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challenge no it's for us to get you also the post condemned tape and try to keep you awake
the second is to own or the invocation of my upper management and
this is not the right of challenge and the third one is
to bring you to the mechanism of possible in the get and
i was actually farewell inspired when i was given the topic
two up last minute it out in the beginning of the facilities don't
and whatever you do today is set of reviewing the vast amount of literature you have on
basic aspects of this possible is actually give you a few examples
off mostly i would say and published it sometimes but which results
for that uh we have generated your can have c.
and i would also use an example for my hosting laboratory um in a rocking and
so yeah i found this numbers already i actually quickly because
of we'll check that my numbers there were okay
it has to be honest to get is really have very very dense
and very complex ecosystem and we have to keep in mind that
since come in and out constantly what was not meeting discussed a lot
uh so far is that the whole lot of new roles
which means that you not only totally immune system to to talk to other parts of the body as well
so the cost so you can argue that takes place in the playoffs is quite complicated
you have different problems to get my computer which by itself isn't really quite a story
the investment are yeah we have some aspects about part of the doesn't don't
hear the immune system which is also seek visible you know who's the
also the onto we can have a system all of these components talk
to each other and it's actually by direction from what we know
on top of it they are strongly influence in this was already presented by
speakers this morning by the whole genetics by and your mood and downright
and it says complex interaction which one would be to have some disease and you can imagine that i'm
not going to cover and explain that in forty five minutes that's why i too specific examples
the current view is uh as was also described this morning
that basically the mike reviewed that interacts with different layoffs if i
can see all levels of different levels in human host
in the got to run with impressive every year and the mucus leo ah
with the ah so see that complex the remote system but beyond that
seeing as can propagate to the systemic immune system to the
nervous system to deliver any number of sports and
it's impossible for the time being to disconnect will these aspects from each other
and that's why i would give you two examples of interaction with the impersonal
immune system one example of the interaction with repeated a part of your
and one example of how it can impact of microbial
attacked or perhaps can impact on the that relaxes
i will not even touch the bacterium bacterium about them within the michael below the dialogue
because this is very active is best adhesive model system like cheeses it to to order it
was systems and i think we would need the full this important when rub that
the team i say to that would like to uh already highlight is that
to get up to be able to at least approach some of
the question we if you don't see me to combine systems
and analytical uh methods but also integrate all the data in this was already also evil
first examples two examples of bacterial soon and into the host email
system and i will show you that not everything is like
the dogma or the canonical dogma i mean what is used to believe does that
the hostess sees the external part of the bacterium so all
the effect of molecules which are up the surface
um and to to that can only carry or receptors like the target set
of the not receptive to everything which is most top down recognition reset
and this is very nicely reviewed invariably instead it but it's only
part of the storming because not yeah actually more complicated
they have a number of said well the corporation and they have a number of components inside which by the way can
by accident and that on the surface and senior very strongly to the
host but they also could use a number of a compound slide
uh they get really is the anything it would also look good factors of
peptides make top or lights so you have a plate tore off
a factor molecules or seen any molecules that can be respected yeah yeah
and you are not already about water surface components uh this morning
uh in the shop in fact yes it's where also illustrated
but you can imagine as well that bacteria that what you guess doctor
h. two o. two bacterial scenes can in part on the micro but it would be proving to get
and there i think that this is sometimes they beat the or
and our estimate that when we do the analysis of the impact of a single effect are much
so i think is one example on what guided to start which were we going you isn't the
room somewhere um a couple of years ago and uh where we
a big is that a different genome sequence offices that that didn't this
may sound like me that it's not that hard in c.
and probably should noted that in the genome of uh of the if you don't talk to me long one
that specific strain there was enjoying it looking for protein very well known in the
coyotes but not really well known and reporting back to you know this was
the serpent sailing put this in the bigger and it was
intrigued by that and also noted that these g. is
really uh involved in moderation affinity boss ways and also sometimes
in the immune are incorrectly uh with the holes
so is he knows of with a lot of contacts biochemical studies
and demonstrated that the these syrup in um gene is indeed
encoding for bone right about now feed me sitting cookies i'm sorry to visit you basically
are they identified that the supreme substrate where human it is these is very specific
and the also embarked on genetic studies and what is a very interesting there is that
but looking easy lot very often she spec that secrete all parties surface associated
but what is very interesting is that the gene is not expressed in vitro
so if you could give it all back to you and you run a number of studies you lightweight nice
g. and yes you don't actually need this is embedded one first message i would like to pass
in visual when you get a string to almost for example you can
demonstrate that there is indeed evil induction of transcription and translation
the other g. over the uh uh with the d.
c. report these is awful i'm going it's also
yeah to analysing the the the detachment finding out
about actually inhibition of n. f. stays it's
amount out of bias it what is is cooked reduce inflammation of actions in
animal models so the question was if you then does the supreme light
uh forty from beyond when does it mediate the aunt into account and fit
onto inflammatory effect that we had been able to demonstrate something straight
and to i'm so completely to this question the assembly
to school constructed but number of students we have
a knockout strain where the strategy was deleted show absolutely
unable to produce supreme in and the conditions
the wiretaps traded that what users so clean only
in it that an online and especially in which also what used the serpent
and uh consecutive promote also high levels of certain independently
of the complex and the trees prints where analysis
you are the mouse model of a experiment that connects and
what you can see without going into too many details
is that if you look at the microscopic scores which version of the
level of information the control mice where windows colour it does
ever score of five the score incidentally reviews by administration of the wind
died you know well if you knock out the supreme jean
you to to to use the protective effect any you have constitute
if expression and have to don't depend on unknown triggers
that you have a much better call a protection it all these parameters where
correlated and uh that you know was a lot of uh information now
it's also quite visible from histology studies disease oh what a hefty mice
in here out administration of a high producing um certain straight
you can see a full protection of the basement so so the model was that
in response to a stressful you set on information which leads
to a really a release of ask these nice
product it's kind of an all too inflammatory group by the difference supreme
which forms a d. quite a complex with the enough things you really stop this information
so you see this is great i've isolated new provided g. have
identified shopping and shopping is now my aunt inflammatory component
obviously we also will clone to that scene in a lot of cardio which was another one like guess
it back to you and maybe gave it to mice we had no protective i think at all
and my message there is that i i'm not saying that a circuit doesn't care
road in the shuttle back to mangle i'm just saying that that carrier
is of the effective molecule page of all itself so it might be
having a g. but it has to cooperate with all the effect of molecules
and it depends all show where it brings the effect a molecule in to get
and i think that this is something which is quite often overlooked when
you start to play with your uh of single effective molecules
no i'm do perhaps you grab it it'll be the mindset want to rip
also worked at a where we became intrigued and entertained while by
for god's sake what else can it's enough to the
whole standard classical molecular party i'm associated proteins
and this work which was really that i definitely don't shark and the people of the identical
so what i'm simply i see that is quite different pretty signs we use a lot for basic studies is
to really use it a lot uh circulating says integrate them
we spoke bioethics comments as i've got a chance
and look at the whole song of sight attacks which is released after disintegration and he's
what we want in your own for finding so it gives you an i. d.
fuel straight is more on the plough inflammatory profile an aunt inflammatory paul fine
and it is actually useful to classify constraint into ever that an idea of the
global stimulation the bacterium can exert at the level of the human system
and we use the system in the past quite a bit to compare my
muse was white white that midwestern diversity or does it mean quite of
some of this work to look at the effect of processing on the strains and also on
on started to look at in part of the treatment of this and you realised that
discussed or it would that uh to live and he treats frames and that typically
the dimension that recommends yeah i'll be alive to uh produce an ethic
and we were wondering if we prevent strange to replicate
what can we measure and would you don't um dentists try cigarettes which don't
take any of the image on the usually for with the creation
um the proceeded was that some of the shopkeeper racially of some
of the internal molecules may not be damaged completely by treatment
and would still be able done as a consequence to signal to the holes
so the first thing we did is very five dialling twenty microscopy that
the live and he treated strains depending on the hips we didn't
don't differ that much from each of also the structure is not these don't and you
could imagine that the number of pounds automatically deposited but don't ask you there
and if you push the treatment of the tractor abuse you start to damage the sense
and you start to make them really but we also verify that independently of the structure
these but it would probably should west t. able to sing you
know to um uh the the top receptor slides and her
we don't use our simple previous yes see what we have snow it was for specific screen each
tool for many other strange but i would just like to myself one example is that
if you look at what the life up to boston spark i see
straight is doing open stimulation of a p. b. m. c.'s
it induces a the production of mine twice i would say more cool
from not resign and uses very little i had done so
little regulatory on income not recycle kind when you start to submit it to heat treatment
you will see a decrease in the campus portals like twelve an increase in the capacity to produce line that
which leads you to a globally you move from a worm or aunt
informative it'll fly which is by the way also going on with
the n. f. l. format actually an indefinite amount reduction and we started putting focus sick how it is possible
and can in oshkosh start to think of it out of the classical box
of bacteria because she's any me knowledge is more than a microbiologist
which clearly is an advantage now and then and uh
she realised that type and production is highly dependent
on a series of faded out every mechanism that that stability of the i ten messenger
that there and number or in the the longhorns hated region of the titanic wouldn't you you have
a number of places where you actually get really points that impact on the entering the stability
and that might whatever this kid could clear well so i think that
you all went to room of what michael in these are
and i think that the key point i would like to uh
mentions here is that they can be blind to seat sequences
indiana really of the oldest and on leech to a modification either
by closing the condition of the specific array or maybe translation
the our vast number of them in the human genome about what's interesting is that
the the artistry papers which no them when trying to the fact that perhaps
exit windows might where race can i'm conscious your to do list
so we say well why don't we look at what is happening at the level
of the messenger or any of the art than what we did was simple
again maybe m. c.'s incubate was provided takes in this case straight a
s. t. eleven or at bargain c. we are but i
know my seem to block conscription and with the matchup hall the
the the air in a pool was behaving which will time
and what we still what's first little feat in completely the teenage life is
yeah yeah but uh quite some indefinite down now they're related i attend
you've each read the same strain you stimulate your p. b. u. c. shot
in opposing image ready to into film gamma quite so my dad
we then measured the rate of the gradation of an iranian but
you can't see without winning too much heat is that
the the condition weight of the indefinite gamma message on there and he is
exactly the same independently on watching stimulated b. b. m. c. ways
or whatever or for the i think it's a completely different story i'd then
it's a stability of the i've been messenger is greatly affected by
just didn't do shoes to you could be the b. b. m. c.'s was so if you look at the whole
time there are three it's quite impressive and stimulated point forty
four hours life if the eleven about the double
but look nine out of the tree with the heat treat that and that was really treated so we see
'cause does have something to do with my career any and kept getting very find that indeed if you
look at my choir it may motivation after integration of p. b. m. c. sense
with live or he treated by that it's you see a huge difference
including a mere twenty seven and the reason i mention your twenty seven it's because
it is a microwave any that is known to impact on the i ten
messenger stability and again you see he treated as eleven doesn't promote
the uh um production of your twenty seven been b. and c. sets knife
i still have and a seat and the two of them are lower than the medium
so to keep the uh sure it's a relatively long story short of the stories not to to
finish but i wanted to share it with you the item messenger is started noise by
he treated probably out it's it was certain level by the nice about things they me
two provisions impact on the um mike where they production of the whole says substantially
and we actually realised that we had asked me or twenty seven
corresponding sequences in the genome of the probably optics we knew
where producing high ten in this p. b. m. c. i. c. so it doesn't sound to be completely did it disconnected
the key question is is oh nice my coronation released in a different way
from he treated or into that yeah yeah and is this this way
that we actually impact on that i then i tend messenger stability
and as a consequence on the line ten production in front
and i think that this is interesting because it's not a classical factor that you would
look out if you study bacteria hostile go about u. f. o.'s cost too
the next example i want to give is really coming from the ease of a windows of wow
with work i mean my whole thing about when they recognise receipt was in
the room there um and the head of the apple had rejected bands
we discussed a lot about a protective barrier and the
emu factors associated to the paper repeated area
but perhaps we should be a bit more attention including
in animal models where we don't study specifically
the importance of the because we should get a bit more attention to the
importance of that because leo in d. a. b. t. u. m.
which he's basically deduct yeah i'd be in keep that as distance and it
is really very well used to it it's your um uh that
as you can see the little white time models you have a lot of me
good which is in uh this is not to eat meat state in right
you have a view with us you know it's the very organised layer in the on of
the world that mice and you can see that the doctor here are just a distance
well the and this has been preparation is well known but it took us quite some time to
don't work with that because when i see it as is about uh the the the comic decides to come in and
so the uh jimmy but we know and the the about page
and i decided to take advantage of not to knock out
mines that were actually develop on the beauty is that handles
that's it on the flop despise line f. y. i.
it was like what miles so deficient but not
devoid of and a fuel knockout mice
it was also observe that the knockout mice develop the
spontaneous collide is in certainly more facilities as
i was able to dial the number yeah so it was when we would do it
and what is remarkable is that you have no damage whatsoever in the
video so the question is what is the role of the makers
on the development and demand the needs of the microbial thought into small
and the larger this time and this was realise that it by
uh i would say a simple in the conceptual longitudinal study where a white
i knock out and uh it was like the mice wasted it
uh over time and time bombs were looking at cars people mix microbial type of filing is total
g. n. n. number of points where uh come from by should be c. r. as well
and i think that it's very nicely illustrated as you can see the phenotype demise is
well uh the straightened and corresponding to the other to the big asian this is the new speech sixteen
format to a lot of the work that less all but c. b. d. double that might be
so i was and nothing in to a knockout models which is we also want phone by g. action
and and when you look at what's happening in terms of my could be
auto repeatedly interface the typical situation didn't agrees keeps the bacteria ability
in the it it was a good mice you already have backed yeah did very close and deeper into please
and abuse in the knockout mice you can start to see twins location
and what the test people mix that is that uh that we know and quite if they are a bit too long to explain
you d. to but i think that what is quite striking is
that even but you you have a relatively minor modification
of the mic use like in the yellow it goes to the go to summarise you do have an impact aunt
the the interaction of a mate factors which are important in the responses
and these uh efforts are changing over time and you can see that the effect is
much more on the rules when you compare the wide eyed my student local
i think that we may need more than over the state east to start too long to wait
what is the importance of the different parameters we look at and if i summarise observation of you know
the matrix is quite important and each to a damages depending
on the part of the the the that you examined
but what is important is that it is understood by that that basically you the knockout mice
that damage in the uh email is the need it times you are very impressive
prepare and defence mechanism in these actually make it to make it
go to the will of of what is on your no
by the i twenty to start street tossed we and i think
the balloon was quite interesting observations option should to as well
what is also clear is that that lessons and the amount of make these and it's also seated on demand
could be attacked arts is strongly inference in the development
and maintenance of the days in my computer
so in other words when we use specific models we made ah yes
the rest forms we um generate and a conclusion we make
if we don't take into account june because leo and that was the kind of people message
that that was example i would like to do if is you straight in the interaction of microbes ways to
get green access and this work which was done in a group of yet another on c. d.
in collaboration with the microbiology stuff and i think everyone is in the room so if you want to
discuss more with them you're horny welcome to walk was done in collaboration with the mac master um
a book of a a now where do when she meg actually in the data of these buttons and
find each to a looking at least in i guess we'll come back to that in the
coming a conference is that there is if you don't see it that brain axes
but that does get i mean access which is now recognised by everyone is also impacted
by the microbial though and i think that it was shown an established that
certain stress else can really beat you up
psychological stresses can reduce dramatically microbial diversity
and we also know that germ free mice there is a strong impact on the
scene this is also the middle transmitter so today everyone agrees and ah oh
um yeah agreement with the fact that there is definitively again by direction and
communication between the cat and the brain and this is mediated to make it
not very simple died in normal immune and on the impact which is
my computer is playing rule in this communication and
more and more correlations of what's at this stage of data start to underline that
the reserve all of the michael due to get a marxist in certain diseases
and to illustrate uh some of these aspects i would use some experiments of don't buy a
gap in the school of the idea yes so the it it but but wasn't room
i think our own familiar with it and some speakers we come back to this example but i don't want to make is that
besides the abdominal does all the same discount falls in functional problems
the people suffering from i. b. s. f. will still um moved
i'm sorry the depression like problems and that basically it's all together uh reduces the quality of
life and i know that many people well for a long time doubtful easy really
uh is there really a link between the quality of the ideas i t. n.
t. i. b. s. or is it just a big set of everything and
today they have several lines of evidence supporting the role of the good
michael you don't quite a number of people papers really describe
a cop norman from invasion of no money oh well on to read stability in
composition i cannot see of normal because we don't know what norman is
symptoms of associated with specific uh um a template out
and uh these are really as decisions that is but you have more and more nice and that uh
william could comment on that as well because it it quite so more on ideas and still doing some
was this factor when you then divide today is that
you can i've really lost gastrointestinal infections inflammation
and that and i would say also use of
antibiotics maybe two ideas later in life
the guy well couple of agreement uh intervention start getting the my
computer but and so there and number of papers describing now
he needed or or success in v. probably of the individual to
improve this includes windows which should be noted that um
elemental direct financial below on keep your tips which really impact
on the my computer where shown to improve the simple
so the global forgot be really became and interested in that and are we in the the might of the my
computer in the i. b. s. and i would i would describe now what they showed in terms of
i don't transfer of my computer job three mice so to master as a series of
models where they can really look up to get rain access and did behavioural
and they have one mouse model where every my information in uses anxiety
um an exiled to figure out if you're not typing mines
and this is really huge created by latency to step down from a small platform and as you can
see if you treat the control mice with a
mind inflammatory stress you increase the latency time
if you if two buttons would probably that explains you see a bit action
of the latency time but only one of them
is a really leading to a strong positive effect uh not really yeah right
uh these interventions where we have to similar our individual agents one leading to a
positive effect and the other one out or to a lesser a strong effect
it was a shown that this scene straight which
was reducing anxiety i'd be if you will
was also released a mediated d. b. a. d. n. f. uh expression levels and this was it
needing these changed behaviour after administration of the belong room nine nine nine
also led to normalisation as compared to the untreated device
of the expression levels in this intolerable system of big enough
and this was actually did not see any associated to an aunt inflammatory affects
what information is a tricky only each one and slightly behaviour or
the bacterium known put should reach the behaviour but
didn't background information and this is just again
i try to illustrate that even if you can establish strong effects in a very
limited system you have to be careful in the general conclusions you take from them
the weather some very yeah though is that these effect was to to be dependent of a real
communication between to get him to breed and i think that this is important as well
i'm the same group as another bottle of uh i would say
inflammation no uh might information following um
click enact infections and yeah it was yeah the show on the
main system but again that the young home with me stops
you know we do get really hot but we are absolutely no effect you don't know 'cause we've no
on secluded inside the kinds why should the classic of drugs or a a treat lose which
target mere uh uh yes also overproduction in
ideas on maybe d. um diseases
these war on information big don't affect the greenhouses and i think that these are
the really messages i want to pass and i think it's very strong
we don't we do that without it doesn't do anything
on circulated unified for white rex orchestrations would
impact on t. n. f. alpha but not on the exactly type behavioural
so it became quite interesting for the the
digestive as in microbiology cooled to think
about using the mice as a model and i recognisable the limitations which were
cited already this morning but you have to start somewhere and build any part is
is that you can then next move on to the common situations so
what was the only to piggy or my computer of uh helps you don't have an i. b. yes sir for
us are from the diary yeah diary up type confound decision
i could build up to a germ free lines
and then look at the twenty time and the anxiety
uh uh like behavioural the twenty time is uh
increased all the towns the investment score so the the nice ever increasing
doesn't want to school when they received the my computer of uh
i. b. s. till now compared to draws received the my computer from has
to do with now and the on site the light behaviour which is
we um measure this time in the dark violet box a model is also
um reduced in is also low was only in your in your head see
this you perceive i can see so as compared to do the
mice that receive the my computer from ideas don't or so
you basically not believe that a get rain x. s. exist and that the microbe your top
is really impacting on it but i think that this is really integrating
a v. dance that we should continue easy to get more
taxes what is very interesting to me is that when the my
computer composition of this mice where i'm not that was analysis
you don't see an absolutely clear cut segregation of the microbial thousand miles
has c. or i. b. s. type if i can see summary
however when you move to to a double mix perform c. home
did you hoops cluster completely differently so
it's easy to the trying that you may need more than one really don't that as we discussed already this morning
composition maybe due to a certain conclusion that you should link the trees over me those
and i the next pitch for a t. t. v. there would be too
stratified ideas subjects into different unit types and see to which
point does she not i associate was busy my computer
can be found for up to one most about that but that
obviously will dot to the human situation now that i didn't
um so a very now come to my conclusion and i hope suzanne is happy with me because she
asked me to speed actually i am i think that as a conclusion i can certainly say that
the crosstalk is a cat is fascinating but it's really really the beginning of the story
and uh a lot of progress has been made and abuse yeah good
give you three of four slice of outstanding peoples and refuse but i think that it we
have to use a series of ego engine yet strains bacterial strains continued nice lines
use different essays and modems and i seen someone sighted because of
feel nice and that was a fiance part fish um
mm rodents then i speak let's also the questions are we want a way to approach but that
the challenges then double back from this more base to uh uh the human situation outputs
oh well for like when the line doubt to stick with a single bacterium
in a single but if it was system with one clark cell type
it gives you a really good idea of want to want to for want
of every find more complex system but i think we should really avoid
hope i get a job most like a p. s. is the major
trigger circuit is the magical biotech carrier and and i think that
like we we discussed this morning for the microbial to composition
we have to be a bit careful in what we
the messages we come very i strongly believe that the reason we are but i think we should really
and then we should think about the neglected doubt that's usually when
i speak about the investment area not including the remote system
uh and everyone speaks about i junction senior fantastic pictures very nice
very few people really look at it because slayer by itself when
we speak about the uh uh my computer members i think
that uh to scroll showed very clearly that when you guys made that you know make any text is it a guy
and if you get guys i talked on the ecology of abducted communities for the the
little guys are very nice of fate oh by the way she had uh
also what is to get its infancy is there crosstalk in the diet or
the synergy or the uh between the different type of you've done members
which means that we will have to go to systems biology one way or another
and i don't have that magic solution that i take advantage of missy cleared
basically being in the room and perhaps you can raise your hand
uh because he started to get up and walk through on
how you can move from correlation studies to the uh
in the for in vitro bothering to generate any but this is that you get that go back
to human and i really would like to card to the work you did with uh is
s. p. g. students uh huh i like the you just go to bed met the type to replace
them if you don't know how to study them then you have to push your commentator financially
and i think that this is that we still have a let a lot of know how
to make sense of the data would generate and how can we remain humble i
think it's i can't remember if it was a victim of someone ecstasy
let's remain hand and we know on and off since but let's try to put it together
and with that i would like to thank you for your attention and give my pace
tends to mike and se colleagues uh quite excellent and it's easy to find sciences
the extended office i don't uh we have been collaborating on for the work i've the that and
the longstanding colleagues i have interval was stimulated me over the years

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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