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thank you adam for that of amazing introduction
00:00:04
i'm adam didn't mention one part of
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of an introduction to me which is that i am
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not related to the family that owns the company
00:00:14
that is sponsoring this come with a conference on but i'm very very happy to be here
00:00:20
um and i thank you all for the opportunity to address you this morning
00:00:25
about the politics of of the should reverses fat we
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live at that time of enormous public confusion
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about nutrition and health at least in the united states where
00:00:37
people to hear their air out trying to figure out
00:00:41
what to do about protein and carbohydrate and fat and
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this isn't a topic that i usually talk about
00:00:48
because i think that the issue of whether faster carbohydrates are
00:00:53
worse for your health is really the wrong question
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oh and the question shouldn't be a bout individual components
00:01:00
of the diet because that's not how people easy
00:01:03
people eat food and they eat diets and me tighter according to dietary patterns
00:01:09
and the dietary guidelines for americans which is going to hear a lot about during this session um
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oh recommends a new eating pattern that is largely based on food yours
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your diet is supposed to contain fruits vegetables dairy grains or else
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and uh this weird category called protein um that is the chefs term
00:01:31
for uh sources of protein eating things from like
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me and not send other kinds of foods
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i didn't know what to call it so they call the protein never
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mind uh the um uh when you put a diet together
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is so simple and dietary advice is so easy and so simple
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that the fruit rider michael pollen can do within seven words eat
00:01:57
fruit not too much mostly plans really it's that simple
00:02:02
um in my own work i have a slightly more complicated
00:02:06
way of saying the same thing basically i think
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i'm healthy diets mean that people make better choices meeting more
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fruits and vegetables or less junk food really nothing more
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complicated than that and then if you're worried about obesity we
00:02:21
lessen move more in please don't it might board
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um but if it's a it's more complicated than that it surely because
00:02:30
of what the australian sociologist georgie spring yes
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calls nutrition is some um pejorative lee nutrition is them
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which means the use of individual components of
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the diets salts should or fat
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uh the vitamins and minerals as indications of
00:02:50
uh the diet is a whole a very productive approach to looking at dietary patterns
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the dietary guidelines for americans for example say that a
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dietary pattern includes all of these different fruits that
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guidelines talk about from its when they're talking about what they want you to eat more oh
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when they you start talking about what they want you to eat less self they switched to nutrients
00:03:16
so you're supposed to eat more fruits and vegetables but just
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post a less saturated fat trends that salt and sugar
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um and he's then become euphemisms for diets and dietary patterns
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now the interesting sugar goes way back um in the nineteen seventies they were group
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of researchers in england in the united states were convinced that the problem with
00:03:43
diets wasn't the flu that people reading or the diets that people were consuming it
00:03:48
we should or if you were white and deadly it was chilling us
00:03:53
uh exposing we should or the killer in your
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diet um so this was the nineteen seventies
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um by the late nineteen eighties there had been a complete switch
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in interest to uh be anti fat
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or um proportion uh and in the late nineteen eighties there were two reports that came out
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of the federal government or quasar i federal government one was the the surgeon general's
00:04:21
a report on nutrition and health for which i was the managing editor so i know a lot about that report
00:04:27
and then a year later the national research council came out with an even larger
00:04:32
diet and health study and both of them said exactly the same thing
00:04:37
they said that the single most important dietary problem was too much fat
00:04:42
and they advised eating a diet that contain few were foods that were high and fast
00:04:48
again talking about that not talking about the food sources of fat but
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i can tell you because i with today or that um this
00:04:58
assumes that if you were going to eat a diet that was lower
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in fat you would be eating less meat and dairy products
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um you would replace those foods because you still needed calories
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you would replace those foods with fruits and vegetables
00:05:12
that would automatically reduce your caloric intake that takes care of obesity
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you reduce your intake of saturated fat that takes care of heart disease
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and it would reduce your risk of all these other conditions for which obesity
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um and saturated fat and so forth were risk factors
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um what nobody thought of of um or at least nobody who was in
00:05:36
charge of the final executive summary on this which i was not
00:05:40
fonder of was what came next which is referred to as the snack wells phenomenon
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on an nabisco produced cookies that were fat free there were
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lines of people waiting in front of grocery stores
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when the trucks arrived delivering these cookies to buy
00:05:59
these cookies they flew off the shelves um
00:06:03
the snack wells cookies and the fat free versions had ten calories less per could be
00:06:09
then uh the cookies that contains that because they
00:06:14
replace the fat with sugar on so they were they had the same number of calories but
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uh they flew off the shelves and this led to some really
00:06:25
really bad epidemiology and i love better but email it
00:06:29
it's really fun and i particularly love this one the obesity epidemic in united
00:06:34
states started almost exactly the same time as a low fat recommendation
00:06:39
low fat recommendations are responsible for obesity
00:06:44
uh and so here it just proves it right and uh so as you might expect
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somebody like me who is the co author of vocal why calories down takes a
00:06:56
dim view of that kind of epidemiology and it's my responsibility to point out
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that during the period under consideration when the prevalence of obesity in united states
00:07:08
um was rising quite rapidly the number of calories in
00:07:12
the food supply per capita was also rising quite
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rapidly it went from thirty three hundred in the early nineteen eighties to the present
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four thousand calories a day per capita roughly twice with the population needs
00:07:27
and the sources of those calories were also pretty obvious
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um the main so the main reason for the increase in school work
00:07:37
intake uh among the population is plenty of evidence that americans began to eat more
00:07:43
and that the number of calories they were consuming predate not just was it
00:07:48
in the food supply increased had to do with the increasing portion sizes
00:07:52
that occurred it just the same time and this slide
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uh which i like 'cause just so nicely illustrated
00:07:59
shows the enormous increase in portion size that occurred in united states if any
00:08:05
of you have been there recently you know what i'm talking about
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um the larger portions of i had one nutritional concept that i could get
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over an conveyed world it would be that larger portions have more calories
00:08:22
you can say with a straight face um it has a larger portions are more fat they
00:08:27
have more sugar and they also have what's more calories and those calories come from everywhere
00:08:33
if you look at the changes in nutrient composition
00:08:38
where the composition of commodities in united states
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from the nineteen sixties uh to the current time everything in protest
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uh the calories come from everywhere omar just increased interesting we came from fast
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uh there's more fat consumed um now than there was twenty or thirty
00:08:59
or forty years ago but everything else and increase the also
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um to account for that arise in calories
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so we have a situation where people are eating more portion sizes were larger
00:09:13
and it's no surprise that race uh that the province of obesity increased
00:09:18
so now we come to the modern era um and it regardless of the
00:09:24
factual information that people that there's more fruit is more fat produced in united
00:09:30
states people are eating more fat we know have the profile mafia
00:09:35
uh in the united states a of food writer named nina type roles robot called
00:09:40
the big fat surprise why bother me and she's belong in a healthy diet
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and then this um her work and various articles that she's written
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uh were taken over by time magazine with this
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famous cover a telling americans to eat butter
00:10:00
i'm a scientist labelled fact the enemy why they were all uh um
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uh it's scientists get to work and and then the corollary of
00:10:11
the pro fat people are the anti shock or people
00:10:15
and we have a of of a science writer fruit right the science writer gary turnout
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couldn't article in the new york times magazine and twenty eleven calls
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sweden villages in which she began his um campaign against sugar
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uh most recently he has a book called the case
00:10:34
again sugar which he describes as a legal brief
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all the legal argument proving that a calories from should
00:10:42
or worse than calories from any other source
00:10:44
and that a server if you stop eating sugar that will take your your dietary problems
00:10:49
and the physician robert let's take 'em has this book a
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book called beating the odds again should are processed food
00:10:57
um and he believes and has articles on the string worshippers poison
00:11:04
uh so that's kind of where we are now is um where
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their articles coming out one after another after another in
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some very respectable sources fat versus come arms what's really worse for
00:11:19
yourself is it fact that's killing you or it's a shocker
00:11:23
i continue to believe that this is absolutely the wrong question and
00:11:27
it's not getting at the basis of dietary problems at all
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um that doesn't stop a great deal of argument
00:11:37
about the whole question of sugar and fat and i was completely fascinated by
00:11:41
this historical study that came out and jam internal medicine last year uh
00:11:47
and the sugar industry in coronary heart disease risk and these investigators
00:11:51
found some all documents that demonstrate that the sugar research foundation
00:11:57
uh went to a lot of trouble to try to get investigators at harvard
00:12:02
to choose dietary fat as the problem in coronary heart disease
00:12:08
um and ignore the role of sugar no i wrote the editorial better company
00:12:14
that article and i reproduced in any in my
00:12:19
editorial what i thought was the key figure
00:12:22
from the studies that were published as a result of that investigation
00:12:26
and they show up very close epidemiological
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correlation between sugar unsaturated fat
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in the food supply and and mortality in fourteen countries
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the role of saturated fat and the role of sugar in is
00:12:41
epidemiological correlation is virtually indistinguishable you can't tell them hard
00:12:47
but of course you could put a number of other things in the same figure and it
00:12:52
would look exactly the same and of course one of those is calories remember calories
00:12:58
um and the user in issue because in a um now nest times in my book
00:13:04
uh why calories count we talk about a study
00:13:09
that i found very interesting that was done
00:13:11
in nineteen sixty four in the metabolic ward
00:13:15
in which i'm highly obese and then
00:13:18
were placed in a metabolic ward and placed on various diets over a period of time
00:13:25
um and the diets ranged enormously in fat and carbohydrate composition the
00:13:30
fat range from thirteen to eighty three percent of calories
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and the carbohydrate range from three to sixty percent of calories
00:13:38
and no matter what the composition of the diet
00:13:41
uh that these men were placed on if calories were
00:13:45
held constant they lost waited exactly the same race
00:13:49
um this study was so carefully controlled that even though it's olden even though
00:13:54
was done on a very small number of individuals it seemed to
00:13:58
me to make a really important point with which is that it's not
00:14:02
composition of the diet that man is then total number of calories
00:14:08
and and this study was repeated independently although with calories not so well controlled
00:14:14
by these two guys in a great britain and in the united states
00:14:18
their twin brothers were both physicians and they decided they would prove
00:14:24
which one of these diets was healthy or one of them went on a diet that contain
00:14:28
virtually no carbohydrate the other one went on a diet that contain virtually no fat
00:14:34
uh they spent a month on those diets the postal they both lost weight and they both had
00:14:39
horrible metabolic arrangements and all kinds of problems as
00:14:44
a result and they ended up thinking
00:14:47
that a balanced diet lower in calories was probably the best way to lose
00:14:51
weight it's um it made headlines but the back to gary turnouts
00:14:56
cool has um i theory that he is trying very very hard to prove
00:15:01
which is that eating too much sugar uh causes insulin to be released when there's too much
00:15:07
insulin it makes people hungry and it causes calories that are not immediately burned for energy
00:15:13
uh to be stored as fat and the big problem there and
00:15:17
ish rubber because if you we should or whatever calories of
00:15:20
leftover gonna go right into fast and bats his major uh that's
00:15:25
what he's trying to prove in a case against rubber
00:15:29
just say uh that i have to give him a lot of credit for putting money where his mouth is
00:15:35
uh he got funding from the arnold foundation a foundation united
00:15:40
states to create an organisation called the nutrition science
00:15:44
initiative new c. it's called um whose goal is to
00:15:49
produce canoes conclusive evidence in the next decade
00:15:53
that calories from shove are different from any other kind of calories
00:15:57
and so his website asks the question are all calories equal the answer to that
00:16:03
is no records the enemy the answer to that is yes and so forth
00:16:08
however one very very serious mistake in my view and
00:16:13
that was that he recruited top notch researchers
00:16:17
to do his work and to do the study and they have published the results of
00:16:22
a metabolic word study in which they put people on two different kinds of diet
00:16:26
um and uh the the studies have been published respectable journals
00:16:31
and much to gary tab should grant uh the study
00:16:36
show that calorie for calorie dietary fat restriction results
00:16:40
in more body fat loss but carbohydrate restriction when you
00:16:44
control for calories and control for everything else
00:16:47
um you would think that this would bring this argument to wind and but no such luck
00:16:54
um he there that he and the investigators who did this
00:16:58
work or uh have endless flights and twitch or
00:17:02
about whether the study was done well but this study showed quite clearly that if you
00:17:07
do i so clark substitution of fat for carbohydrate you get similar metabolic defects
00:17:13
i'm in people who are on diets of different composition when calories or control
00:17:19
um so what we do to control calories um the leading
00:17:23
source of calories an american diets i'm fascinated to say
00:17:28
oh our grain is desserts what what the department of
00:17:31
agriculture calls grain based desert that means cakes pastries
00:17:36
croissants probably and he spread this check in sweden
00:17:41
breaks pizza and alcohol uh don't even ask
00:17:44
um so we have a lot of work to do when it's pretty obvious what
00:17:47
that work has to be um but that brings the to the dietary guidelines
00:17:53
which do not say directly eat fewer desserts trick less alcohol or do
00:17:58
any of those other kinds of things they talk about eating more
00:18:03
uh fruits of the kinds of things you're supposed to eat more fruits vegetables whole grains
00:18:08
when they talk about what not to eat they switch to nutrients saturated
00:18:12
fat ten percent of calories not talking about me or junk food
00:18:18
i added sugars ten percent of calories nothing much said about
00:18:21
desserts or sugary drinks or at least not said directly
00:18:26
uh that's where politics comes in so it's in the dietary
00:18:31
guidelines have been fascinating uh to somebody like me who
00:18:34
follows politics the main sources of saturated fat any american diet
00:18:39
or meat poultry fish eggs added fats in derry
00:18:42
um any any recommendation to eat less saturated fat is immediately picked up
00:18:47
by the meat industry um as a euphemism for each lesson even they don't like it
00:18:53
uh and there was enormous opposition to uh these to the saturated fat recommendation
00:18:59
not only from the meat lobbies but also from problem eat journalists
00:19:04
uh so the meat law they did okay uh it did a major attack on me
00:19:10
dietary guidelines advisory committee and on the guidelines themselves they went to congress
00:19:16
uh they complained they and they were very successful in chain
00:19:21
in making sure that the dietary guidelines toned down
00:19:25
the meat recommendations of the dietary guidelines advisory committee wanted to make
00:19:31
uh the the guidelines committee had a very clear statement that usually lesson even processed
00:19:37
meats that statement is is not present in the file and the final bridal
00:19:42
uh but the most interesting it tax came from the pro any journalist uh nina tie calls
00:19:48
um and she gets something absolutely amazing to me this is an
00:19:52
example of what one lobbying individual well funded can do
00:19:58
uh she wrote an article in the b. m. j.
00:20:02
that was paid for by the arnold foundation and
00:20:05
she was paid by the oral foundation to do it in which you choose the dietary guidelines
00:20:10
committee of weeks science all week scientific process
00:20:15
of reef of relying on conflicted read references references that
00:20:20
were paid for by industry and that the um
00:20:25
guidelines when britain then the members of the dietary guidelines
00:20:28
of the advisory committee also had conflicts of interest
00:20:32
that were not fully disclosed and not fully evident in at the guidelines process needed to
00:20:38
be changed to get rid of these conflicts um j. article caused a furor
00:20:46
and uh the and nutrition advocates of united states were furious about it particularly centre
00:20:52
for science in the public interest which called for an immediate retraction got hungry
00:20:57
scientists assigned that calling for retraction of the
00:21:01
article because of its scientific flawless
00:21:05
uh the british medical journal or the b. m. j. took the call
00:21:09
for retraction quite seriously the first thing i did was to publish
00:21:13
oh correction of nina tie calls own conflicts of interest and to
00:21:19
or reveal the arnold foundations interest in that then it um
00:21:23
send the or paper out to two independent external reviewers
00:21:28
to get their opinion of what the b. m. j. should do as
00:21:32
a result of that they published a long list of corrections
00:21:36
to the article but they decided not to retract it um the reviewer is
00:21:42
uh looked at the look at the uh at the paper and said that it's science was deeply
00:21:49
flawed and in fact it's quality was so for in the signs was so badly flow uh
00:21:55
flawed but they essentially confirmed everything that centre for science in the public interest had
00:22:01
said in criticism but they advised against retraction saying that when was well within
00:22:07
uh her rights is somebody with an opinion to say which she thought
00:22:11
but at the guidelines process really did need to be fixed
00:22:15
that it was not a sufficiently rigorous process and it
00:22:18
needed a fix while all this was going on
00:22:22
i mean uh tie calls had created something called the intrusion coalition
00:22:27
funded by the oral foundation again in a huge issue colleges manifesto
00:22:32
oh is that the dietary guidelines were so deeply scientifically
00:22:36
flawed that they really had to be completely fix
00:22:40
and then she should call vision went to congress i'm i think still can hardly believe this and they
00:22:45
lobby congress into congress to appropriate a million dollars
00:22:50
to give to the national academy of medicine
00:22:53
to do a review of the dietary guidelines
00:22:57
process and to this end to fix
00:23:01
the dietary guidelines process so that it would be more transparent less biased
00:23:06
and would maintain a much stronger level of research integrity and
00:23:12
that's all that in fact happened and rubber soul
00:23:15
who is the chair of that committee is here in this room you should ask him about this
00:23:20
um but there are other committee came out in very short order
00:23:25
with two reports the first report came out in february this year and
00:23:30
and it talked about the selection process for the dietary guidelines
00:23:34
it recommended third party nomination of members of the advisory
00:23:39
committee public disclosure of everything about those members
00:23:43
of the advisory committee at a completely transparent conflict
00:23:46
of interest policy process i run it
00:23:49
to eat um that they did not that their first reported not just close the conflicts of
00:23:55
interest of the members of the committee who wrote that report because it was not the
00:24:01
uh academies policy to allow those conflicts to be made public
00:24:05
the second report just came out um and it has
00:24:09
many recommendations for improving the scientific quality of the
00:24:13
review of the scientific review as part of the dietary guidelines process
00:24:18
and it's suggest ways in which to manage biases among committee members
00:24:24
um maybe they shouldn't serve maybe they should only serve unlimited capacity
00:24:29
oh and one maybe they should make sure that they balance the biases of members of the committee
00:24:34
it would be very interesting to see what the these recommendations get incorporated into the
00:24:40
process with the twenty twenty dietary guidelines which should be going on right now
00:24:45
and and they didn't discuss disclose the conflicts of interest of the
00:24:49
members of this committee because the academies process changed in between
00:24:54
very very interesting reports and be it was gonna be interesting to see what happens
00:24:59
so the politics and the science are completely i. x. are completely linked
00:25:04
they are in extra couple and i wanted to know to
00:25:07
just looking at the politics of what's going on with sharper right
00:25:11
now because we're in the sugar ascendant phase of what's happening
00:25:16
um the dietary guidelines and the world health organisation had both issues report
00:25:22
and recommending that added sugars be consumed a
00:25:27
level no higher than ten percent
00:25:30
of a daily calories and amount that's roughly
00:25:34
half of what americans these consume now
00:25:37
this is a matter of what from many people this would be an average of about fifty grams of shivered day
00:25:44
um and it's interesting to me that i have leader a
00:25:47
soft drink contains fifty grams of sugar so if you
00:25:50
have a half meter soft drink you done your server
00:25:53
for the entire day and that's absolutely the maximum
00:25:57
um many or public health organisations actually recommend less than that
00:26:03
and so uh this brings me to the question is so the politics and
00:26:07
not only because i wrote a book about it that came out in
00:26:10
uh twenty fifteen basically and advocacy manual for how
00:26:13
you advocate uh for drinking less soda
00:26:17
um but there's a reason for talking about should
00:26:21
be sweetened beverages because they comprise almost half
00:26:25
of sugar intake at least in the united states uh this
00:26:30
should be sweetened beverages have enormous amounts of sugar
00:26:34
and that makes soft drinks low hanging fruit in public health terms
00:26:39
meaning that if you're going to go after one particular fruit this is an
00:26:43
easy one they have servers they have water they don't have anything else
00:26:47
uh that's nutritionally reading so they're great target and an easy target
00:26:54
um sales of should between beverages in in i stay so are falling rapidly and continually
00:27:00
and have fallen since their peak in the late nineteen nineties really two thousands
00:27:06
uh the so the industry believes that this is due to public health advocacy
00:27:11
um and i'm not going to auction with them about that uh there are many many groups in
00:27:16
the united states that doing public health advocacy and they we may and they range from
00:27:22
a healthy food america which is particularly science based in its approach to killer croak
00:27:29
which doesn't worry about science and deals mainly with the with the politics
00:27:33
oh and everything in between but it's been very successful
00:27:38
in the advocacy to drink less or has been enormously successful that's why
00:27:43
i subtitles my book sort of politics and winning in parenthesis
00:27:49
um but there are attacks on soda in lots of other ways as
00:27:54
well and i wanna say just a few words about those
00:27:57
i'm in august of twenty fifteen the new york times published a front page article
00:28:03
and cole was a finding of groups
00:28:06
of researchers who was a public
00:28:10
stances that exercise is more important than what you eat in obesity
00:28:15
and a report that was so shocking uh even fox news was shocked by it
00:28:21
uh no but no nobody could believe that coke role
00:28:25
would find a research so obviously self serving
00:28:29
that research is what it had would accept money from coca cola for doing this kind of research
00:28:35
um or that universities will while researchers to take money from corporal for
00:28:40
doing is which shows you how little the new york times
00:28:43
on just or these reporters understand about how universities work um but be that as it
00:28:50
may it have an enormous effect on the company uh the company went transparent and
00:28:56
publishers lists on its web site of everybody that
00:28:59
funds and this offers analysts the opportunity
00:29:03
to look at the kind of research that cock roll it up has been funding
00:29:08
and generally that funding of its research falls
00:29:11
into four areas one is to demonstrate
00:29:15
at the importance of physical activity is supposed to die had another is show that
00:29:21
a national data sources that link the shoulders we we've ever
00:29:25
just obesity have no validity that any statement that
00:29:29
uh so didn't have anything to do with obesity years overstated and that should reserve really harm
00:29:36
uh no matter which kind or how much of them you consume and
00:29:40
go call and spent a hundred thirty eight million dollars between
00:29:44
uh twenty sixty between twenty ten twenty sixteen to produce this kind of research
00:29:50
um and in fact i analyses of coca cola funded studies instead is
00:29:56
funded by the beverage association this one from the annals of internal medicine last
00:30:01
year asked the question or sugary drinks related to obesity and diabetes
00:30:06
and they found twenty six studies that said no there's no relationship
00:30:10
and every single one of them was funded by industry
00:30:13
and and i found thirty four studies that say yes there's a connection between oh
00:30:17
uh we should re beverages and obesity and diabetes and only one of those was funded
00:30:22
by industry and you can bet that those investigators we never funded by industry again
00:30:29
really yeah that is even weirder source of criticism of
00:30:34
um those should be sweet beverage industry and this one is so weird i don't
00:30:38
even know how to talk about it those have you been following american politics
00:30:43
i know that the russians um interfered in the last american election on
00:30:49
and one of the ways that they interfered with by publishing emails
00:30:53
and that were written by members of
00:30:56
hillary clinton's campaign including um
00:31:01
a a real clean insider name compression marshall who's a friend of hillary clinton
00:31:06
um and these emails were published on d. c. another site called
00:31:10
d. c. lakes and and the d. c. links website
00:31:15
um included a set of emails coincidentally
00:31:20
between compression marshall an executive
00:31:22
of coca cola i'm running michael goals men and big
00:31:27
has a confusion marshall while she was working on hillary clinton's
00:31:31
campaign was billing cock role is seven thousand a month
00:31:35
for consulting services and we know this because for invoices or in the
00:31:41
cache of emails no i was particularly interested in these emails
00:31:46
and because i'm in one of them actually i mean more than one but this is a good one
00:31:53
uh so um i was in australia from january march
00:31:57
twenty sixteen working at the university it's it may
00:32:00
and and i was i was giving talks all over the place in written up in uh
00:32:05
sydney morning herald and is an cool cool was fine and i i had no idea uh
00:32:12
three years the summary of marianne wrestles presence at the uh presentation at sydney university and then it
00:32:19
goes through where i've been talking and how many places i've talked and what i've been doing
00:32:24
um i knew that a cup holder representative was in the audience because there is
00:32:30
somebody from call call at every talk idea of you know who you are
00:32:36
um
00:32:38
um but uh the sydney morning herald had final also talking about
00:32:43
what was secret plan to monitor the person in whose group i was
00:32:47
working recent bureau who's a researcher on conflict of interest in research
00:32:52
um and so this got a lot of publicity um and also uh
00:32:58
various analyses were done of these emails one of them by
00:33:02
uh one of my favourite advocacy groups called new engines for help of all things
00:33:07
and and they've had several articles on coke always political strategy to heal so
00:33:13
the texas and that brings me to the whole question of so taxes
00:33:17
which is the place where you really see advocacy against rubber in action
00:33:23
so we had a lot of solar tax uh initiatives united states the most successful by
00:33:29
far has been one berkeley california okay it's berkeley but they did it right
00:33:35
and that was sort of tax was passed by a vote of seventy six percent which is simply astonishing
00:33:41
and one of the reasons why they did it right was that of a huge amount of of
00:33:46
community organising around it i got the entire
00:33:50
uh berkeley community rich to work
00:33:53
up the hills down on the flats involved in it
00:33:56
it was really a very very well done campaign
00:33:59
um and i won and they won by a lot and set
00:34:02
a standard for how you do advocacy around so taxes
00:34:07
now there are a lot more of these at the local level
00:34:10
the navajo nation was actually the first that passed us overtaxed
00:34:15
but there have been many many others and there are many in the works um and uh lots of them had
00:34:21
that the one in santa fe did not succeed the so the industry has
00:34:26
put of fortune into fighting these taxes absolutely extraordinary amounts of money
00:34:33
um and this of course is uh an international effort
00:34:37
so there are countries throughout the world uh that
00:34:40
have passed so taxes south africa saudi arabia
00:34:45
oh and united kingdom and i just read yesterday that the
00:34:48
portugal so taxes resulted in a twenty five percent drop
00:34:53
in so the consumption in for trouble that just came in yesterday
00:34:57
on the want mexico has been particularly well studied uh the sort mexico past uh so the
00:35:04
tax even local call uh said that it would invest eight point two billion dollars in
00:35:10
mexico by twenty twenty that did not succeed in getting a copy the government to not
00:35:17
pass the tax it's been very well studied and there's a fair amount of evidence
00:35:21
that there's been a the sistine consumer response meaning that sales are
00:35:25
done well the curious things about the taxes is that
00:35:29
the the way the country's and the places that are doing it taxes want the revenues
00:35:35
for usually for public health purposes but people don't drink solders those
00:35:40
rev revenues go down but if the purpose is to get
00:35:44
people not to drink sodas they've been very successful of
00:35:48
any you to be very bravely in mexico
00:35:51
to advocate for a soda tax uh the new
00:35:55
york times and other publications and announce that
00:35:59
ace by where created in israel and sold only to governments
00:36:06
has was downloaded on the telephones of mexicans so
00:36:10
the text advocates to spy on them
00:36:13
and when i was in the corner pocket the public health institute earlier this year on a full bright
00:36:19
uh whenever i talk to simone bark terra i'm at meetings they
00:36:24
would collect everybody's phones and put them in the refrigerator
00:36:28
um the main sort of checks advocate is a hundred called video and he had
00:36:32
this put on his telephone too so i mean this is a serious business
00:36:38
uh so oh sure you drinks or social justice issue um i think
00:36:42
there's no question about that they're framed is a social justice issue
00:36:46
uh because the p. the very people who were consuming the most orders or the ones where
00:36:51
most liable to the obesity diabetes and other problems that occur right come with that
00:36:57
framed is a social justice is you would get some lot of advocacy does work
00:37:02
and so this brings me to nestle which is doing l.
00:37:07
a herculean work to reduce the sold in its products
00:37:12
this is been announced all over the place
00:37:14
planning an enormous cut in sugar uh in europe and in various other places
00:37:21
and it's a really great step in the right direction
00:37:25
but it doesn't really address the fundamental underlying question
00:37:29
and once again we have to thank the new york times
00:37:32
for bringing the fundamental underline question to public attention
00:37:36
this article came out about ten days ago and and it's an article that's mostly about nestle is work
00:37:43
in developing countries uh the key statement about is that nestle pepsico
00:37:48
in general mills of it aggressively expanding their presence in
00:37:52
developing nations on and that this is up in the traditional
00:37:57
diets throughout the world that it seems to me
00:38:01
is the real question that needs to be addressed in this day in age and
00:38:07
and it occurs to me that this would be a true graphics subject
00:38:11
for the fifteenth international nutrition conference next year and i hope you'll

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Conference program

Nutrition advocacy in action: the politics of sugar vs. fat
Marion Nestle, New York University, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 9:27 a.m.
480 views
Fat and carbohydrate recommendations - Have they changed?
Barbara Schneeman, University of California, Davis, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 10:14 a.m.
Promoting equitable health and wellbeing around the globe
Nancy Brown, American Heart Association, Dallas, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 11:30 a.m.
Gut hormones and nutrition
Sir Stephen Bloom, Imperial College London, England
28 Sept. 2017 · 1:38 p.m.
272 views
Nutrition, metabolic health, cancer and NCDs
Elio Riboli, Imperial College London, England
28 Sept. 2017 · 2:27 p.m.
Infant and child nutrition and cognitive development
Wendy Oddy, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
28 Sept. 2017 · 3:51 p.m.
301 views
Microbes, metabolism and autoimmunity
Ramnik Xavier, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 9:06 a.m.
621 views
Lipid metabolism in high fructose fed humans
Luc Tappy, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
29 Sept. 2017 · 10:03 a.m.
240 views
Food, health and disease: The evidence and reporting the evidence
Dennis Bier, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 11:11 a.m.
Deeper down the rabbit hole of data, analysis, and inference errors and suggestions for digging back out
David Allison, Indiana University School of Public Health, Bloomington, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 1 p.m.
Neural circuits of food intake - is it all about calories?
Harvey Grill, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 1:55 p.m.

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