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which was what was so first goal i would like to uh knowledge and congratulate a wilderness uh
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so messy our bodies amnesty for it for the invitation so my talk will bring up
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how does it work
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uh_huh
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so michael please coming soon yes well so my talk is about the
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development of i i have a big power in a young athletes
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and i'm going to discuss briefly these different points so it's a
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basic program so first the difference between children and adults
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we'll talk about a view to kinetics and good prescription went about training about the need
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to have i think with volume and intensity to parades training they
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need to learn piecing and the need to monitor thirty
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probably without exactly so first of all the difference between a
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pretty good for children and on on stuff like that
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you might not know but children are almost uh i
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from nairobi point of view the almost elite champion
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you can see here that they've got to simulate become aerobic to anaerobic power racial then
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comparable to well trained on satellite in term of endurance capacity they have very similar
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uh quality what capacity for i know big contribution to view to kinetics
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he seem a lot they have similar a missile a phenotype
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and in term of repeated sprint exercise the fatigue ability of predictable
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to children is very similar to the one of condolence accurate
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if we go a little bit through the looking to the differences
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obviously into move you too much just expressing made it up to me that particular view to
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max in children is lower than elite athletes they have almost similar uh much model trait
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they've got a low a cardiac output mainly due to allow a strobe volume
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and the appeal the arterial of in is the option difference does well in in children
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but looking to these parameters and i will discuss a lot
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that one the time constant of the primary face
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for the view talking ethics is very similar between child and and on satellites
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and in term of the fatigue index during repeated sprint exercise
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you can see here it's amazing quality in children they have a very good fatigue ability
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looking a bit uh uh furthering the muscle you
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can see here the children muscle here
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the endurance athletes here they have very similar i'm coming on machinery and specially density
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they have similar five uh type one a slow twitch fibres distribution and
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explaining their good fatigue ability they have the recovery rate will for p. h.
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and the recovery rate for was for crappie in that in that
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is very similar between children and the uh on one subject
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so let's move to the spongy feel to kinetic send how we could
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use due to kinetic stew for better prescription of interval training
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as you might know and this is about the old or young african
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voice that i'd be tested enos lion cut off two years ago
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if you do an incremental test two weeks solution you get from the view to kill this value maximal
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oxygen perception view to mats and then the power of the l. c. d. associated to v. o. two max in the same time
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based on the respiratory equivalent you can be fine too fresh all the first
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threshold and the second fresh out that is the most common way
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to identify different intensity domain moderate heavy
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sit there and super maximal
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recently and would jones and his team very uh propose another way and you know making way
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to uh uh define intensity domain it is based on what we call due to kinetic c.
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here you have the transition from rest to exercise and you can easily see that you
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have the primary face an exponential function before you reach i've applied at all
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if it if it is in the moderate a domain or you get another function another exponential function
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the uh slow components for that you just have to get different
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kind to exertion or time we need a different intensity one two three four and is
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a mathematical transformation you get the critical power and you get the bill you prime
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it is of interest because w. primus been shown to be equivalent
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from the constant amount of water that can be performed with both the critical power
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and this critical call uh is a new way to telling it to delineate
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the thought that we need to only aerobic energy provision so we have a
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i the the choice to use a spirit week without on venture three threshold l. c. p. ought to
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use this new view to kinetics um modelling of interest you that if you have the fast
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view to kinetics it means so short a time constant you'll get a
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higher critical power and if you get a high u. w. prime
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you get uh the possibility to extend the amplitude of the slow component is quite high
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and from that you get again moderate a. v. set there but it is not it is not
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uh define a with an incremental test e. t.'s defined with a view to kinetics
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what do we know all for the differences between children
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and adults you can see here for transition from rest to moderate intensity
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the children here they have a high your view to gain
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and in the say the intensity that means a bowl the threshold they have
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a high a view to gaze at the fast that unit takes here
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an be i don't they have the veal too slow component that the children don't have
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these parameters of very important for exercise prescription
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during the puberty you can see that for example in this
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uh boy between eleven and thirteen your whole you can
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get the primary phase that these are shorter your new
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we will uh uh saw the kinetics getting older
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and regarding the view to a slow component you would get an increase in the amplitude of the
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slow component and then puberty is a very important
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period regarding the change in view to kinetics
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that has some implication on repeated this on repeated the words like interval training
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in a moderate intensity you can see again that the young subject they have a fast
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that unix and a higher view to gain compared to the or the one
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if you have two successive goods and the first one is moderate but the second one is idea
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then you will observe that it will speed at the teen it takes
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in the or the subject but not in the younger one
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that means there is a first again and to recommend to
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not use interval training in that in a in youth
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that there are some that are we did collect in uh in cutoff two years ago that are
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they time constant of the primary face that will help twenty this panel fasting that unix
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between the the football team of the age of twelve thirteen fourteen and fifteen and you can easily up
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so that that this is the kinetic it's easy getting
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slower during puberty how can we use that
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for a interval training or a intermittent training prescription first we know that the o. two kinetics can
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help to describe i would be to um to to develop a big fitness downturns performance
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we know that the fast view to kinetics can make possible to use show the walk in tomorrow
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and i just show you some that that that children have a foster view to kinetic sent adults
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then we can ask the question with children benefit more
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than adults of using very short walk into about
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you know that to see staying long time grows well at view to max
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for that we did conduct this study we had one group over
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fourteen your whole ball and a group of thirty old i don't they had
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the same v. o. two max but under the the ability of the foster translation of
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your too much income of the all city associated to v. o. two max and
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as explained before we get comfy um that the young adults they had a much
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faster view to kinetics the constantine was nineteen saddam's compared to the others
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then they had three supra maximal intermittent training session
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at the l. c. t. corresponding to one hundred to ten percent of that the view to max
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and here are the results when you look at the time of uh the session close to v.
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o. two max let's say uh both ninety five percent you can say that the boy
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when you use ten said don't walk into about there is a difference twenty
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seven point one think about there is a difference but thirty thirty
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thirty seconds running thirty seconds or probably no difference anymore between the children and yet
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and we when you look at the time at the view too much you can see that there's a tremendous difference
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these voice at the age of fourteen using ten so don't tense i don't
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super maximal interval training or intermittent training they spend five times
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longer duration at v. o. two max than adults
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and the same for the twenty twenty so we had a longer time near or
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i. v. o. two max even if using a very short walk into evaluation
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we had no difference in adults between the session we see a computer to avoid spend
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five times longer time at view to max than adults with these short intel
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seems that kinetic see natalie something fast that is it but if it's a mole
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from shoulder to walk into about than the adults and that's my second recommendation
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use a lot of very short walk into about with children and adolescents
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it might be a for help the coaches to better had just
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the interval training session because you have to determine mechanisms
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when you get or that you will slow your kinetics but when
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you get fit that you will speed your kinetics soul
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third recommendation deter mined of you took in a teaching your voice all
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your goals because it might change a lot through the puberty
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let's come now to respond that is a very critical point and uh
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out how do you see a modify volume and training intensity
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as you might know in most of the uh i have a big sport now when you and our eyes
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the training program of any path it's it is that arise distribution
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that means you have a lot of training volume that is
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below the first for show that means in the moderate intensity domain
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you have very little that is pure form in the heavy domain and then you have this war but these uh both the second for show
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at all close to v. v. v. v. o. two max that's
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is very widely describe now in not teach the in marathon
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uh not so much in swimming but a lot of example in high will be sport
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for example if you look at the change in the
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training volume in a a nordic ski champion
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you will see that from the age of eighteen to the age of thirty what has been increased
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the most either moderate intensity the level one intensity
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the i will because a purely aerobic training
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and that's a recommendation make sure uh that you will continuously progress you
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really enjoying the increase the moderate intensity volume in your voice
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we know also that there is a very a closer relationship between the mobility mass so
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totally mobile been mass and the view too much as you can see here
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it's almost the perfect relationship while when you measure the
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relationship between the model been concentration animal body mass
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it is not that good so measuring able bodied messages don't vary it it is done very well
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in my opinion by the the team of your mailing might be of interest or whatever
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what do we learn when we observe adolescent at the age
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of eleven fifteen your whole they twain for twelve months
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before all the uh a year of training after the of training
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you know the cyclist obviously from here to here in black
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they have improved the ideal to max but you can also see that they did not improve the totally mcginnis
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so training before puberty might not be so efficient
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for increasing immobile be mass and in addition
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the shy in a in a building in my doing and they
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compare the morbid in mass of control sedentary subject with
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train suggest psychic cyclist at the age of sixteen twenty one and twenty eight
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obviously in term of v. o. two max the train one at the three ages they have a higher v. o. two max
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here you can see already at the age of sixteen sixteen the cyclist have a high of you two months than
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just said i'm sorry voice but they did not have any difference in term of dots out remarkably mass
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that makes possible then to to to recommend don't use
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interval training before puberty because first of all it
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won't change your title immobile being mass
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so i'll based on these uh that's ah if
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i compare moderate intensity continues training high
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intensity interval training and spring interval training spring think about training is defined as
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maximal intensity show outputs of exercise into space with relatively long recovery like
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it might be for example fifteen seconds bring sixty seconds recovery
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so we recommend to perform a lot of moderate intensity training
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and a lot of sprint interval training before puberty
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when but uh we also and you understand that we
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don't recommend to perform interval training too early
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when we look to the but the the body so the adolescent post puberty obviously
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you have to increase the volume at moderate intensity that the porous training
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you have to change a little bit sprint interval training to repeat
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that sprint that means by reducing for example the rest
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internal duration and progressively you will introduce high intensity interval
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training but it has to come very late
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in the carrier and believe me it is not at all what we do observe in the aortic sport
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coming to the uh say us you'll have to model about
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uh the evidence uh on elite onto one sport
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it has been well established that frequency volume of training is almost a inferential barnett
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we agree with that and we agree or so that
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training intensity distribution is absolutely cheap absolutely permanence
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that way i can bring the idea of that the uh monitoring through our trade viability
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that's a description it has been measured in adults not in children so description of how your
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pat paraffin pathetic on your vegetative response will change post exercise so that's
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four hours before these different exercise briefly you can see that if i
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train here one hour or two was in the moderate intensity domain
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i don't have any calculation in my new widget active response
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but if i train in the hay the intensity between the first fashion or if i do
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interval training it takes a very long to recover at at
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least from this point of view it is right for
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the h. f. power it is also right for the uh time domain parameter uh and this is the
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if we look to twelve years of monitoring of that the athletes
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that is a base the effort in the world a multiple uh world champion and olympic champion
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at the age of seventeen your whole supine resting heart rate he was about fifty five
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and now he's about a thirty thirty five and here is got first olympic middle the
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at the age of twenty two second one at the age of twenty six
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all the interest is the money taught the paraffin batik activation you can see
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that you had a very very large increase in both that are sympathetic
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and the sympathetic activation and the balance as not be
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being changed so much it is very important that
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you money taught that the h. f. increase during the p. the um the development of the athletes
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briefly it that's the countries and we suffered in your whole would be athletes
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in green that these these value of value when shoes
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completely rest that you can see that they that was very
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good hi hello if highly chafe high high misses the
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then she did only one taxation a time two hundred at the view
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to matt's thirty seconds or probably that that's that's not so challenging
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look how what's going on the next day one session she had
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a large alteration in a path empathetic and sympathetic activation level
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briefly i will discuss also well how important it is for the
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young athletes to learn how to pace first of all
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it is it something learning training intensity and basing your
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week doing competition eating something that can be learned
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you can have this process of self regulation learning of training
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that is um applied to pacing and in this study in the fifteen and that
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made us speedskating eighteen guy and his group they describe that the elite performance
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they've been able to add up the right basing their it the early
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i fifteen other nato speedskating you have to be slow in the first three on that to be able to get a very fast
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there was a t. v. in the third part you know and it's
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it's clear that they did that that age and even more pronounced
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during the later phase of they had a list and then pasting behaviour and learning pacing learning
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the pacing during competition and maybe more importantly learning your
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intensity domain in young athletes he's absolutely parent
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and finally i cannot uh forget to uh talk about altitude training i'll take it
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training is a very complex way to develop a him about the mass
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in all of you wheeze young athletes just use a simple
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method levi train high levi trainable and use only terrestrial
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and did you don't use a simulated altitude it will come later

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Conference Program

Welcome
Frederic Koehn, President Young Athletes Forum Foundation
21 Sept. 2017 · 1:18 p.m.
3,172 views
Opening address
Boris GOJANOVIC
21 Sept. 2017 · 1:22 p.m.
136 views
Biological Maturation and the Path to Success: Before and After the Fact
Manuel COELHO-E-SILVA, Biological Maturation and the Path to Success: Before and After the Fact
21 Sept. 2017 · 1:31 p.m.
570 views
Designing pathways to success – part kaleidoscope, part microscope
Jason GULBIN, Designing pathways to success – part kaleidoscope, part microscope
21 Sept. 2017 · 1:53 p.m.
431 views
Talent ID and Development: Why doing the “right thing” is not always the “best thing
Ross TUCKER , Talent ID and Development: Why doing the “right thing” is not always the “best thing
21 Sept. 2017 · 2:16 p.m.
355 views
111 views
Resistance training during long-term athlete development
Urs GRANACHER
21 Sept. 2017 · 2:52 p.m.
386 views
The development of aerobic power in young athletes
Grégoire MILLET
21 Sept. 2017 · 3:15 p.m.
1,494 views
Fueling the young athlete
Asker JEUKENDRUP
21 Sept. 2017 · 3:36 p.m.
196 views
Training young athletes: challenges and opportunities
Marco CARDINALE
21 Sept. 2017 · 4:01 p.m.
187 views
TRAINING THE YOUNG ATHLETE - Q&A
Panel
21 Sept. 2017 · 4:33 p.m.
Coaching from junior to the top of the world (Lara Gut)
Patrick Flaction, Elitment
21 Sept. 2017 · 5:20 p.m.
203 views
Knee ligament injuries in immature athletes
Franck CHOTEL
22 Sept. 2017 · 7:48 a.m.
102 views
Osteochondral lesions
Franck ACCADBLED
22 Sept. 2017 · 8:11 a.m.
248 views
INJURIES WITH THE ORTHOPEDISTS - Q&A
Panel
22 Sept. 2017 · 8:54 a.m.
Back pain in young athletes
Liba SHEERAN
22 Sept. 2017 · 9:34 a.m.
Long term sequelae of youth overuse injuries
Mark BATT
22 Sept. 2017 · 10:19 a.m.
OVERUSE INJURIES - Q&A
Panel
22 Sept. 2017 · 10:40 a.m.
Concussions in young athletes : myths and reality
Christopher NEWMAN
22 Sept. 2017 · 10:52 a.m.
Screening for heart disease in sports – nonsense or necessary?
Matthias WILHELM
22 Sept. 2017 · 11:16 a.m.
Competitive Sport & Health: hidden issues
Gordon MATHESON
22 Sept. 2017 · 12:04 p.m.
Injury prevention programs : The 11+ Kids Project
Mario BIZZINI
22 Sept. 2017 · 2:12 p.m.
105 views
161 views
Parents’ Knowledge of Sport Psychology and Nutrition
Dr Camilla J. Knight
22 Sept. 2017 · 3:57 p.m.
Closing Address
Frederic Koehn, President Young Athletes Forum Foundation
22 Sept. 2017 · 6:04 p.m.