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Representation I will ask the question
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would be very often ask my
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presentation. I don't want to do you
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think remember twenty four hours for
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what them so please raise your hands if
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you think you remember ninety process
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Okay twenty five percent of okay Chris
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and process five three seven it is also
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the switch and very often a grammatical
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students and then I'm showing them
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baseline what is the average we call
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twenty four hours and you're just
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listening it's five percent if we are
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discussing it's about fifty percent and
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the only person who really benefit is
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the presenters so thank you very much
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on behalf of the of the present I
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thought it said patient for a repeat
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again and again what we hope we should
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now. I have another question for your
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ace after this is the second day of
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this symposium do you think about if
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you're if you're so that's how most so
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yeah that's currently no was used to
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call us do you think like that. I think
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that some of Mexicans at some some oh
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perhaps we are home a bacteria. And the
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reason is that one of our colleagues
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that we are not human we are working
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bacterial colonies and to have her
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again and again during this meeting and
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we heard that the microbes are not just
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passengers and we have heard about this
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video is a drug microbe I've got the
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alterations which are associated with
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this CD I usually show also the next
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slide but that I should not display
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question but for many of us can still
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remains to be determined if the
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alterations are the costs or the
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consequences but anyway it's clear that
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there is some link between the
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microbiology and the disease and
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there's a number of that they just the
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manipulates about micro fibre and in my
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presentation I would only focused on
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for biotic because this is the main
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area of my research interest stars the
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initial not provided or six and what is
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new in two thousand fourteen this is
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the paper developed by international
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scientific association for probably a
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Peabody or take part in these here and
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interest and when it comes to the
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definition definition is oh the
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definition and the difference is that
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tuition. However as you can see on the
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side for a duration and say a person so
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high but emission is more or less the
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same as it used to be a lawyer takes a
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porno to your laptop busted out if in
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the bacteria spectrum ices what are and
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also in the paper Jane mentioned or on
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the the provider products are listed
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and it's clearly saying is they were a
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provider and what are not for
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bioethics. And I think it's not
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important not not needed to to to
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mention it here. What we don't know and
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this is how I live stock for years that
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not all providers are created equal.
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And however recently this point has
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been challenged and this has been
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challenged by I saw international
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scientific also shooting for probably
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not exactly but you're with which pose
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the question of whether there are
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benefits that can be actually beauty
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was a general category of provider
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optics and that would kind of these in
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my presentation I wanna explain or I
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would diffuse a summary what I and the
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ice some things like that. They slide
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summarises the distribution of
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mechanisms I'm probably already. And it
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you can see on the east side some of
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the small make an is how widespread and
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mom started for biologics and this
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includes colonisation resistance sit
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and short right change that has a
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production regulation of interests not
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the normalisation of virtual
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macrobiotic increased turnover of and
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just start and competitive exclusion of
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a subject which can be come along to
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all gender of my organise some of them
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are species level effects are there we
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went to make and it and some of them
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are very specific effect so they're
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real effect sizes and wanted to cut
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effect immunological effects and open a
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logical effect and production of
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specific by actives I would come again
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to this mechanism later on during my
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talk. And I like you a menu of you I am
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I am a clinician I'm doing maybe
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clinical research I am not doing any
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basic research. So people I mean very
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often what are the effectiveness of any
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intervention and they're also like very
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much evidence based medicine and the
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strong evidence always comes from
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randomised control trials and
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systematically use an analysis of
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randomised control trials when it comes
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to buy a CD yeah there is a number of
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studies. And what is important to know
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we still know what is the evidence and
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I would like to discuss should
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indications for the use of probably a
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Texan advertising and look alike
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prevention of antibiotic associated
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diarrhoea and prevention I think you
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and treatment of acute just rent
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findings and I would like in my answer
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the question for benefits that an
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attribute it to the general category of
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provider optics. So let me start with
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neckties and shook a like this if you
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are not the annotation and if you are
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not the physician you recognise
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immediately this it's not healthy child
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as a matter of fact in advertising and
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for collide is aligned strengthening
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these the opinion yeah legit can look
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for in one to five percent of all
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neonatal intensive care admissions five
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to ten percent of all very low birth
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weight infants which means inversely
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below two hundred rounds can suffer
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from I connect at I think and local
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ideas we can we will not discuss the
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costs of genesis but anyways it
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disturbances of the micro by your and
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they they use a role in the process of
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genesis of these disorders said fifty
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percent of those infants requires
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surgery approximately thirty percent
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right side and survivors have increased
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risk of adverse drug development see
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what so this is really a life
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threatening disease. And the question
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is can we prevent this disease and
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there is and number of media analysis
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that look at the facts about politics
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for the prevention of neckties and
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trickle out. And you can see this is
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not how the number of strong or
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increase of the number of entrance
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included in this trial increased and he
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falls on the most recent media analysis
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popping preview and on the slide if
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you're not familiar this is a force all
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this is that typical way that there is
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a lot of making I'm not as are being
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present what you see here is the line
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of not if that everything that is left
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of this time show the effect that
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favour of probably a week if something
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what would you it would be in favour of
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that C or no intervention what did you
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have some sorry you can see here and
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you see there's a seven percent
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reduction in the race of nectar at I
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think and look alike this is very
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seaview strengthening disease. And it's
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not only that provide optics can
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prevent an advertising and shook like
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this. And they look like two randomised
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control trials more than five hundred
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five five thousand five hundred
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participants already included in those
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trials. That's right for mortality more
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than five thousand participants there
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is no significant difference for
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another colour sets it like many other
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corpora injury you they have and that
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when it comes to the conclusion the
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conclusion of the authors is very
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strong that a I guess strongly supports
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a change in practise and I have a
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question to you fifty seven percent no
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it doesn't matter whether you are a
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dietitian or not was a gynaecologist or
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not. It's even better if you're just
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not not not not clinician seven percent
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reduction in the risk of nick I think
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and talk about would you recommend
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probably or it's to prevent an
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advertising and draw a line in your
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patient yeah I know I presume that most
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of you would say yes this is my
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experience when I show you know I don't
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need to tweak thirty three cities in
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France would need to be treated with
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propriety in order to prevent one case
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of an advertising and record that is
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what you feel I would just use probably
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on my experience is that people are not
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that convinced when the here even if
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this is exactly the same data just
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present it in a different way. But if
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you have to say that I would like to
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show you some intervention next
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utterance from I had gotten function
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are being used or not probably many of
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us are using studies for my car yeah
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I'm not needed to treat is from one
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hundred to four hundred depending on
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the start ins and get in for
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cardiovascular protection forty
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properly or it's it's thirty so the
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first sentence absolutely here is that
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we should use it. But if you don't have
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the current recommendations you wanna
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see recommendations are consistent no
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no no first is that is I need it for
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the most studies are needed for
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research are needed. And then in that
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and then recommendations it means that
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if I have the same view some
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researchers consider that the current
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evidence justifies a routine use of
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propriety. And this is one of the
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documents that the the documents or a
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guideline that were published. And
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there is a no practical how this can
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use and also I would like to show you
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that's all sports are changing their
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minds they start that you twelve euros
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which are published in the same issue
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of PD out in two thousand and ten and
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the all stars differ in their opinions
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in two thousand and ten but for use
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later wrote john addict or the or the
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type of which speaks for itself
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provided supplementation in preterm
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infants. It's time to change practise.
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And I discussing in them discussing it
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here and I showed you these these data
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because I said I said once that may be
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substantiated that it might be that
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certain has a net effect may be
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attributed to many if not all four by
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or six people if you know that these a
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forest floor you will see of course all
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of them are not statistically
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significant we can discuss like they're
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not statistic but there are most of
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them are on the positive side. And and
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this makes me think I still think that
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each chain has to be evaluated
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separately but it is so that's one of
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the health benefits can be actually
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good or provider that does not want to
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make and it's that that that well that
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contribute to the prevention in this
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case of neckties and struck a light is
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you may ask me are the examples of such
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media analysis in which no one else
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show a positive effect of rubber your
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six and it has a good example is
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prevention of antibiotic astra shaded
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diarrhoea this isn't systematic review
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and make an honest is probably already
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two years ago jam in their sixties
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treatment demise controlled trials
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almost twelve thousand participants and
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show that it reduces the use of
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probably a mix of the group as a
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general reduces the risk of antibiotic
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associated area by forty two percent
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either one or two children sixteen
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randomised control trial reduction by
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forty five percent. And the impression
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you this for as long as there are some
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differences but there and systematic
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differences in resolve also when you
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include it when you look at twelve
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biotic so okay select in house if
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that's like for example convention of
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antibiotic associated very diarrhoea
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perhaps maybe active duty too many if
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not all four by the optics. Now I'd
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like to move to another indication in
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another example which I will show which
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is your best friend tried by the
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wayside at the start address with you
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change your in the first row just
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reminded me that that oh a research
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started with his paper which was not in
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the not exactly twenty years ago
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fourteenth October nineteen ninety four
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but they will not we will talking about
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the prevention of that your youngest
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will talk about the management of a
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diary are diseases and of course one
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should start with the hydration and if
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you don't this is one of the prince
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tree view on that you're what region
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acute infections that and you will see
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the resistors that again this is a line
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of no effect line of no effect that all
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of those that you showed in one
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direction that there is reduction in
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that race of in the increase a
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reduction in that in this case
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production the duration of diarrhoea.
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And like I said in health effects may
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actually beauty too many if not all
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probably optics and what is the effect
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is there a I don't know how many more
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than four thousand five hundred
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participants mean reduction by
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approximately one day this is what you
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can expect with the use of provider
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ticks. But no it's not without the
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ensure because had the religion to for
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example why I had that originate it's
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it's the start some zero percent one
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hundred percent zero means no bigger
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than a one hundred percent means doctor
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that originate one in even question
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whether it's substantiated although
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they to get there that but that's
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another discussion. So at least
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approach is not without as I said
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without danger and differences between
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individual provider extreme maybe he's
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a them all important. And this it was
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exactly the pro all that god has begun
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stands for european society for
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paediatric that central to help out a
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lot and notation working for providing
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updates and we all of us together if
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you're might be a together we in
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evidence based position paper on the
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use of provider in that and in the
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management affected extra try this and
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our approach at before before this I
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said I was published were that each
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other natural biotech straight to be
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evaluated separately. So we issues we
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we we we finalised the state street
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types of statements probably are still
00:14:46
we we identified provided with the
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positive recommendation with a negative
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recommendation and also provided with
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insufficient evidence to make a
00:14:55
recommendation that we start with the
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fruit was probably a text with a
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positive recommendation wind up with
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luck about student GG the use of these
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provide you actually uses the duration
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of diarrhoea and it uses the risk of
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diarrhoea Alaskan towards your seven or
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more days that's a that's why some for
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some other mice is largely again
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reductions the duration of diarrhoea
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reduction in the risk of diarrhoea last
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four or more days and also and this is
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a new comers I would say that the
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buttons right right much and much
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weaker added ends and much less a
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number of studies but this is what they
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sure reduction in the duration of
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diarrhoea and increased chance of you
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on day three so we summarise the ways
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that street with this war is is
00:15:42
statements with a problem with the
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positive recommendation twelve and a
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button GG and secular marxism largely
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we gave a it's a lot quality of maybe
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that's I can explain make sure why but
00:15:54
recommendation is there's strong and
00:15:56
what about the buttons right right DSM
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one seven nine three eight quality of
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evidence is very low recommendation
00:16:03
easily simply because the data are not
00:16:06
I mean it's not not just enough data at
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the moment and strong enough to to to
00:16:10
to have it is the same it I mean they
00:16:12
should as for AGGS a compromise is what
00:16:14
are in a document to be identified for
00:16:18
biology one by topics with a negative
00:16:20
recommendation this was under a corpus
00:16:22
VSF sixty eight which should not be
00:16:25
used which should not be considered in
00:16:27
the management of children with acute
00:16:29
desperate right is because of safety
00:16:31
issue. And the provider tickets this
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micro organism is of course the
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recipient of the button mice and
00:16:37
resistant genes and this is the why
00:16:39
this is this recommendation and so yeah
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I like probably or text with sufficient
00:16:46
evidence to make a recommendation and
00:16:49
this shows you why some yeah we cannot
00:16:52
say if something works of something
00:16:54
doesn't work much time for example that
00:16:56
one reason the methodological he sure
00:16:59
wasn't my my my problems are to study
00:17:02
but there was so many methodological
00:17:04
issues in for it with all of that we
00:17:06
are not able to formulate a
00:17:08
recommendation not specifically should
00:17:11
have status publish a lot of that is
00:17:13
officially this but it's simply we
00:17:15
didn't know what is the strain that was
00:17:17
that all ones are city was of a we made
00:17:20
when we were developing are we going
00:17:22
next we may to rule if there's only one
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drawing on a of a randomised control
00:17:26
trial was a positive or negative it's
00:17:29
not sufficient directly to make
00:17:31
recommendations. And also there was
00:17:33
only one our city of a with no strings
00:17:35
and if you geisha and the least believe
00:17:38
me is a very very long to the many too
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many strains. So there's a lot of work
00:17:43
behind it but eventually we cannot say
00:17:46
whether or not something is effective
00:17:47
or not. So it's not it's part of my
00:17:51
presentation a benefit that an
00:17:53
attribute it to the general category of
00:17:56
provider. And brightest austin based on
00:17:58
the example of naked I think and talk
00:18:00
like this and prevention of antibiotic
00:18:02
that's what shady diarrhoea and the
00:18:04
management of the contestants I I would
00:18:07
say that the number of make an analysis
00:18:09
have demonstrated that certain tells
00:18:11
effect may be absolutely too many if
00:18:14
not all pro by our kids and this is
00:18:16
mainly based at pearl mechanism which
00:18:19
are beyond this those widespread make
00:18:21
an is which are common among start it
00:18:24
probably it probably out. And they
00:18:26
system or something that can be
00:18:27
discussed there is quite likely when
00:18:29
you look at the effects of maternal is
00:18:31
that there is something behind behind
00:18:34
it however this approach is not without
00:18:36
danger I should do that they're
00:18:37
heterogeneity very often. So perhaps
00:18:40
for many there might be more trials
00:18:42
with individual trial which I let
00:18:45
status are probably still need what I
00:18:48
like to do now is to discuss some real
00:18:51
strange specific effect and that would
00:18:53
be that like to discuss in the context
00:18:55
of infant a call so now yeah moving
00:18:57
from for life threatening disease. So
00:19:00
something which is definitely not the
00:19:02
life threatening but very distressing
00:19:04
for power and if I'm going to affect
00:19:07
that will result in under three months.
00:19:10
So what are you going to physician but
00:19:12
yeah position or not it might be that
00:19:14
you have that's a child or you have
00:19:16
friends child. So this may try to you
00:19:19
as well. And the client because it
00:19:21
starts in the first week stuff. And and
00:19:24
by age of four to five months and the
00:19:27
one six families but once a
00:19:29
professional like only one in six
00:19:32
because the rest of the internet and
00:19:33
define the answer to that question is
00:19:36
the only one of the problems that one
00:19:39
six times thought comes to us when it
00:19:41
comes to that you are legion risk
00:19:42
factors that we don't really know what
00:19:45
is that word error passage anything
00:19:47
about how everyone all the one of the
00:19:51
anything which is being considered as
00:19:53
an alteration of that might provide
00:19:55
your if you know that you can look at
00:19:57
the literature on that we can go only
00:19:59
in in founder as far as intervention
00:20:02
which had been steady. However very few
00:20:04
of them are effective for I should say
00:20:06
probably effective and the question is
00:20:09
are for biotic effective and one
00:20:11
appropriate which means that it and
00:20:14
perhaps it might be that there's this
00:20:16
strange specificity it's at the bottom
00:20:18
of the right GSM one seven nine three
00:20:21
eight again I'm not the basic signs up
00:20:23
or have someone who is working with
00:20:26
this particular microorganisms and
00:20:28
contribute to the discussion but they
00:20:30
establish a flat buttons right right
00:20:32
approximately you all got an extended
00:20:35
censoring there on the column contract
00:20:38
activity on the perception and that may
00:20:41
be strange specific. And what
00:20:44
constitutes again I'm a munitions so
00:20:46
I'd like to know what is likely to miss
00:20:49
any interventions that you're using
00:20:50
because the mother in front of me
00:20:52
that's and ask me how much bacteria my
00:20:54
child has in the store from whether
00:20:56
it's more between the bacteria let's
00:20:58
let the but what about what she wants
00:21:01
to know whether or not intervention
00:21:03
works or doesn't work and you want to
00:21:05
know it as well. So this is one of
00:21:07
what's going on in amazement but not in
00:21:11
a press that in advance with scalding
00:21:14
defined according to the western
00:21:15
straight you're yeah crime for C R.s
00:21:18
we're day for more than three days a
00:21:20
week. And I was sure that mothers of
00:21:22
those sure number following a colour
00:21:24
smell a thousand feet diet and the
00:21:27
children were randomly received it to
00:21:30
randomly allocated to deceive I I still
00:21:33
like to pursue structure or placebo.
00:21:35
And what this study show that there was
00:21:37
reduction in the crime time use these
00:21:39
reductions and also on a noted increase
00:21:43
in the responders rate responders means
00:21:46
you present production trying I'm from
00:21:49
baseline and you can see the responders
00:21:51
rate was higher on day seven fourteen
00:21:53
and twenty one so the conclusion words
00:21:56
that are about to strike three can
00:21:58
improve symptoms of infant they called
00:22:00
and was also well over eighty and say
00:22:03
the American academy of your days of
00:22:06
the results of these one steady it
00:22:08
concluded there are many benefits for
00:22:10
treating in something called with
00:22:12
providers. But for their starters are
00:22:14
necessary if American academy of
00:22:17
pediatrics ace first studies are
00:22:19
necessary in our department we start to
00:22:21
work entry goes that well I don't know
00:22:25
it's but we would we would like was
00:22:28
talk to see whether or not it's it's
00:22:30
true if it's effective. So we have
00:22:33
divided we have designed the very
00:22:34
similar study to determine with
00:22:36
administration of like about two
00:22:37
structure is beneficial interested in
00:22:40
and we did but we designed to
00:22:42
randomised double blind placebo
00:22:43
controlled trial was intention that we
00:22:45
are not because it was so hard to try
00:22:47
and keep participants full term in a
00:22:50
exactly according to modify with those
00:22:52
criteria the all the way exclusively or
00:22:55
predominantly breastfed. However the
00:22:57
mothers were not ordering that account
00:22:59
somewhere free diet and the primary out
00:23:02
what treatment success and duration of
00:23:04
lying to you can see it duration of
00:23:07
intervention was twenty one days and
00:23:09
you on the slide you can see that there
00:23:11
was increased because it means like
00:23:13
that suicide intervention but also one
00:23:16
week after we finished the intervention
00:23:19
with the contrary you know number
00:23:21
eighty two three Wheelers to show there
00:23:23
is reduction in or by either the
00:23:25
buttons like the rebel in the duration
00:23:27
of crime and also in the parent or
00:23:29
section of or severe. And increased
00:23:32
family quality of life. So this word
00:23:35
result of our trial work since you're
00:23:38
you're in British medical journal paper
00:23:40
from Australia was but every so is the
00:23:44
is the first poster of this paper will
00:23:46
not fly or one hundred sixty seven in
00:23:48
France breastfed infants and formula
00:23:50
but in fan. So it's a different
00:23:52
population and again with with the
00:23:55
sprite urea for crime of fussing and
00:23:58
where again randomised recently about
00:24:00
the structure that's evil and the
00:24:03
article was the duration of one and
00:24:07
there was no significant there there
00:24:09
was no yeah sorry that was increased
00:24:11
risk of and of a good in a in a
00:24:15
increase try finding time in the prior
00:24:18
to draw but when you waited separately
00:24:22
found time and find time it was amazing
00:24:24
you to five times the crime and there
00:24:27
was no significant difference and of
00:24:29
course for those existing to understand
00:24:32
reminders difference of course there
00:24:34
are some differences in the population
00:24:36
but also if you look at the baseline
00:24:38
characteristics you see that a lot of
00:24:40
those should receive turtle on
00:24:42
inhibitors as you can see here some of
00:24:45
them receive high whatever journey from
00:24:47
your some of them receive providing
00:24:49
complaining formula. So and so and
00:24:52
there was already some kind of
00:24:53
intervention and this may explain why
00:24:56
this was not affected you get confused
00:24:59
well many of us got confused with this
00:25:01
idea and then again I ask myself and
00:25:04
then met analytical approach have and
00:25:06
this is what we have we have bizarre of
00:25:09
street under my second forty five and
00:25:11
one of those times reported that flying
00:25:13
on a straight you with twenty one and
00:25:15
if you look at the results to resolve
00:25:17
those trying as you will see that
00:25:19
they're split direction by forty
00:25:21
minutes. So a forty hour which was
00:25:25
accompanying the the energy taper off
00:25:27
the question should we be in in one
00:25:30
point at all. Well I would say I would
00:25:33
ask again should we but my answer would
00:25:36
be researchers and departments may
00:25:37
differ in their opinions demanding so
00:25:40
that's why he makes every significant
00:25:43
difference for for parents. So I think
00:25:46
that the answer is quite clear for for
00:25:48
for for this question. So inside very
00:25:50
what I like to bring to these are yes
00:25:53
is that the current standpoint is that
00:25:55
the health effects of probably all seem
00:25:57
to be strange specific and I believe
00:25:59
that form of many of the indication.
00:26:01
It's true. However this point that's
00:26:04
been shot and and some generalisations
00:26:06
email you on strange specific effect
00:26:09
and I myself perhaps it's for foreign
00:26:12
exercising control collide is for
00:26:13
prevention of antibiotic associated by
00:26:15
your diarrhoea fatigue and if it you
00:26:18
can't fight this and they showed you
00:26:20
mean you making a analysis all of them
00:26:22
are showing that probably are are
00:26:24
effective and all of that on that on
00:26:26
the left side but there are a strange
00:26:28
specific effect and perhaps it down
00:26:30
would be that the bus goes right right
00:26:32
yes and one seven nine straight a a for
00:26:35
infant I called and what works what
00:26:37
doesn't work that well there is some
00:26:39
disagreement and mainly disagreement
00:26:40
everything that they should and this
00:26:42
and you resolve it collecting more data
00:26:44
or to be replaced by more sophisticated
00:26:47
or entirely new hypothesis and many of
00:26:49
that we have heard here at this
00:26:51
symposium and finish with the final
00:26:54
format and the final comments from from
00:26:56
the discussion between one student at
00:26:58
lunchtime once it is that why should I
00:27:01
think questions of this year's exam are
00:27:03
the same as last year and I start on
00:27:05
certain true but this year or answers

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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