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And we still that's sure that got
bacterial species major species can
colonise kicks got and the peaks are
very happy. And with faded nicely baby
formula and the baby right out there.
And they develop normally these you
nudity and that their metabolism
particular difficult like about a
fickle acrobat or fickle microbe out
sorry cool at Avalon was actually
really more like the human Donna when
they're eighty and we also it's
terribly is approach local for safety
and measures of doing the
transplantation is just because the
same longer after chinese new year
holiday and recover to from I got
infection. And become a carrier of
opportunist episode encompasses a
pneumonia. And so the the fickle matter
after that becomes he still to the
recipients of the pickets. So it this
is all part seeing two thousand to
seven to seven or eight into something
not so surprisingly nicely was one of
the first companies in the world to
work on micro about transplantation. Um
but today I would like to focus on
obesity and how particulars dishes or
group of species of got bacteria Mike
about to maybe play a very important
role. And I believe is all closet you
role in the development of all BCD and
the metabolic diseases. So I don't need
to emphasise that all BCD has be calm a
devastating epidemic quota white. And
you as an to china the same. And in
many parts of the world. And like and
in and these CT has that it was serious
epidemic of for diabetes. So now we
have more than ten percent off a
eighteen year old at adults diabetic.
So that's on the on the the million
diabetic patients in china. And we have
fifty percent fifty point one percent
this the same age group eighteen years
oh there for a diabetic. So into also
you have more than six hundred a
million chinese either already diabetic
or a heading to there. So of course we
need in your paradigm shift such as
taking into cats make about into the
picture. When we are trying to
understand why so many people become
diabetic in such a short period of time
because in already eighties nineteen
eighties the is it is for the IBT is
less than half percent no it's more
than eleven percent and so we need to
look into the solution is in the got
because in very early days one a
hundred years ago professor meeting you
cough already proposal that's a toxic
produced by got a make about time maybe
behind accelerated AG and ageing
related diseases and the chinese
medical doctors also believe that
fickle toxicity plays a very important
role in the development of human
diseases. Well the first paper which
discovered the important role of got an
acrobat you would BCD and the related
amount everybody these this this was
from Jeff about this group and by
Frederick as the for saucer. And they
they found that the whole gotten like
about how works as that has something
in some sense. So if you do not if jump
realise is essentially do not developed
a or BCD even given the type that'd I'd
but why you're transplants got my
grandpa back to them free mice they
start to accumulate more fat
particularly if the owner is all these
and the also found that you could the
metabolism jeans such as if they have
which was actually regulated by that
make about and and then another group
and the light of research found that
LPSOLPS and O clock sing that one very
con then got it hedging produced by
gram negative up to personal things. Uh
actually can get into the bloodstream
and the hyphen back to feeding of mice
and at a low level but constant a low
level to induce a little gritty
inflammation and which is to use the
resistors and then repeat the
metabolism disruption and so this is
actually the first two microbial
product which was shown implies can be
responsible or can be a capable of
inducing all these ET and the related
amount anybody could do charter reaches
a by way of yeah information. And the
professor got this group was also the
very first group proposed to a
structure or pattern of got to micro
about how a associated trees all BCT
impose nice and if you miss since then
there are so many reports showing
various structural patterns a socially
based all BCT or some other chronic
diseases whatever the question remains
is data because of the chance of micro
about the host become obvious well it's
because of the obesity. And the the
host has a different gotta microbe
about chicken think that was the for
what comes first and as that is unlike
probably L ecologist and we'll discuss
micro about as an ecological model. And
we have being yeah no I'll trying to
answer this question from an ecological
perspective. So that in this
perspective article published last
year. And I try to summarise all the
available evidence as and the showing
that it's you know within the framework
of conference call selects as just a a
product discussed by max. We have a I
think a very strong evidence to show
closer to original of gotta micro about
and particularly some create a key
players in the development of obesity.
However it's very difficult to do
experimentally demonstrated causality.
And no matter how difficult we need to
follow the logic all the conceptual
framework of called multiple select on
the model and eight times we needed to
identify all the species in the got
which I either positively or negatively
associated with the disease or programs
on that and programs of the movies. And
then we need to isolate representing
cheapest strings of the associated
bacteria. And they're trying to
reproduce the phenotype all part of the
phenotype you an experiment to system.
And we cannot doesn't stop there we
need to establish an articulate able
quotation from the princess of a
particular related to species to the
development of the disease and point.
And only then we can be confident that
the role of gotten like about a a
particular species group of speeches of
got smoker about year would be CT is
actually a closet. And we need to to do
microbe and why associations study by
either cross sectional design or wanted
to you know design or international
studies. I like I a longitudinal
studies or into a small studies because
you can collect of samples people doing
after a particular intervention which
can change and microbe out and also see
associate chance of philosophy don't
types. And we started design you can
for a to find quality association is
this a small sample size relatively
speaking and so about what kind of
individually you can use if you look at
the mutation no it we don't logical
data you would realise that the racket
development of I'll be seen know by in
china in the past or twenty or thirty
years was strongly associated with
dramatically increased anything take of
any more fat and the proteins but you
create of planting nutrients. And if
you look at the time the traditional
madison. And they believe that the data
is the foundation for house but which
is acquired after purse. And they also
the TG from this particular doctor one
more than was fifteen hundred years ago
said that's you select passages all
time nutrition getting your lower got
not anyone your change. So if we if
anything of plant nutrition a
carbohydrate and fat don't chemicals
and as a of any new teasing of proteins
and Fats you you would you agree with
him. And so if you look at the tiny
traditional died. It's very in all
kinds of whole brings on process
sensible ways and the in about hygiene
motivators vocal carbohydrates. And
also it's very each enquiry various but
active Fido chemicals. And the time the
doctors believe that upbeat are are
okay to make vegetables can quench the
flyer whizzing about it. So and also if
you look at the bible you was also
talks that you should each you'll need
to be speeded purpose and so we first
we look at total chemicals from to this
attend the minister whether that can
modulate condiment robot what do
something to the first the first
chemical was called about three it was
actually discovered a from chinese are
that has been used by traditional
doctor for treating diarrhoea for more
than two thousand years. And only a
single compound the chemically
synthesised ajar odious age are also
many just for barrier control
flavouring two thousand the for
attorneys the group father that it can
actually reuse cholesterol level in the
plastic. And the professor upon you in
our Reading hospital also so this
clinical trials that it's candy to
diabetes by lowering of fasting blood
glucose and anyone say and the
mechanism is actually very difficult is
a controversial issue because the dry
way gave their high concentration in in
vitro cell culture you see changes of
the G expression involved in repeat and
the locals from your statistics.
However you need micrograms can you
revenge of concentration which is very
high. But that's not actually has a
very low probability but overall those
thing. It's only the the button a
concentration of the drug can each an
anagram Camille after you take out one
gram today. And so that that that got
like about a probably should be the the
stock market. And we need to find the
time to base colour red for eighteen
weeks. So that become all be and
insulin resistant and then we gave a
blubbering together with hyphenated
eyed everyday. And they didn't develop
obesity and insulin resistance. And you
gave a barber into conventional normal
twelve that the rest and they did for
the reviews rate of for the read use
their body weight. So basically well we
can prevent hyphenated I'd induced a or
BCD and the use of the resistance if
you look at the customer care about
chances overlord changes and group. And
this is the normal twelve address
during the eighty makes shaved into
this position. So this is the eighteen
trajectory. And then there were a a one
is on the haven't I've used a will be
right. And they moved to here in the
state here. And the green ones other
bumper entrance hyphenated binding and
the people typically similar to the
normal twelve better at but condom
about how why change dramatically to
this position and then come down well
the blue was either normal what their
their ass to get that together with the
boa ring it no longer move out it moved
so that's position and then come back.
And by using statistics we were able to
identify two hundred sixty eight a
species level to use which you are a
hundred seventy five reusable directly.
And indirectly through enriched by
bring treatment. And so those we moved
by only be used by bring judgement
medium obtuse has obvious. And you
would expect to be used only probably
songwriter binding protein WK in that
what happens and also inflammation
didn't go off. And button vibrated
that's just kill everybody. It's
actually upfront note I'm about colon
blondie are well known. So too fancy as
the producers and you also ceased like
what is the giving the increase of such
events tacit consent easy enough
recommended in the cut you in the in
the got content. And if you use two
hundred sixty eight beaches. And
marbles all pretty how will be how
insulin resistant and and even the
military each and that was and you can
be very successful enough. So this was
published. And then working with
professors only prolonging a on a
traditional chinese hospital we need a
clinical study on the above formula.
It's called the beauty and how it on
the floor well or discontinue barber.
And so through clinical practise
proposal to on that this dick option
originally for diarrhoea control was
very very good treatments for he's the
type two diabetes patients. So we all
organise popularity it could place well
controlled randomised this clinical
trial try to see if place boatload
those media those on high those
treatments would the do anything so
that we're not going to the to the
these days and also to got to mark
about. So it's the end of the hallway
treatment use the those data dependent
recovery of off of the reducing of
fasting think a lot of locals level and
anyone see and anticipated those the
group you see we thinking again the
recovery but we can still function. And
interestingly if you look into the
gotten weaker about at the or and and
of the a study using those dependence
sixty well got weaker about are away
from the baseline. And if you wanna
tear the time course changes because
say that's the high dosage group. She's
kindergarten bigger about at least
position a week after and then least
they hear things then and the the kind
the close to continued to recover from
the sentence and again also form on a
four thousand The species level to use
we identify I don't want to stand and
promoted by this week boxes and the
nineteen ninety two by the the cost.
And then we for the record eighty eight
was the level and fasting blood glucose
level with each show the species which
are responding to that because so into
implement and we found a few either
productivity associated with the easy
thing back all nicotine customs a two
and a lot surprisingly no one is pose
interesting series that would be the
decks they are up or something like
that area and there was negative but
also stated that we found free candy
bacterium trolls nice maybe people in
this audience with the no this is a
first really reporting the buy in heart
and other carnivorous is and haven
imagery. And also reported to buy
propensity once a group that it was
depleted in type type two diabetes
patients got and we found the a by
confronting these real time to look at
PCR we follow those dependent
enrichment of these particular group
species of bacteria in this by the
options. And so these papers probably
is just a few weeks ago. And so these
are the examples of using a chinese cap
Fido chemicals from chinese Madison to
modulate got Mike about and see if
there's any specific species of
bacteria either positively or
negatively associated with the disease.
Uh and then we also exonerated I based
on the principle that we should use the
tight to satisfy the nutritional needs
of the host but at the same time we
also need to include the component of
the tide examines teeny then is going
to make about particularly we progress
on promoting musically chakotay city
protecting and leave them military and
also we do see those which chop as
Jenny and the talks in produce. And so
the this is the yeah died based on
hopefully this summer beach or chinese
vegetables and a lot of pragmatics. And
so we first organise a clinical trial
with a hundred twenty three beyond my
over thirty one and here's we have a
big advisory intervention for nine
weeks and no also for for that about
fourteen weeks maintenance. And we see
the race of the families of
intellectual say and these other
remotes yeah and which are known for
containing a remedy to soup or
something and with the increase of the
video between the bacteria on C and
into looking stick street added one
acting you crazy people what is that
providing protein you right. So this is
the education that association with
that I content of the gotta micro about
time you see all reviews in the talking
loading the host a stream and you see
also animation information. And the
host got very function improve and then
insulin sensitivity in fruit you could
the approach. improve your profile to
improve. And blood pressure reviews and
they reduce the city living amount of
by the way And interestingly if you
take the call also from this our courts
before and after you see dramatic
increase of fickle focus. CD took
Mccorkle to sell us afternoon And also
you see what's again anyway use the
casino G activities after intervention.
So basically the a piece about take a
got a Mike about will these people's
got notes does to produce in probably
higher amounts of any findings which
can use inflammation if we get to use a
last name we also produce various other
talk sings like a set of talks things
and that you know boxes. And this is a
particular cases that it it was a
twenty six year old young man. He was a
hundred and seventy five kilograms at
the beginning and so he stayed at home
without doing any extra exercise and
for about a twenty three weeks and he
lost more than fifty kilograms. And
maybe convert a Christmas tree covered
a from diabetes hypertension have
anybody you know after losing a
circular grams in the first nine weeks.
And if you look into the gotten about
utterances by just using EDD
fingerprinting you "'cause" these three
treaty predominately population is I
was reduced to no detectable after four
weeks on that and that is secretly from
these three events so each was mainly
and throwback to Janus intro back to a
well known optics pass something
concerning janus. And we also need an
economic stake using of the base line
nine weeks and a twenty three weeks or
so oh and do we identified about just
are changing involve the LPSS existence
and many of these reviews their
abundance after the intervention. And
then we we isolated a single colonies
from median we can go into a back to
and the by call migrating each single
colony to the a sliding a finger
printing we selected those which are
identically migrated into this three
band and we identified in down there
and then the intro backtrack looking.
And then we selected away screen and
put it down into a germ free mice
either on or module died on finds out
of that and a normal to died waste all
be allowed to this particular bacteria
colonising the guards you didn't see
any symptoms choir or if it's jump real
high finance you see some accumulation
of racial fact but not there
significant. But when you have a out
about class this particular person
something UCO four forty developed a or
BCTV so fat and also you some
resistance. And also actually labour
and the local inflammation in the
labour and enough that that systemic
inflammation and adapting resistors and
interestingly definitely which was
reported by provides a this group can
be inhibited by the whole customer
about car and it can be significantly
you hated by this particular pass
something. And the project a
colonisation of this one single
presently can promote of this last
injuries in the litter welfare T
express it was required to for such as
intoxication and also you he vision of
energy the TP the storage and only in
combination of a high fat diets class
this past Saturday as I said you see
automatically crazy of a liberal
qualify quite a binding protein in the
bloodstream. And if you want also
associate the john frame I don't hybrid
device is if if the bacteria a you face
a bacterial species you see for the
reduction of the body weight instead of
increasing one it's mono associated is
up or something. So some specific
species may promote a publicity some
maybe use body weight K so this was
reportedly. and of two thousand to tell
well basically from a this is as good
days and of those also provides a as a
group and that is gross animated And it
seems that some particular resisting
the dot we work as a team player or
team players in the development of all
BCD and the diabetes. And if you okay
so that's the key players has a call so
function and then they can be used as a
contract for the disease prevention and
treatment. But how can we identify more
such a species you know without any
prior knowledge no we identified to be
thirty nine because of the prior
knowledge of LPS injection can use all
BCT and also many other reports but if
we don't have any prior knowledge can
we still do developed a methodology to
identify us species which contributing
or to a particular these days and we
used to have this this the methodology
together with professor German you
"'cause" it and the three other groups
in china in two thousand a seven and it
was published in the PS in two thousand
eight this is a methodology which can
allow you to find out who does what in
the micro about and so this is not
proof of principle study we collected a
fake one to your examples from our
stand on number for generation chinese
effeminate. And we were able to so that
if you analyse the species level
chances of gotten like about our entire
personally or indoor person that you
can correlate the variations of your
remote alliance and eventually you we
identified different species each one
has at least associate be also stating
these at least while you're in to have
a lot mostly positively associated some
a negative no so shaded. And again
think cut it back here across new chair
show association is at least eight your
remote metabolites. And indicating that
this particular species may be very
important somehow affecting human close
to metabolism. So you this this this
methodology it can allow you to find
out who does what based how the chances
of a particular species will show
association exchanges of some
particular your remote have relaxed.
And so we decided to apply this
methodology to a clinical a problem. So
this is a genetic will be basically
call kind of really single and the
emerging who are afflicted by this
particular problem at a very low muscle
tone. So they couldn't do much
exercise. And also they have a very low
metabolic rate one resting. So they
didn't improve much calorie but they
have any all controllable continuous
hunt the feeling. They are hungry all
the time. You can never satisfy down
with fruit. So they become will be that
it'll be right after we need. And if
you didn't control body weight really
died before the most energy from but
metabolic or complications. And there's
also not not very effective matters for
managing their body weight. And so
you're a one oh our clinical trials
this this a customer care about how
targeted dietary Ascii we found out
that one of the best responders was
actually after of less patient. And he
was the forty years so hundred of forty
kilograms heavy and after we put him in
a hospital. So he was hospitalised for
two hundred eighty five days and we
used to eighty three point six
kilograms. And they continue to this
off to go back home after fonder thirty
Dave was about seventy two kilograms.
So now he maintained anyways body
weight around the seventy kilograms
with two or three programs of
punctuation. And it's already two years
after the the the intervention. So he
was you is do stable and he's put a
behaviour is motivated to control them
before. So the hunger fee was not that
serious not and so we we could you know
fourteen seventeen Q stations and a
twenty one simple obesity children for
the L less we we three Miles
hospitalised try to interest yeah so we
collected than your regular graphical
samples base line one month to month
three months after the intervention.
And but for sports simple B student
week we it's one of the to and we
collected or so oh probably smart and
one ones. And we all there are elements
clinical metadata yeah and we use a a
stuffy corridor metabolite profiling
and also your remote have a like
profiling we has the fickle what
happens is it we analyse got my about a
competition by and a function by using
for for Paris equity and also might on
the mixed equity and we didn't gotten
Mike about transplantation from the
before and after Michael about how from
the same patient. And so basically baby
use their weight no two cohorts most
reviewers there wait during that
interested. And also improve their
insulin sensitivity. And loopy the
profile. And also liver function. And
inflammation limitations again
introduced by you know you merriment of
a quite a few inflammatory several
times. And really probably thought
quite a binding protein. That's targets
marker for you Katie the they don't
talk sing level in the screen one
significantly reduced after that
current events. So you indicated in
that sense how the thoughts now
delivering less and the parts to the
host of in two minutes. And then we
trends where transplants customer.
about how from the same individual
recover and monster more than twenty
percent over his body weight and also
we covered his insulin sensitivity and
and there are many other metabolic
parameters before and after to the germ
free mine And interestingly. But if for
my car about a you'd use the but we
lost in the first weeks and then it
came back yeah okay so that however in
the first two weeks you'll see the
nation associated with this
transplantation of the people Michael
about in their in our labour and and
got but after the two for two weeks
they start talking back their body
weight by primarily synthesising more
fact so eventually they have much
higher up that have pets mess
communities not after intermission
microbe out of control. And this is the
ad oppose the it's just it's
particularly the increase of the size
of a teapot side in the before Michael
about I want to do mars. And so somehow
or other before micro about a induce
them at about a good it's harder this
is an information and off that
documentation then after intuition
Michael about and we also yeah yeah
that whole talk got bacterial Mall it
was the second radios particularly in
PWS patients got and we also measure
the fickle toxicity took a control
cells and it was the giving introduced
after maintenance. And so that we it
will be cool we need if we could
microbe outfit cool water but have what
hello analysis. And not based you can
say that there is a significant shift
after the intervention the profiles of
must have a nice enough records
instinctively chance after intervention
and then we identified those reached in
a really big metabolites which asks us
to give you chance of the buy them by
the information. And it's actually
automatically increase of carbohydrates
in fickle what this is from the time
and also reduction of almost all the
backchannel metabolites including TME
and you you say are actually increase
of acetate. And also gradually decrease
of I thought be was great and I saw
that right. So this is indication that
they got a micro about about sixteen
from implementing protein in understand
to fermenting carbohydrates. And then
we need a your multiple lines of
profiling it's also so you have to give
in the chance after the into my and we
we were able to identify thirteen
metabolites I don't know us if you
divide it intervention interestingly
can handle was deals. So this was a
quantitative from calling the dietary
fat derive the call and by bacteria.
And we also see me actually off fucking
dog so softly. P and he curate and all
these actually products from picture
fermentation of aromatic amino acids.
And they all used in your and so we
need an economic because the closing of
a hundred ten samples and with a normal
than about told me jeans and sex so
there cannot be based our results from
that I hate we correctly identified
about just really want the the about
four hundred this that you know because
species and we also get a high quality
assembly of most of them. And a hundred
and sixty one was prevalent in more
than twenty percent of the samples. And
then we need a colour is has to be
she's network analysis here I can say
that all the Hunter things was species
can be E considered into eighteen
different functional groups. and this
particular group So I'm not active
occur correlation with quite a few
other groups concerning optics the
passengers and we also so that if you
if you have a cold wonders group you
can actually editing abundance
individual to be you know see colour as
a group together. So you'll get a
terrible about this of these guys and
all the eighteen curses together so you
very strong correlation with the
improvement of metabolic of enough
times. And I'll tell for the kills more
than five thousand the kills
identifying. And we were sixteen after
the intervention. And you know thousand
that can be mapped. So this metabolic a
map. And the the the blue wires the the
glow as a from oh to by the time to
treatment and the yellow ones are
produced. And particularly after the
costly level and we all the bacteria.
And that we use the they're nomadic
about accreditation aromatic yeah I
mean as the most metabolism and the
picture and that the mouse is essays
and also the repair really to pass
rate. So all the recaps of all the
possible is is any indication that they
they are really in know a marks and
then Australia merriment after the
intermission. And we also yeah the
comparison between eighteen cost is and
the host stomach bodyguard phenotype
for recovery there is a significant
association between these two so it's
so that's you can group hundred of
difference she's into functional groups
and the or so correlation with the
recovery of the whole summer time that
you can also correlated outcast groups
with their your remote have attacked.
And groups and actively correlated. and
the others are positively correlated of
a like to end it all volume dogs or
something. And this so no toxic and the
plane or all you metabolic rate it all
races. And we were able to identify but
you can as She's in each cast which I
actually encoding and times required a
for a producing can say from calling.
So this saw the species in this group
is to be this this groups that they
carry beastly. So they probably can do
the job. And for a doctor sulfate it's
this individual species in this two
cats groups they are carrying encoding
imaging for transforming chopped off
and from a window into you know and
also as a acrobat ecologist the
fundamental question is we would like
to address is actually what other
functional groups of the got to make
about we know that many basic function
is unnecessary for maintaining close
house not included in all do you know
but source to the gods micro about so
we need to find out which species
always screw subspecies actually forty
which particular function which is
necessary for maintaining also helps
and yeah "'cause" colour on this
suspicions group is one way to look at
this relationship and identify the
potentially important functional
groups. And I'm not a very important
question would be what other
foundations species of the got
inconsistent. And away you know in the
in the forest for example the most
important this species for the whole
because he's in is actually just a
little too portray species well a girl
to estimate intensity to cover
everything and they create a unique
environments for everybody else to D
and to prosper so we remove these
qualities the whole for is the start to
decline. And we believe that in that
article sixteen you can also identify
such a foundation species and we we
hypothesise that is but in global group
of species are probably the foundation
species at least for the people we we
have studied because they increase of
them actually correlated is the
redirection of many several cost groups
continue to supply some things. And so
that the the the incomplete open it
after the intervention so basically no
matter you hear about these postings
logon to make about a problem bad abide
activities imitation or not and then
that this but I think that the micro
about Tommy start to produce sparks
things. we check and damage a house.
But by you see to use it And robotics
very about is all kind of things we can
use we may chances that got make about
and the back to our shows rosier
structure and a function in so we can
still get helps and we got the lose all
of the primary drive or is it genetic
or environmental and so I would like to
stop here and I think in some cases.

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.