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Oh great this brilliant colours ranging
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from blue to yellow to red. And it
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looks very different. But what is the
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underlying statistical technique to
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show was that they were in fact it for
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How do you approach just draw To show
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that the profiles are different you
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know I see no grace videos and someone
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what is the underlying technique to
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show that if the remote dimensional
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microbe apropos individual individual
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signature service different between two
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people three people people are obese
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normal whatever. sure well it makes a
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difference and what you're trying to
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accomplish so if in fact wanna
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identified individual species that are
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contributing to that difference then
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you wanna look at differences in those
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individual species incorrect for the
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multiple comparisons. So many people
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would you say individual T tests and
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species abundance or other things. And
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incorrectly P values based on the
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multiple comparisons if you're just
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interested in sort of group differences
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kind a multivariate differences then
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you could use multivariate techniques
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and we've seen from the previous
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speakers talks about the multivariate
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techniques are used a lot. But the
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problem with that is it's not picking
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out the individual species that might
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be contributing most of those
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differences in order to get that you'd
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have to do the you know very analyses
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and then correct for the multiple
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comparison yeah So you really inspired
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so what's your idea idea how the
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question but an open while studies
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because in your intuition defences to
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watch a here it is quite important. Uh
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also we have a product you don't want
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to be on the set well what time affect
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how does it work as you intended to use
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your how what was the what periods
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between well we use the washer period
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break up the serial correlation did the
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time to go through this but because if
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you if you measure the microbe I'm
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serious serially right you're gonna
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induced the serial correlation we could
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influence the power you have to
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differentiate effective one
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intervention to another you have a wash
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up here that ultimately you can break
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up that correlation and empower the
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problem with it is it'll lengthen the
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study time also you could be putting
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the person at risk if they're a washer
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period and not an intervention. So
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there are some serious issues with
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these out of one designs in terms of
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analysing the data make sure you're dry
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compelling inferences so basically you
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don't do anymore so well we it for
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certain designs are certain trials
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might make sense to have a washer
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period if you treat someone with
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essential hypertension the maybe you
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could afford to have them opera drug
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for some period of time. But if you
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have some more acute condition it would
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make sense to take someone off therapy
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of any kind. So I think it just depends
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on the setting the Just so we have a
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very interested in Texas that is too
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but we keep hearing about regulatory
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issues seems like you're talking with
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yeah yeah but that I well I'll tell you
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what set of one studies what type of
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evidence need to go for right use So
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again it sort of depends on the setting
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if a company is trying to make an
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argument that they they have reason to
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believe that their drug be re purposed
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for condition or another going off and
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doing another phase three trials in
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individuals with that that's secondary
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conditioner that second edition would
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make sense shelling in a small number
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of individuals which can ask actually
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listed that might encourage the FDA and
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other organising she's to at least
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believe that there's utility that's
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right and that intervention. So there I
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think that these studies would be
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appropriate. However you're doing some
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you know fluoride in the water likes
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that we want a lot that public health
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benefits then the other one studies
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make no sense at all. So yeah there are
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certain settings real I would see the
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end of one study simply are appropriate
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in the FTAX is is aware that okay just
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a conceptual question like the the idea
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of phone studies peaceful solution for
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that purpose deformities the last I was
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okay so each that was a little before
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is okay besides what what I it's a it's
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a huge problem so I didn't you know
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since this wasn't a cancer focus didn't
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wanna go through that yeah tumour
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header you need is a real problem in
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treating cancer. However there are
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people charlie's one from the UK and
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others who tried to the determine in
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project just where the tumour might go
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based on re biopsies. So you know if
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you see an additional said a mutation
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right in and that's static to more than
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maybe you could intervene at that
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moment with a different route but you
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couldn't anticipate that it I didn't
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know that those mutations will present
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the first place so you're always gonna
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be one step behind one what one can do
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is crafted framework in decide what
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drugs to get one in fact certain
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mutations right and then test that
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algorithm and test its utility
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impatience and that would be sort of
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ended aptitude and one like design yeah
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oh Need I think your remote I'm just
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wondering not to be provocative whether
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quality setting contrived is the best
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way to we should fall right because in
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a way to go but try to make some but
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you would then like all right. So so
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you see that once a clear phenotype is
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that's the key to it is then you would
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use the same drug treatment centre
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dramatically without any adjustments
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preparation is this what you're saying
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you could so I I I do the initial exam
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we're just doing in out of one in
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isolation and there are settings where
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that makes perfectly good sense in the
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impact disease case you're not gonna
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find any more patients probably gonna
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have one if the the diseases to
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cleopatra. So you want to see if the
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drugs working you'd have to do another
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one that's a setting where the end of
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one as it is called for however if
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you're gonna treat the cancer patients
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on the basis of their original profiles
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then the more accurate and one makes
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sense what I wanna press one people is
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then you're no longer testing
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individual drivers your testing an
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algorithm that matches the drugs that
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to the tumour profiles. So for example
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if there is any dietary interventions
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associated with different features in
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the micro by then the degree to which
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those those different features show up
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in anyone individuals microbe I'll you
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might use different combinations of you
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nutritional supplements or whatever it
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might be but you need to have the
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algorithm tell that invents because if
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you wanted to show what had utility you
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get a bunch of people you match the
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nutritional interventions on the basis
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of the microbe I'm profile right and
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then maybe for some people they
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wouldn't have any nutritional
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intervention and see if that algorithm
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the way you match the nutrition oh a
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pro interventions to the profile makes
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sense. So again which are no longer
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testing is a specific you personal
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intervention but away from actually
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nutritional interventions to the
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profiles and that's the thing that is
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on the minds of people because it's no
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longer the case you can factory go
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individualised matters such that people
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with unique gentlemen features are to
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get a particular drug and someone
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crafts a new drug comes up with a new
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drug new intervention for the express
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purpose of combating that type of
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deleterious profile you wouldn't find
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necessarily enough people to actually
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test the intervention on so what you
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have to do is embedded in sort of an
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aggregated and one setting and see if
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it has utility as part of a much larger
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out. but oh how would you sort this is
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a oh would you address safety with you
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grow up you know part of like this. So
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for the stand to cancer trial there's
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at least five investigational agents
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know these is all past kind of phase
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one potential not to be toxic but now
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and showing that they have efficacy
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they're buried into the trial didn't
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say again "'cause" it's the time but
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that standard cancer trial we have
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about twenty already out there marketed
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rocks and about five or seven
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investigational agents from different
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from so companies who just wanted to
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know if they're drug might have utility
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in people with specific tumour

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
504 views
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
381 views
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
232 views
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
166 views
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
275 views
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
107 views
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
731 views
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
563 views
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
252 views
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
176 views
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
679 views
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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