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so uh i'm had everybody i'm sorry from matrices or building
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basically from here um so first of all uh what is survey
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select from your fee and white is used for and prosthetics
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so in recent years we have seen the more and more advancements in a a technology in portable technology
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yeah it is for seen that in the next year is
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the solution we live translates to robotics as well
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and to a human capabilities enhancement also for impaired people
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however this field require the capability to the record signals from human beings
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which uh and uh that's one euro can be useful for these
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so what is selection menu buffy lets me your f.
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is the measurement of electrical activity decrease muscle contractions
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so when we thing to do a movement the movement originates into the brain any travels to target muscle
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various are sexy we have electric chemical changes that leads to the
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a muscle contraction that it produces an action and action potential
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this action potential can be detected put in some lectures on this phase of the screen
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why's election your of important for interest headaches well simply because i met
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the muscles that control the can't actually a locating into before
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so people that are implicated below the elbow they still had the muscles that used to control the hand before okay
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uh lets me out of the s. b. used in hand prosthetics seems the sixties
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uh nowadays uh eat uh has several pros and cons so nowadays
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we have to make any uh i'd hands everybody can suffer very very advanced
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lay mechanical point of view that can rotate the time and the released
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that can perform up to thirty c. six a a program movements different movements of
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the hand different press however they have also several counts so would be
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a control c. start extremely rudimentary the training times along because
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they require dedication of the subject to control the prophecies
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and the uh the the alternative control strategies that have been developed are not
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extremely usable nevertheless be a first commercial part
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recognition systems have been recently um
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released what is essentially take state of the art in hand prosthetics
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um many times have been done to the control robotic and we've
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gotta recognition movement uh classification techniques with proportional instantaneous control
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uh with multimodal data fusion including taxidermy tourist pressure sensors or computer sensors
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actually there are also some more complex um uh strategies that
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in boulder for example targeting master innovation to translate the
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uh narrows to control other mascot of the muscles um
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that are not used for x. p. c. tasks
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or a a neural interface is that contrast for the
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sensation reader related to the shape and be a
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stiffness of the object to object is objects to the uh to the person that using the processes
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the most common approach is a a incentive researches however
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to perform pattern recognition for movement classification would see
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and the however in general most all all the c. stands
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rely anyway on a similar hardware acquisition set up
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however software setting the stage so stuffy selects from your
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record a lexus are ways around before are here
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the it's a lecture me over the signals heels
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recorded it is proposes amplified filters sample
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the segmentations perform feature extraction perform and uh finally the movement is classified for air
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regression can be applied rather take me some of these can be applied
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uh again into the state of the art uh we have a um
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many publications actually so homely here that uh publications
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uh say here till two thousand eleven or more than forty
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and issue the deck solos control seem to be reliable
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however uh the data ah really of
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those publications is not publicly available
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the acquisition methods are encouraging us or d. r. can be very diverse in different
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publications does the results cannot be compared uh and reproduce the you see
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so what he's uh um uh our experience he know electron
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biography data sharing in at the state of the art
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well i recognise that the uh uh data sharing intervals from your fee is that can give an excellent impact
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and can be an excellent source of collaboration and that it can improve while the knowledge in the field
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so it has been a shown in the the church aren't described in previous presentations
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that uh a publicly available data can allow to improve different fields
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uh includes come including computer vision medically machine and many others
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however till two thousand eleven interface selector my your feet
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did not have any publicly available benchmark data sets
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so what we did into the state of the art that i described before
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with so many publications that was what had happened to thousand leaven
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was to create and refine are produced by the position protocol for a lecture me over three
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profits control to up to record a publicly available data base and to realise it
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you know the two uh allow what why tess and compare is on off classification algorithms you
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know the to finally of mental dexterity also faces for me over the process is
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and to reduce the uh training times so to make better prosodics that
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these projects was uh uh funded by this this national transformations actually
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it was led by each yep but by backup put up
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any to this ad as part has a us and the
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german or space centre so what was that the um
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the acquisition protocol uh all the the of these database
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roughly it consisted of having d. both intact and and ability subjects
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uh uh watching some movies of movements on the screen of the laptop
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we had several sensor located on the forum of the subjects so for amputees we add
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uh electronic your having a minute censored that and uh
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uh accelerometer is point of subjects we also had a separate
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lot to record the ground truth of finger movements
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we recorded the letterman europe the signals and we are from
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the analysis in order to allow a robotic process control
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those are the movements that we recorded so we
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have a first set of uh um
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for a set of single finger movements a set of basic
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and increased movements so for example with quotation with
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to be nation and a set of a grass and functional movements and also a set of course better
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the movements where chosen by a d. a hand
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taxonomy and hand remote expenditure sure careful
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um the uh results so would be you know pro database actually obviously the first one
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and deceitful because in the field but actually rather continues increase in it and it's
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get in more more use it is publicly available it includes a six data sets currently
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three of them are regularly is that was the other ones are waiting for a publication basically for peer review that it's quite a long process
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it currently includes ninety seven index subjects and eleven trance radio i'm pretty subjects
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performing approximately fifty different movements and uh uh currently we are record in
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a a more and more data sets with different positions adopts
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um and the database current have more than one hundred and fifty users
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it's like two three official publications describe in
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the database that got a uh
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approximately a one hundred and fifty citation since two thousand and twelve
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but obviously it's led also to several other publications related to the analysis of the results
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it is continues an increase in the number of publications related treat because finally data are useful and
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a number of citations because people find it useful and the easiest lead into a um
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increasing number of international collaborations because finally people are contracting out
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maybe to just to to recordings in the same way
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uh it's allowed as results to test a a different data no these methods
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so traditional classification metals deep learning methods regression with
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the mission will then i'm ten working
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we're paying a a way to show the possibility to uh recognise up to eleven different
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hand movements without us a higher than ninety percent in and i'm pretty so
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a a set of movements that could be used in real life settings let's say
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um and the utility show the relationship between clinical parameters
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and movements classification accuracy in a hand amputees
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so for example we showed that body mass index uh
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uh and that s. body mass index increase
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the classification accuracy decreases because basically fat x. x. as insolent
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we showed that the the longer the uh for our percentage remaining
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big better would be the accuracy with which we can record
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be uh we we can classify different movement which
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is quite obvious but was not demonstrated before
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we show that actually classification accuracy increases as
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fun tumbling sensation increases so funny
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sensation is the sensation of having steal your hand here once you have
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been updated and we show that the sensation the higher the sensation be higher would be actually
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it's which we can uh recognise the uh different movements and we show that actually
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the longer the time last night imputation the high there
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would be the accuracy which is a bit we're
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and that but but is consistent somehow with the um
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or yes we horace consistent with some results
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a related to to to how be our cortex
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adapt to the changes into the body
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so what is our experience finally in a a lecture me over fee reproduce ability
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or experiences that reproduce it really is difficult in this
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field many parameters can strongly influence the results
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it is fundamental to explain in detail data acquisition
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and analysis procedures and to pay extreme
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attention actually went reproduce in the result so when sane but you're reproducing the results
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and it is fundamental to have benchmark data sets and proper comparison massive
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so uh you someplace else mayor forehand prosthetics actually
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it is fundamental to putting results that can be translated
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to real life applications because we want amputees
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wow one day hopefully still want to be able to control robotic and
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as in science fiction movies uh the so depreciation setup but
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can a influenced strongly reproduce immediately we tested in uh our database
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uh for different acquisition setup ranging from a few hundred euros
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to almost twenty thousand euros and uh uh um
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actually with steamed that uh uh the classification
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results are all ten comparable considering be
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a senior position setup even considering the which devices and very expensive devices
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this results uh are we going to do to to be published actually we
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as uh since we aim to the uh um to translate a results to real life and um
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we should we see this scene that acquisition procedure is can strongly influence reproduce ability as well
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so for example training in uh and testing on a different
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date acquisitions made we did seem acquisition setup but simply
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pull it needs out and put in it again on
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to the subjects can uh affects strongly classification accuracy
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we have seen obviously as we all know that different
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uh uh data analysis methods can strongly influence
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uh the uh the the in the results of classification
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and particular here we showed it this summer that
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she computation or networks apply to some faceless from your face basically get
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normal results actually so the d. d. didn't improve the results
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that much but obviously we want to uh to to
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the performance to continue analysing these the application of these uh two techniques to this field
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we have seen that actually the number of
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classes can uh strongly influence the results
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so uh actually because the chance level varies with the number class
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in classes and considering a specific data set feature classifier
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the classification assurances theoretically expected to decrease as a number classes increases
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the uh and we've seen as well that class
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balancing then that's strongly influence reproduce ability
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and uh so for example if but we have unbalanced classification accuracy
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depending on the data set obviously but uh in several in some data sets
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i mean i'm balance specification actually can be up to
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fifteen percent higher then balanced classification at u.
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s. c. d.'s is basically due to the fact of specific classes that uh are classified with
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accuracy that are much higher than the other for example you know lecture my your perfect rest
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and this is usually not pointed out in a most of the church
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so finally in conclusion and i'll time uh the uh um a survey sites from
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your work beforehand prosthetics state of the art so the scientific results that
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have been shown our encouraging but the the are not easily comparable one to
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the other they're not robust enough for real live requirements as well
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we got a letter from your every data sharing so we really used
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be biggest database and of first immediately routes you're the only one
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database for surveys that american data counted include more than one to
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one hundred subjects perform in approximately fifty different hand movements
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he's allowed to improve public knowledge knowledge in the field and it allowed to impart
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descended literature and to be a a and became a source of collaboration
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we're gonna lecture me reproduce ability uh well uh we sold that many parameters uh can strongly
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influence results so as the all within before we
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have a uh it's difficult to reproduce
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results uh well it is fundamental to explain the us in a publication i think to explain the
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tape the data acquisition and all these procedures and to be extreme attention when reproducing results
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and of others and it is fundamental as well to have benchmark
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data sets improper comparison methods in order to allow up
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and proper advancement in the feel that it's not like saying okay i got two percent
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more get these five percent more but on what and the with which met

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Conference program

Welcome
Sébastien Marcel, Senior Researcher, IDIAP, Director of the Swiss Center for Biometrics Research and Testing
24 March 2017 · 9:17 a.m.
Keynote - Reproducibility and Open Science @ EPFL
Pierre Vandergheynst, EPFL VP for Education
24 March 2017 · 9:20 a.m.
Q&A: Keynote - Reproducibility and Open Science @ EPFL
Pierre Vandergheynst, EPFL VP for Education
24 March 2017 · 9:54 a.m.
VISCERAL and Evaluation-as-a-Service
Henning Müller, prof. HES-SO Valais-Wallis (unité e-health)
24 March 2017 · 11:35 a.m.
Q&A - VISCERAL and Evaluation-as-a-Service
Henning Müller, prof. HES-SO Valais-Wallis (unité e-health)
24 March 2017 · 12:07 p.m.

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