workspace ensign register with activity
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and the fact the first formulation of
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this was by chuck Sherman them himself
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and the end of the nineteenth century
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when you post you make that the brain
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possesses an intrinsic mechanism by
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which it's vascular supply can be
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varied locally in correspondence with
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local variations of functionality. And
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we know no with the work of Lusaka
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colour in particular that actually this
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is true also from you you could
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decision using the ocular dominance
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column surprisingly primary visual
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cortex that are defined by the increase
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the the glucose utilisation now in
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summary high metabolic a cost and
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highly regulated in space and time
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register we see that you get TV and by
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the way this has been that the bases of
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the developments of the techniques for
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functional brain imaging because there
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very for which one can monitor Brooke
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utilisation oxygen consumption of blood
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flow using a computing water one
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monitors metabolic events or vascular
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events even if I'm right that is
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related to button for sure but also
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metabolic events and it's actually the
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changing boxing your haemoglobin that
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provides the intrinsic signal. So all
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these techniques that are widely used
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fifteen examples yesterday and we
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certainly see to the again or measure
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make up in increases of metabolism
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which hopefully are related to the
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electrochemical events that occur at
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the maps. And actually this is being a
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key issue to try to understand and in
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particular or my group has been
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interested in this is trying to
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understand how these electrochemical
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events are translated in a metabolic
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and vascular response and as I
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mentioned a moment ago also these
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provides a better understanding of the
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origin of the signals for functional
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brain imaging. Now the classical your
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weren't in the early nineties or mid
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eighties was that in fact a neural
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activity would really some sort of the
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little bit later that the could
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increase locally blood flow and that
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would deliver energy struts substrates
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to be active and european. But in fact
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this was not taking into account an
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important player in this company and
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these are you asked sites a type of the
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of self these are drawings from concept
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things are more modern views of astral
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sites and contract has already
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identified the flight that's a
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disastrous site also put this processes
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that are in contact with the the blood
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flow and with with my with capillaries
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and the technology even before was
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proposing that this could mean that
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descends could be rolling as you said
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distributing nutrients to the the
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perfect remote of the right. Now. This
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after site and also interesting
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features and here you see a three D
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reconstruction from eight PM that's
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showing up a saying that the profiler
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pretty synaptic profile and hearing
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blue this astral CT climatic and in
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fact cite lapses are not all of them
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and it's also dynamic these coverage
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can change but are essentially they are
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initiated by these astral sinking
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profiles. And on the other side of
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after second a say you see here is
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negative actually a capillary staying
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because of the extra CT process is cold
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and are actually defining but their
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structure. So you know in a more
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artistic view here you have the
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relationship all these cell types then
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you're the capillary the source of
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energy the more the major consumer of
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energy about eighty eighty five percent
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of the energy is consumed by neural
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stand here around the finances these
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astral strategic processes which by the
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way express receptors and we have the
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decide for translated so they can sense
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synaptic activity and here oh and feed
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the express transporters for a number
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of substrate so one can appreciate that
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this sense most likely play some kind
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of probably got synaptic get TVT two
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energy delivered to the right. So a few
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years ago almost no but they two
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decades ago we describe the mechanism
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by which this coupling can occur being
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mediated by the intimate in fact we we
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show that do to make can promote
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glucose uptake and that was the big
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surprise which for a long time was but
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difficult to convince people but I
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think the idea because of our work and
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work about the scene became clear that
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this is an important molecule actually
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they take up a logos and they really is
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that so they are actually decide what
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is no I wrote week like always well
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known process no one encounters us as
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as the barber effect mean the
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production of like in the presence of
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box. So this mechanism to provides a
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pretty straightforward mechanism to
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couple synaptic activity mediated by
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due to make an but talking about eighty
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percent of the same as in the cortex
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for example. And this look to make
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update which are uses the
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electrochemical gradient of sodium too
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bright blue to make the remove it from
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the sign ups that uses energy because
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William is extruded because people to
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make use recycled that we're not going
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to do this and this provides then a
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signal to important logos and
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activities I roll big like colours. Now
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this process now is known as the astral
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sight your own like chapel and we
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characterise several the players from
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that glue to make transporters the so
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so alpha to severely too so you put
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estimate EP A.'s was transported to
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different in huge like yeah draw
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Jennings for the model car box electron
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transporters. But the the and message
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here is that first of all there is a
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neural signal that triggers entry of
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blue according to the power right about
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and there is a transient aerobic like
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qualities in astral side because like
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they can then become transform to buy
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only and then provide energy because
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the is in this actually also provides
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that and there's several evidence is
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what is that after sites are mainly dry
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quality. So they produce like and euros
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are mainly optically. But there is
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another interesting feature about
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astral sight in relation to bring the
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energy metabolism the the only sells
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that process that express like project
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you see alright capillary you see here
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lustrous eating and food and you see it
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is filled with the electron that's the
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rhinos which are applied project. And
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you see here than european. So in
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summary what we know now is that there
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is definitely a key role in brain
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energy metabolism by these ads astral
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sites that they essentially produce
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like that either through glycol disease
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or through glycogen all this both
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leading to glycogen sorry to like the
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production no more recently that in
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particular collaborate in collaboration
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with Christy attention will increase
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you know the ring it with the first
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speaker this morning juts out that like
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it is not alone and then adjust
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substrate but it is also the signal
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three four years ago we publish this
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paper showing that after like your own
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that they transform is required for
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long term memory formation. And
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Christina will elaborate on these and
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other aspects our work. But we followed
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up on the molecular side. And found out
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that actually lactate is as I said not
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only a signal but actually it's a
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project thinking what you later on the
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ending he receptor and these actually
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results in the induction of the CCT
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jeans. So you have a molecule the
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primitive molecule possibly lactate
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that actually is this energy metabolism
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and also a signal for plasticity. And
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as you can see this is specific for
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galactic none of the other energy
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interceptors do this and for example
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like taking your routine uses artsy
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forces he is a three sixty and median
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or and you can see here that amplifies
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the and then you current is just a
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quick example more interestingly
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following all this we followed by doing
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a more in the a sequencing transcript
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terminologies when you're on stage
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actually liked it uses a large number
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of genes. So most likely through this
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and India receptor signalling
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amplification and and we're now trying
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to sort out what this means to and and
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actually they seem to be related either
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to plasticity or two neural protection
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which is quite interesting because
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there are examples that like the ones
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actually neural protected. Now just we
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should you know where is like we didn't
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like the like region granules are in
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relation because since they're related
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to class DC D.'s one might expect that
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they are present near sign up since you
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in the in massachusetts. So we need
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this work actually in the official DP
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which is that's really D fully
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immersion facility golf to where the by
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using that's three D reconstructed
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stacks of of a block of cortex and then
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a segmentation identify each sell by
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after sites blood vessels neural Texans
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then we workable controls for this into
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a three D virtual reality so it's
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really like you are actually taking a
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deep into the the brain. And you see
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here the the back of the capillaries
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you start seeing here I sign ups and
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then I read after sites and these
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purple dots here are actually glycogen
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and they seen here to you see and then
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quickly construct. And they see a lot
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of them but one one does statistics one
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can actually see that most of these
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glycogen granules are presents a
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strategic processes around the same
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lapses. Well the first speaker will be
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a Christina and she is from the centre
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for neuroscience new York university.
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And she will present work but not that
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at the moment we energy metabolism in
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long term memory formation any that's
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not to introduce also briefly the next
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the speaker I would like to go back to
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a a point in this coupling between
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neuronal activity and energy that would
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and existence of these I roll be like
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all these easy masterson. And track
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mark raquel a few years ago shoulder
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during activation for example to be
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just use there is an increasing blood
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flow increasing utilisation which is
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not immediately much by a commensurate
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increase in oxygen consumption. And me
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that paradoxically there should be an
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increase in boxy haemoglobin
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deactivated area. And this by the way
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induce the same job I want to develop
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the boat technique the blood option
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level dependent imaging that is widely
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used now it's much more you recently
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what the more and still and it was
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mentioned by by Mike is only go
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yesterday is that this I wrote that
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like all these is actually present also
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in certain bring areas even at rest and
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the baseline. And when what makes a
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correlation between the regions where
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like got a real big like all these
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these these operational in the about
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which is essentially the default mode
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this correlates with the expression of
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genes involved with sign ups roles and
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we didn't rights neuronal neural
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projection excellent rules everything
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that has to do with plastic. So where
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there is a real big like all this is in
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the adult rate there seems to be an
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association with the expression on
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genes related to plasticity and
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development calls them new dangers gene
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expression. And what is interesting is
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that actually in a early development
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that the brain actually why he
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expresses this metabolic profile of I
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really like a these and the post
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relation by as a Mike mentioned
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yesterday by going and raquel these
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that I wrote big like a disease which
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is a predominantly in to bring in the
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developing brain maybe related to
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synaptic plasticity and and expression
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of genes related to this phenomena. And
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and there is some copying some oxygen
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consumption of course but this seems to
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be more related to synaptic
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transmission. Now in the adults but to
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clean the cerebellum where I wrote big
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like qualities virtually absent there
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is a full coupling. So mostly related
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to transmission by this muting is
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regions single rain such as for example
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default mode very still some I wrote
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big like always is and therefore an
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expression of genes that are involved
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in plasticity and development so
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Christopher "'cause" I will be the
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second speaker yeah it's from
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northwestern university. And actually
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we deal with exactly at least one
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aspect of this which is the interjected
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cost of a building the human brain
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implications for evolution of which
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china roles and the origins of diabetes
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and finally the the topic of this
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morning is environment and this is just
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the the batteries this and an image
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from a series of very classic papers
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showing that environment plays a key
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role in developing ray and then in in
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Europe for example in the density of
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hundred expire you see "'em" enriched
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environment here and in and animal
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rearing their which environment or in
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the way environment. And and as you
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know but then we exploits are highly
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dynamic. And so the role of the and
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bodily only here we again the the in
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the last presentation by my guess on
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again yesterday plays a key role in
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raising development and actually will
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know it. And bring back from the
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university of Maryland school of maybe
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sing we'll address this point
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particularly from the angle of
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nutrition nutrition growth and the
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developing brain. So without the
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further do after this brief
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introduction it is my great pleasure to
00:15:45
introduce you know I really and I will
00:15:48
talk about energy without in long term

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Conference Program

Introduction to the 12th Nestlé International Nutrition Symposium
Thomas Beck, NRC Director
22 Oct. 2015 · 8:57 a.m.
416 views
Introduction to Session I - Cognitive & Brain Development
Susan Gasser, Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:04 a.m.
The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
219 views
Q&A - The development of a healthy brain
Michael Gazzaniga, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 9:56 a.m.
Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 10:49 a.m.
Q&A - Early influences on brain development and epigenetics
Stephen G. Matthews, University of Toronto, Canada
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:29 a.m.
Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 11:38 a.m.
151 views
Q&A - Building the physiology of thought
Rebecca Saxe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 12:10 p.m.
Introduction to Session II - Cognitive Decline
Kathinka Evers
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:02 p.m.
Brain health & brain diseases - future perspectives
Richard Frackowiak, CHUV University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
22 Oct. 2015 · 2:11 p.m.
Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:15 p.m.
Q&A - Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide clues for novel therapies
Rudolph E. Tanzi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 3:59 p.m.
Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:21 p.m.
Q&A - Immunometabolic regulators of age-related inflammation
Vishwa D. Dixit, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
22 Oct. 2015 · 4:59 p.m.
Introduction to Session III - Nutrition & Cognitive Development
Pierre Magistretti, KAUST, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia and EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2015 · 9 a.m.
Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:16 a.m.
126 views
Q&A - Energy metabolism in long-term memory formation and enhancement
Cristina M. Alberini, The Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 9:53 a.m.
Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:29 a.m.
Q&A - Building the costly human brain: implications for the evolution of slow childhood growth and the origins of diabetes
Christopher Kuzawa, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 10:57 a.m.
Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:09 a.m.
Q&A - Nutrition, growth and the developing brain
Prof. Maureen Black, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 11:49 a.m.
Introduction to Session IV - Decline & Nutritional Intervention
Tamas Bartfai, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 12:48 p.m.
On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:04 p.m.
Q&A - On multi-domain approaches for prevention trials
Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institutet
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:39 p.m.
Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 1:49 p.m.
Q&A - Methodological challenges in Alzheimer clinical development
Lon S. Schneider, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 2:32 p.m.
We are what we remember: memory and age related memory disorders
Eric R. Kandel, Columbia University, New York, USA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:03 p.m.
136 views
Concluding Remarks
Stefan Catsicas, Chief Technology Officer, Nestlé SA
23 Oct. 2015 · 3:50 p.m.