Lipids and carbohydrates are components of a healthy diet. However, what is it that makes a diet healthy or unhealthy? Is it the relative amounts of each of these nutrients? Which lipids and carbohydrates are we talking about? Over the past decades, these questions have been at the heart of intense discussion. Lipids and carbohydrates are key nutrients and they contribute to the palatability of food. The ongoing public debate, and discussion within the scientific community, has resulted in recommendations that often swing from one end of the spectrum to the other, without taking into consideration a holistic view on human nutrition. The 14th NINS held on 28-29 September 2017 brought together leading experts to discuss this topic.