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And we still that's sure that got
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bacterial species major species can
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colonise kicks got and the peaks are
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very happy. And with faded nicely baby
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formula and the baby right out there.
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And they develop normally these you
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nudity and that their metabolism
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particular difficult like about a
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fickle acrobat or fickle microbe out
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sorry cool at Avalon was actually
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really more like the human Donna when
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they're eighty and we also it's
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terribly is approach local for safety
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and measures of doing the
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transplantation is just because the
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same longer after chinese new year
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holiday and recover to from I got
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infection. And become a carrier of
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opportunist episode encompasses a
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pneumonia. And so the the fickle matter
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after that becomes he still to the
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recipients of the pickets. So it this
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is all part seeing two thousand to
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seven to seven or eight into something
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not so surprisingly nicely was one of
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the first companies in the world to
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work on micro about transplantation. Um
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but today I would like to focus on
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obesity and how particulars dishes or
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group of species of got bacteria Mike
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about to maybe play a very important
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role. And I believe is all closet you
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role in the development of all BCD and
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the metabolic diseases. So I don't need
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to emphasise that all BCD has be calm a
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devastating epidemic quota white. And
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you as an to china the same. And in
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many parts of the world. And like and
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in and these CT has that it was serious
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epidemic of for diabetes. So now we
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have more than ten percent off a
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eighteen year old at adults diabetic.
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So that's on the on the the million
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diabetic patients in china. And we have
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fifty percent fifty point one percent
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this the same age group eighteen years
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oh there for a diabetic. So into also
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you have more than six hundred a
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million chinese either already diabetic
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or a heading to there. So of course we
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need in your paradigm shift such as
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taking into cats make about into the
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picture. When we are trying to
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understand why so many people become
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diabetic in such a short period of time
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because in already eighties nineteen
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eighties the is it is for the IBT is
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less than half percent no it's more
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than eleven percent and so we need to
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look into the solution is in the got
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because in very early days one a
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hundred years ago professor meeting you
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cough already proposal that's a toxic
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produced by got a make about time maybe
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behind accelerated AG and ageing
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related diseases and the chinese
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medical doctors also believe that
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fickle toxicity plays a very important
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role in the development of human
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diseases. Well the first paper which
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discovered the important role of got an
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acrobat you would BCD and the related
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amount everybody these this this was
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from Jeff about this group and by
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Frederick as the for saucer. And they
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they found that the whole gotten like
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about how works as that has something
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in some sense. So if you do not if jump
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realise is essentially do not developed
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a or BCD even given the type that'd I'd
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but why you're transplants got my
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grandpa back to them free mice they
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start to accumulate more fat
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particularly if the owner is all these
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and the also found that you could the
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metabolism jeans such as if they have
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which was actually regulated by that
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make about and and then another group
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and the light of research found that
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LPSOLPS and O clock sing that one very
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con then got it hedging produced by
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gram negative up to personal things. Uh
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actually can get into the bloodstream
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and the hyphen back to feeding of mice
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and at a low level but constant a low
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level to induce a little gritty
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inflammation and which is to use the
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resistors and then repeat the
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metabolism disruption and so this is
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actually the first two microbial
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product which was shown implies can be
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responsible or can be a capable of
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inducing all these ET and the related
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amount anybody could do charter reaches
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a by way of yeah information. And the
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professor got this group was also the
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very first group proposed to a
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structure or pattern of got to micro
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about how a associated trees all BCT
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impose nice and if you miss since then
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there are so many reports showing
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various structural patterns a socially
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based all BCT or some other chronic
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diseases whatever the question remains
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is data because of the chance of micro
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about the host become obvious well it's
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because of the obesity. And the the
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host has a different gotta microbe
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about chicken think that was the for
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what comes first and as that is unlike
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probably L ecologist and we'll discuss
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micro about as an ecological model. And
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we have being yeah no I'll trying to
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answer this question from an ecological
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perspective. So that in this
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perspective article published last
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year. And I try to summarise all the
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available evidence as and the showing
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that it's you know within the framework
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of conference call selects as just a a
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product discussed by max. We have a I
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think a very strong evidence to show
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closer to original of gotta micro about
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and particularly some create a key
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players in the development of obesity.
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However it's very difficult to do
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experimentally demonstrated causality.
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And no matter how difficult we need to
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follow the logic all the conceptual
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framework of called multiple select on
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the model and eight times we needed to
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identify all the species in the got
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which I either positively or negatively
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associated with the disease or programs
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on that and programs of the movies. And
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then we need to isolate representing
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cheapest strings of the associated
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bacteria. And they're trying to
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reproduce the phenotype all part of the
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phenotype you an experiment to system.
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And we cannot doesn't stop there we
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need to establish an articulate able
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quotation from the princess of a
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particular related to species to the
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development of the disease and point.
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And only then we can be confident that
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the role of gotten like about a a
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particular species group of speeches of
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got smoker about year would be CT is
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actually a closet. And we need to to do
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microbe and why associations study by
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either cross sectional design or wanted
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to you know design or international
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studies. I like I a longitudinal
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studies or into a small studies because
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you can collect of samples people doing
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after a particular intervention which
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can change and microbe out and also see
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associate chance of philosophy don't
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types. And we started design you can
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for a to find quality association is
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this a small sample size relatively
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speaking and so about what kind of
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individually you can use if you look at
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the mutation no it we don't logical
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data you would realise that the racket
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development of I'll be seen know by in
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china in the past or twenty or thirty
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years was strongly associated with
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dramatically increased anything take of
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any more fat and the proteins but you
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create of planting nutrients. And if
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you look at the time the traditional
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madison. And they believe that the data
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is the foundation for house but which
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is acquired after purse. And they also
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the TG from this particular doctor one
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more than was fifteen hundred years ago
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said that's you select passages all
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time nutrition getting your lower got
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not anyone your change. So if we if
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anything of plant nutrition a
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carbohydrate and fat don't chemicals
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and as a of any new teasing of proteins
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and Fats you you would you agree with
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him. And so if you look at the tiny
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traditional died. It's very in all
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kinds of whole brings on process
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sensible ways and the in about hygiene
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motivators vocal carbohydrates. And
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also it's very each enquiry various but
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active Fido chemicals. And the time the
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doctors believe that upbeat are are
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okay to make vegetables can quench the
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flyer whizzing about it. So and also if
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you look at the bible you was also
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talks that you should each you'll need
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to be speeded purpose and so we first
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we look at total chemicals from to this
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attend the minister whether that can
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modulate condiment robot what do
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something to the first the first
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chemical was called about three it was
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actually discovered a from chinese are
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that has been used by traditional
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doctor for treating diarrhoea for more
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than two thousand years. And only a
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single compound the chemically
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synthesised ajar odious age are also
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many just for barrier control
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flavouring two thousand the for
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attorneys the group father that it can
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actually reuse cholesterol level in the
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plastic. And the professor upon you in
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our Reading hospital also so this
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clinical trials that it's candy to
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diabetes by lowering of fasting blood
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glucose and anyone say and the
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mechanism is actually very difficult is
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a controversial issue because the dry
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way gave their high concentration in in
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vitro cell culture you see changes of
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the G expression involved in repeat and
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the locals from your statistics.
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However you need micrograms can you
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revenge of concentration which is very
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high. But that's not actually has a
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very low probability but overall those
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thing. It's only the the button a
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concentration of the drug can each an
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anagram Camille after you take out one
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gram today. And so that that that got
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like about a probably should be the the
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stock market. And we need to find the
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time to base colour red for eighteen
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weeks. So that become all be and
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insulin resistant and then we gave a
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blubbering together with hyphenated
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eyed everyday. And they didn't develop
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obesity and insulin resistance. And you
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gave a barber into conventional normal
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twelve that the rest and they did for
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the reviews rate of for the read use
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their body weight. So basically well we
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can prevent hyphenated I'd induced a or
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BCD and the use of the resistance if
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you look at the customer care about
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chances overlord changes and group. And
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this is the normal twelve address
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during the eighty makes shaved into
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this position. So this is the eighteen
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trajectory. And then there were a a one
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is on the haven't I've used a will be
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right. And they moved to here in the
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state here. And the green ones other
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bumper entrance hyphenated binding and
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the people typically similar to the
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normal twelve better at but condom
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about how why change dramatically to
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this position and then come down well
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the blue was either normal what their
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their ass to get that together with the
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boa ring it no longer move out it moved
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so that's position and then come back.
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And by using statistics we were able to
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identify two hundred sixty eight a
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species level to use which you are a
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hundred seventy five reusable directly.
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And indirectly through enriched by
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bring treatment. And so those we moved
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by only be used by bring judgement
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medium obtuse has obvious. And you
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would expect to be used only probably
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songwriter binding protein WK in that
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what happens and also inflammation
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didn't go off. And button vibrated
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that's just kill everybody. It's
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actually upfront note I'm about colon
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blondie are well known. So too fancy as
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the producers and you also ceased like
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what is the giving the increase of such
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events tacit consent easy enough
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recommended in the cut you in the in
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the got content. And if you use two
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hundred sixty eight beaches. And
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marbles all pretty how will be how
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insulin resistant and and even the
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military each and that was and you can
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be very successful enough. So this was
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published. And then working with
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professors only prolonging a on a
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traditional chinese hospital we need a
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clinical study on the above formula.
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It's called the beauty and how it on
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the floor well or discontinue barber.
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And so through clinical practise
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proposal to on that this dick option
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originally for diarrhoea control was
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very very good treatments for he's the
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type two diabetes patients. So we all
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organise popularity it could place well
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controlled randomised this clinical
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trial try to see if place boatload
00:15:09
those media those on high those
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treatments would the do anything so
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that we're not going to the to the
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these days and also to got to mark
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about. So it's the end of the hallway
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treatment use the those data dependent
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recovery of off of the reducing of
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fasting think a lot of locals level and
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anyone see and anticipated those the
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group you see we thinking again the
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recovery but we can still function. And
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interestingly if you look into the
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gotten weaker about at the or and and
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of the a study using those dependence
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sixty well got weaker about are away
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from the baseline. And if you wanna
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tear the time course changes because
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say that's the high dosage group. She's
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kindergarten bigger about at least
00:16:01
position a week after and then least
00:16:04
they hear things then and the the kind
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the close to continued to recover from
00:16:09
the sentence and again also form on a
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four thousand The species level to use
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we identify I don't want to stand and
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promoted by this week boxes and the
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nineteen ninety two by the the cost.
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And then we for the record eighty eight
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was the level and fasting blood glucose
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level with each show the species which
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are responding to that because so into
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implement and we found a few either
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productivity associated with the easy
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thing back all nicotine customs a two
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and a lot surprisingly no one is pose
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interesting series that would be the
00:16:47
decks they are up or something like
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that area and there was negative but
00:16:51
also stated that we found free candy
00:16:54
bacterium trolls nice maybe people in
00:16:57
this audience with the no this is a
00:16:59
first really reporting the buy in heart
00:17:02
and other carnivorous is and haven
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imagery. And also reported to buy
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propensity once a group that it was
00:17:11
depleted in type type two diabetes
00:17:13
patients got and we found the a by
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confronting these real time to look at
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PCR we follow those dependent
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enrichment of these particular group
00:17:24
species of bacteria in this by the
00:17:28
options. And so these papers probably
00:17:30
is just a few weeks ago. And so these
00:17:33
are the examples of using a chinese cap
00:17:38
Fido chemicals from chinese Madison to
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modulate got Mike about and see if
00:17:45
there's any specific species of
00:17:47
bacteria either positively or
00:17:49
negatively associated with the disease.
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Uh and then we also exonerated I based
00:17:57
on the principle that we should use the
00:17:59
tight to satisfy the nutritional needs
00:18:01
of the host but at the same time we
00:18:04
also need to include the component of
00:18:06
the tide examines teeny then is going
00:18:08
to make about particularly we progress
00:18:12
on promoting musically chakotay city
00:18:15
protecting and leave them military and
00:18:18
also we do see those which chop as
00:18:20
Jenny and the talks in produce. And so
00:18:24
the this is the yeah died based on
00:18:28
hopefully this summer beach or chinese
00:18:31
vegetables and a lot of pragmatics. And
00:18:35
so we first organise a clinical trial
00:18:38
with a hundred twenty three beyond my
00:18:40
over thirty one and here's we have a
00:18:43
big advisory intervention for nine
00:18:45
weeks and no also for for that about
00:18:48
fourteen weeks maintenance. And we see
00:18:53
the race of the families of
00:18:55
intellectual say and these other
00:18:57
remotes yeah and which are known for
00:18:59
containing a remedy to soup or
00:19:02
something and with the increase of the
00:19:04
video between the bacteria on C and
00:19:07
into looking stick street added one
00:19:09
acting you crazy people what is that
00:19:11
providing protein you right. So this is
00:19:14
the education that association with
00:19:16
that I content of the gotta micro about
00:19:18
time you see all reviews in the talking
00:19:20
loading the host a stream and you see
00:19:23
also animation information. And the
00:19:26
host got very function improve and then
00:19:31
insulin sensitivity in fruit you could
00:19:33
the approach. improve your profile to
00:19:35
improve. And blood pressure reviews and
00:19:39
they reduce the city living amount of
00:19:42
by the way And interestingly if you
00:19:45
take the call also from this our courts
00:19:47
before and after you see dramatic
00:19:50
increase of fickle focus. CD took
00:19:52
Mccorkle to sell us afternoon And also
00:19:56
you see what's again anyway use the
00:19:57
casino G activities after intervention.
00:20:01
So basically the a piece about take a
00:20:03
got a Mike about will these people's
00:20:06
got notes does to produce in probably
00:20:08
higher amounts of any findings which
00:20:10
can use inflammation if we get to use a
00:20:12
last name we also produce various other
00:20:15
talk sings like a set of talks things
00:20:17
and that you know boxes. And this is a
00:20:21
particular cases that it it was a
00:20:23
twenty six year old young man. He was a
00:20:28
hundred and seventy five kilograms at
00:20:31
the beginning and so he stayed at home
00:20:35
without doing any extra exercise and
00:20:38
for about a twenty three weeks and he
00:20:41
lost more than fifty kilograms. And
00:20:44
maybe convert a Christmas tree covered
00:20:47
a from diabetes hypertension have
00:20:49
anybody you know after losing a
00:20:52
circular grams in the first nine weeks.
00:20:55
And if you look into the gotten about
00:20:57
utterances by just using EDD
00:21:00
fingerprinting you "'cause" these three
00:21:02
treaty predominately population is I
00:21:04
was reduced to no detectable after four
00:21:07
weeks on that and that is secretly from
00:21:10
these three events so each was mainly
00:21:13
and throwback to Janus intro back to a
00:21:15
well known optics pass something
00:21:17
concerning janus. And we also need an
00:21:20
economic stake using of the base line
00:21:22
nine weeks and a twenty three weeks or
00:21:24
so oh and do we identified about just
00:21:27
are changing involve the LPSS existence
00:21:30
and many of these reviews their
00:21:33
abundance after the intervention. And
00:21:35
then we we isolated a single colonies
00:21:39
from median we can go into a back to
00:21:44
and the by call migrating each single
00:21:47
colony to the a sliding a finger
00:21:50
printing we selected those which are
00:21:52
identically migrated into this three
00:21:55
band and we identified in down there
00:21:58
and then the intro backtrack looking.
00:22:00
And then we selected away screen and
00:22:02
put it down into a germ free mice
00:22:04
either on or module died on finds out
00:22:07
of that and a normal to died waste all
00:22:10
be allowed to this particular bacteria
00:22:12
colonising the guards you didn't see
00:22:15
any symptoms choir or if it's jump real
00:22:18
high finance you see some accumulation
00:22:21
of racial fact but not there
00:22:23
significant. But when you have a out
00:22:25
about class this particular person
00:22:27
something UCO four forty developed a or
00:22:30
BCTV so fat and also you some
00:22:33
resistance. And also actually labour
00:22:36
and the local inflammation in the
00:22:38
labour and enough that that systemic
00:22:41
inflammation and adapting resistors and
00:22:44
interestingly definitely which was
00:22:48
reported by provides a this group can
00:22:51
be inhibited by the whole customer
00:22:53
about car and it can be significantly
00:22:56
you hated by this particular pass
00:22:58
something. And the project a
00:23:01
colonisation of this one single
00:23:03
presently can promote of this last
00:23:07
injuries in the litter welfare T
00:23:09
express it was required to for such as
00:23:12
intoxication and also you he vision of
00:23:14
energy the TP the storage and only in
00:23:19
combination of a high fat diets class
00:23:22
this past Saturday as I said you see
00:23:24
automatically crazy of a liberal
00:23:27
qualify quite a binding protein in the
00:23:29
bloodstream. And if you want also
00:23:32
associate the john frame I don't hybrid
00:23:35
device is if if the bacteria a you face
00:23:39
a bacterial species you see for the
00:23:41
reduction of the body weight instead of
00:23:44
increasing one it's mono associated is
00:23:46
up or something. So some specific
00:23:48
species may promote a publicity some
00:23:51
maybe use body weight K so this was
00:23:55
reportedly. and of two thousand to tell
00:23:58
well basically from a this is as good
00:24:01
days and of those also provides a as a
00:24:04
group and that is gross animated And it
00:24:08
seems that some particular resisting
00:24:10
the dot we work as a team player or
00:24:13
team players in the development of all
00:24:15
BCD and the diabetes. And if you okay
00:24:20
so that's the key players has a call so
00:24:23
function and then they can be used as a
00:24:25
contract for the disease prevention and
00:24:28
treatment. But how can we identify more
00:24:31
such a species you know without any
00:24:35
prior knowledge no we identified to be
00:24:38
thirty nine because of the prior
00:24:40
knowledge of LPS injection can use all
00:24:43
BCT and also many other reports but if
00:24:47
we don't have any prior knowledge can
00:24:49
we still do developed a methodology to
00:24:53
identify us species which contributing
00:24:57
or to a particular these days and we
00:25:02
used to have this this the methodology
00:25:04
together with professor German you
00:25:06
"'cause" it and the three other groups
00:25:07
in china in two thousand a seven and it
00:25:11
was published in the PS in two thousand
00:25:13
eight this is a methodology which can
00:25:16
allow you to find out who does what in
00:25:19
the micro about and so this is not
00:25:22
proof of principle study we collected a
00:25:24
fake one to your examples from our
00:25:26
stand on number for generation chinese
00:25:28
effeminate. And we were able to so that
00:25:32
if you analyse the species level
00:25:34
chances of gotten like about our entire
00:25:36
personally or indoor person that you
00:25:39
can correlate the variations of your
00:25:42
remote alliance and eventually you we
00:25:46
identified different species each one
00:25:50
has at least associate be also stating
00:25:53
these at least while you're in to have
00:25:55
a lot mostly positively associated some
00:25:58
a negative no so shaded. And again
00:26:02
think cut it back here across new chair
00:26:04
show association is at least eight your
00:26:07
remote metabolites. And indicating that
00:26:11
this particular species may be very
00:26:13
important somehow affecting human close
00:26:17
to metabolism. So you this this this
00:26:20
methodology it can allow you to find
00:26:22
out who does what based how the chances
00:26:26
of a particular species will show
00:26:29
association exchanges of some
00:26:31
particular your remote have relaxed.
00:26:33
And so we decided to apply this
00:26:36
methodology to a clinical a problem. So
00:26:40
this is a genetic will be basically
00:26:42
call kind of really single and the
00:26:46
emerging who are afflicted by this
00:26:49
particular problem at a very low muscle
00:26:51
tone. So they couldn't do much
00:26:54
exercise. And also they have a very low
00:26:56
metabolic rate one resting. So they
00:26:59
didn't improve much calorie but they
00:27:01
have any all controllable continuous
00:27:04
hunt the feeling. They are hungry all
00:27:06
the time. You can never satisfy down
00:27:09
with fruit. So they become will be that
00:27:12
it'll be right after we need. And if
00:27:15
you didn't control body weight really
00:27:18
died before the most energy from but
00:27:21
metabolic or complications. And there's
00:27:25
also not not very effective matters for
00:27:29
managing their body weight. And so
00:27:33
you're a one oh our clinical trials
00:27:35
this this a customer care about how
00:27:37
targeted dietary Ascii we found out
00:27:41
that one of the best responders was
00:27:44
actually after of less patient. And he
00:27:47
was the forty years so hundred of forty
00:27:49
kilograms heavy and after we put him in
00:27:53
a hospital. So he was hospitalised for
00:27:56
two hundred eighty five days and we
00:27:59
used to eighty three point six
00:28:01
kilograms. And they continue to this
00:28:04
off to go back home after fonder thirty
00:28:06
Dave was about seventy two kilograms.
00:28:09
So now he maintained anyways body
00:28:11
weight around the seventy kilograms
00:28:14
with two or three programs of
00:28:15
punctuation. And it's already two years
00:28:18
after the the the intervention. So he
00:28:21
was you is do stable and he's put a
00:28:24
behaviour is motivated to control them
00:28:26
before. So the hunger fee was not that
00:28:30
serious not and so we we could you know
00:28:33
fourteen seventeen Q stations and a
00:28:36
twenty one simple obesity children for
00:28:39
the L less we we three Miles
00:28:43
hospitalised try to interest yeah so we
00:28:46
collected than your regular graphical
00:28:48
samples base line one month to month
00:28:51
three months after the intervention.
00:28:53
And but for sports simple B student
00:28:57
week we it's one of the to and we
00:28:59
collected or so oh probably smart and
00:29:02
one ones. And we all there are elements
00:29:05
clinical metadata yeah and we use a a
00:29:08
stuffy corridor metabolite profiling
00:29:11
and also your remote have a like
00:29:13
profiling we has the fickle what
00:29:15
happens is it we analyse got my about a
00:29:18
competition by and a function by using
00:29:22
for for Paris equity and also might on
00:29:24
the mixed equity and we didn't gotten
00:29:26
Mike about transplantation from the
00:29:29
before and after Michael about how from
00:29:31
the same patient. And so basically baby
00:29:37
use their weight no two cohorts most
00:29:40
reviewers there wait during that
00:29:42
interested. And also improve their
00:29:46
insulin sensitivity. And loopy the
00:29:49
profile. And also liver function. And
00:29:54
inflammation limitations again
00:29:56
introduced by you know you merriment of
00:29:59
a quite a few inflammatory several
00:30:01
times. And really probably thought
00:30:03
quite a binding protein. That's targets
00:30:06
marker for you Katie the they don't
00:30:09
talk sing level in the screen one
00:30:11
significantly reduced after that
00:30:13
current events. So you indicated in
00:30:15
that sense how the thoughts now
00:30:19
delivering less and the parts to the
00:30:22
host of in two minutes. And then we
00:30:24
trends where transplants customer.
00:30:26
about how from the same individual
00:30:30
recover and monster more than twenty
00:30:32
percent over his body weight and also
00:30:34
we covered his insulin sensitivity and
00:30:36
and there are many other metabolic
00:30:38
parameters before and after to the germ
00:30:43
free mine And interestingly. But if for
00:30:47
my car about a you'd use the but we
00:30:49
lost in the first weeks and then it
00:30:52
came back yeah okay so that however in
00:30:58
the first two weeks you'll see the
00:30:59
nation associated with this
00:31:01
transplantation of the people Michael
00:31:04
about in their in our labour and and
00:31:09
got but after the two for two weeks
00:31:13
they start talking back their body
00:31:15
weight by primarily synthesising more
00:31:18
fact so eventually they have much
00:31:20
higher up that have pets mess
00:31:23
communities not after intermission
00:31:25
microbe out of control. And this is the
00:31:28
ad oppose the it's just it's
00:31:30
particularly the increase of the size
00:31:33
of a teapot side in the before Michael
00:31:36
about I want to do mars. And so somehow
00:31:42
or other before micro about a induce
00:31:46
them at about a good it's harder this
00:31:48
is an information and off that
00:31:50
documentation then after intuition
00:31:53
Michael about and we also yeah yeah
00:31:57
that whole talk got bacterial Mall it
00:31:59
was the second radios particularly in
00:32:02
PWS patients got and we also measure
00:32:07
the fickle toxicity took a control
00:32:09
cells and it was the giving introduced
00:32:12
after maintenance. And so that we it
00:32:15
will be cool we need if we could
00:32:17
microbe outfit cool water but have what
00:32:19
hello analysis. And not based you can
00:32:23
say that there is a significant shift
00:32:26
after the intervention the profiles of
00:32:29
must have a nice enough records
00:32:31
instinctively chance after intervention
00:32:34
and then we identified those reached in
00:32:36
a really big metabolites which asks us
00:32:39
to give you chance of the buy them by
00:32:41
the information. And it's actually
00:32:46
automatically increase of carbohydrates
00:32:48
in fickle what this is from the time
00:32:50
and also reduction of almost all the
00:32:53
backchannel metabolites including TME
00:32:56
and you you say are actually increase
00:33:00
of acetate. And also gradually decrease
00:33:03
of I thought be was great and I saw
00:33:05
that right. So this is indication that
00:33:07
they got a micro about about sixteen
00:33:10
from implementing protein in understand
00:33:12
to fermenting carbohydrates. And then
00:33:14
we need a your multiple lines of
00:33:16
profiling it's also so you have to give
00:33:19
in the chance after the into my and we
00:33:22
we were able to identify thirteen
00:33:24
metabolites I don't know us if you
00:33:27
divide it intervention interestingly
00:33:30
can handle was deals. So this was a
00:33:33
quantitative from calling the dietary
00:33:36
fat derive the call and by bacteria.
00:33:39
And we also see me actually off fucking
00:33:42
dog so softly. P and he curate and all
00:33:46
these actually products from picture
00:33:51
fermentation of aromatic amino acids.
00:33:54
And they all used in your and so we
00:33:58
need an economic because the closing of
00:34:00
a hundred ten samples and with a normal
00:34:04
than about told me jeans and sex so
00:34:07
there cannot be based our results from
00:34:10
that I hate we correctly identified
00:34:14
about just really want the the about
00:34:15
four hundred this that you know because
00:34:17
species and we also get a high quality
00:34:20
assembly of most of them. And a hundred
00:34:23
and sixty one was prevalent in more
00:34:26
than twenty percent of the samples. And
00:34:28
then we need a colour is has to be
00:34:31
she's network analysis here I can say
00:34:34
that all the Hunter things was species
00:34:36
can be E considered into eighteen
00:34:39
different functional groups. and this
00:34:43
particular group So I'm not active
00:34:46
occur correlation with quite a few
00:34:48
other groups concerning optics the
00:34:50
passengers and we also so that if you
00:34:56
if you have a cold wonders group you
00:34:58
can actually editing abundance
00:35:00
individual to be you know see colour as
00:35:02
a group together. So you'll get a
00:35:05
terrible about this of these guys and
00:35:08
all the eighteen curses together so you
00:35:12
very strong correlation with the
00:35:15
improvement of metabolic of enough
00:35:18
times. And I'll tell for the kills more
00:35:22
than five thousand the kills
00:35:24
identifying. And we were sixteen after
00:35:27
the intervention. And you know thousand
00:35:30
that can be mapped. So this metabolic a
00:35:33
map. And the the the blue wires the the
00:35:37
glow as a from oh to by the time to
00:35:39
treatment and the yellow ones are
00:35:41
produced. And particularly after the
00:35:44
costly level and we all the bacteria.
00:35:47
And that we use the they're nomadic
00:35:49
about accreditation aromatic yeah I
00:35:51
mean as the most metabolism and the
00:35:53
picture and that the mouse is essays
00:35:56
and also the repair really to pass
00:35:59
rate. So all the recaps of all the
00:36:01
possible is is any indication that they
00:36:04
they are really in know a marks and
00:36:07
then Australia merriment after the
00:36:09
intermission. And we also yeah the
00:36:12
comparison between eighteen cost is and
00:36:15
the host stomach bodyguard phenotype
00:36:17
for recovery there is a significant
00:36:20
association between these two so it's
00:36:23
so that's you can group hundred of
00:36:27
difference she's into functional groups
00:36:30
and the or so correlation with the
00:36:32
recovery of the whole summer time that
00:36:34
you can also correlated outcast groups
00:36:37
with their your remote have attacked.
00:36:39
And groups and actively correlated. and
00:36:44
the others are positively correlated of
00:36:46
a like to end it all volume dogs or
00:36:48
something. And this so no toxic and the
00:36:52
plane or all you metabolic rate it all
00:36:54
races. And we were able to identify but
00:36:57
you can as She's in each cast which I
00:37:00
actually encoding and times required a
00:37:03
for a producing can say from calling.
00:37:07
So this saw the species in this group
00:37:09
is to be this this groups that they
00:37:11
carry beastly. So they probably can do
00:37:14
the job. And for a doctor sulfate it's
00:37:18
this individual species in this two
00:37:20
cats groups they are carrying encoding
00:37:23
imaging for transforming chopped off
00:37:25
and from a window into you know and
00:37:29
also as a acrobat ecologist the
00:37:32
fundamental question is we would like
00:37:34
to address is actually what other
00:37:37
functional groups of the got to make
00:37:39
about we know that many basic function
00:37:42
is unnecessary for maintaining close
00:37:45
house not included in all do you know
00:37:48
but source to the gods micro about so
00:37:51
we need to find out which species
00:37:54
always screw subspecies actually forty
00:37:57
which particular function which is
00:37:59
necessary for maintaining also helps
00:38:02
and yeah "'cause" colour on this
00:38:05
suspicions group is one way to look at
00:38:08
this relationship and identify the
00:38:11
potentially important functional
00:38:12
groups. And I'm not a very important
00:38:15
question would be what other
00:38:17
foundations species of the got
00:38:19
inconsistent. And away you know in the
00:38:22
in the forest for example the most
00:38:24
important this species for the whole
00:38:26
because he's in is actually just a
00:38:28
little too portray species well a girl
00:38:31
to estimate intensity to cover
00:38:33
everything and they create a unique
00:38:36
environments for everybody else to D
00:38:38
and to prosper so we remove these
00:38:41
qualities the whole for is the start to
00:38:44
decline. And we believe that in that
00:38:47
article sixteen you can also identify
00:38:49
such a foundation species and we we
00:38:53
hypothesise that is but in global group
00:38:55
of species are probably the foundation
00:38:58
species at least for the people we we
00:39:00
have studied because they increase of
00:39:03
them actually correlated is the
00:39:06
redirection of many several cost groups
00:39:09
continue to supply some things. And so
00:39:12
that the the the incomplete open it
00:39:14
after the intervention so basically no
00:39:18
matter you hear about these postings
00:39:22
logon to make about a problem bad abide
00:39:24
activities imitation or not and then
00:39:28
that this but I think that the micro
00:39:29
about Tommy start to produce sparks
00:39:30
things. we check and damage a house.
00:39:33
But by you see to use it And robotics
00:39:36
very about is all kind of things we can
00:39:38
use we may chances that got make about
00:39:41
and the back to our shows rosier
00:39:44
structure and a function in so we can
00:39:46
still get helps and we got the lose all
00:39:49
of the primary drive or is it genetic
00:39:51
or environmental and so I would like to
00:39:54
stop here and I think in some cases.

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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