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get the all the orders ingredient on those and that stuff from uh to get the
you know and and and the doc about systems which is close to your heart
for the business people close your bases cost of ten centimetres from your
your heart is the at large community of microbes and uh i'm happy that that that that this little loudly to up
to put my logo on the title just markups aside from that uh introduces subject i have to say to wrap
to the the the the chairman that don't believe everything that is written in ages those good to come back to that later on
what i say is that that really that michael will work you know you are maybe not alone yeah buttons
do you have this a little located on this uh on this but that's more than there are starting
to calculate in the universe so it's good to get better might be a little models know that
but talk to the students uh settled on school of the art like material as
more cells then you break so it's good to keep that in mind sometimes
and that the impact on the overall kind of for a very as you can see here all the the partake areas
and maybe that's reason uh to explain this uh this uh activity i had an analysis of that some companies
uh because by by track you know very bright article fruit animal farm out they all use my
crux but we use them to everybody for us actually it completely itself and that's it
the impact of it's actually just treated in this a little cover of a of a column is this or a couple of years ago
but still i think it's important to illustrate is because the title is my corpse makers man
but actually loads market makers men matters it's good to remember that because we know now that
are good also communicators are great and i'm sure a lot of people come back to
your radar this says cycle it's uh because see the time like the present itself whatever period
the benefits of fickle transportation is all the things you would rather not lobby for breakfast
so they're from happy that this big no to you about this and i introduce the subject is out for us in discussions
also as say that that we have found unpublished that recently that in some cases not all some cases
books are better than trucks and that will come back to that later in this in this case
so what about the economy no that's some economists here people would like to know how to get money out of this or that
the very happy that you're here because if there's no money gained in this area
we don't become to the sites does go to have that going on
so the objective market opportunities as a reason to mark the markets and um a lot if you actually indicated
i was a bit disappointed the market value of a dollar fifty million
increase intrusive six of fifty five years that looks good of
course because of thirty two percent annual gauche well i think many of you when you obvious would like to see that
a lover i think when you think about it it maybe understand it because i think this
area there's a big impact on consumer and patient which you can't even express into money
uh the daily uh uh the deli sort of the holes as if you can calculate into blocks it's good to keep that in mind as
it is yeah yeah they grow even first maybe after my talk about the the end of the meeting you have the same item
let's go back to the uh what's happening there is more than only full conversion that markups of doing that a common to believe is
that you know i'd i take it up or we take the goodies out of it that that that the difficult got these things
number this simple full components are covered by the the the mark option the call
and they produce the the short event yeah says that if you or other sites and that's sort of it
it's more that is much more that why is that because they
talk to us does my course have specific instructions as us
we will be more and more about that uh in this in this in this uh in those days
and they also have the whole thesis have this mutual basic interaction they're not competitive anymore they're simply aunts
actually in the old days of occult common source because they eat the same thing is
we do but now we actually have this ritualistic interaction so them more than that
so it's good to get that the market there's a little friends is liked it that's on your it or so why is this human good micrograms of thought
nowadays the more the sovereign papers pretty are actually uh you know every day there's something to eat
and also in a a high impact yours whether there is is is that that
sequences had become mainstream you know we'll 'cause sequester world and look at
but we also have to realise that we are in the beginning of
the discovery to work if it's a limited knowledge limited concepts
and it's a very complex system other show you why that is the case so it's also easy to make progress here special to you
but that has imprisoned that included president that tells impact them is very important for
else this is the local to not make this that my daughter up uh
uh uh is that uh uh and seasonal doctor so she helped me by all looking old is
easy because i'm single bike and so it's good to work to get the market we uh
because the later there's about twenty twenty five or so um associations be presented to be
associate this a market right over the title is from correlation causation that's
still correlations can be important to come back to it also
later i think in this the presentations because that's the only consequence it can be correlating and goes to be for a word
it's good to what is it about the causation tortured only that the l. a. few real
examples of conversation that see this level that discussed the day but
the books and and i'm sure that much mutable conductor tomorrow
what is the problem the problem is that most of them are cops apple because just yet
and not only not got but everywhere in the world so there's all kind of programs
not to look at the market themselves but look at at proxies like the unit
i get sick as i alluded to that house uh next generation sequences sure
generation but every single molecules it was sick people can do that now
actually it was interested that the use of it's got like stevie i i
did my first sequencing experimental about that when we got through it
and they a sequence the model in a later that turned out to
be bacterial soap wasn't right track already and that that they your
we could publish that one little sequence of thirty years ago apple refers papers with artillery
so it's a long time ago so i basically see note but the game is a like a lot of all the
things we can do it but we have to be very careful so not over interpret because i actually also or
now we have this is out of the speech and it got uh you can calculate how much
there is it's also the matter of the finnish some of them are very hard to culture
so we have to be also models there but we can use this election microscope i use uh uh
the in asia read out and also the protocol if you want to put the knowledge is
and then we come to the idea that it's more than ten million the jeans and got a lot of people conducted very happy
to acknowledge that the that the proposal the project that which can also the cover of nature do scribble elaborate on that later
you can coach because culture quite a few speeches actually they didn't entry
um recently put for results include shouldn't dust on my crotch you can see the fringe right
uh the circuit your car yeah that's it back here and i can't hear the
meant that you're already a bacteria so we'll say my crops or bacteria basically
and if you look at the uh development you can see that that this was the first
notion of the rubber cleary and it gets actually it was as we can correlate discovered
and it took a long time before really who i would say um
a jump a leap in the uh in the activities can that does when the the hon technologies right developed
engage a papers actually you can see that in a limit your like more people were doing this
uh why's that because all the mark option they got uh most of that extra colours
and i was not to put systems you can do more and you can extrapolate that and i know of of uh
people do we get a real a fantastic way i think we can cope with the contract that's about that apple
we continue to isolate novel generally pull them out actually are you interested in not
having infantry will but i look at the more major player so we look
at documents yeah as abundant specialist good you gator will come back to that later
people talking about here are the helium that to do to a producer
also integers rubber track is important another one it's interesting the most which is the chronicle so we
cool out new organisms all the time we try to understand what they're doing a like
at the buttons of function because that's the the main drivers of bargained for
now what is the problem of this whole area the problem is that you and your different eh
we different out change be different in the markets actually we differ maybe more in the markets
we thought about reading about a fifty years ago with when i started this field actually it
was more the white by tacking for biotech unless there to work on the yep
on the doesn't like because of the many markets that we don't have go to the moon or
two to the deep ocean to find markets you can find them just you know very nearby
so we look at that as i was with them are forced to be used used
to the found a dozen subjects that they're all had a different market by all
so you really different objects palmer that well there's a three thousand people here we have themselves in the database
the picture three thousand is a complex p. c. a. showing that each one of us has a different market by or
however they look at melissa got prints or family members you can see the most similar
to look normal that a little bit is it worked on this my yep
local workers including can see different names here you see them that though the bifurcation
presentations to work with me to crack this uh the state of not
this is the twin cities with it a long time ago with already uh people that believe it's a merger reputed to it
we agree with that as well for the most got utterance you can see models the gothic wins
the parents look more similar to each other in individuals
not all bacteria similar you can see here some actually are more similar in the change
the last one complete detail suggested some specific instructions and maybe their specific receptors that
may cause we're gonna stay not only conversation because other adults living in different households
so this bacteria stay there for this should be forty years of their lives
we find this quite often not all countries of the world you
find out because in those courts involving don't in holland there's
limited that got accused of people have the similar diet and they don't move which show the way that's also maybe a
factor which it can be confounding and also explaining why other people's got people got to produce and select the tells you wanna
look at you all the data that you have this intimate injections and my course and it's really to have families
what about the it if you look at the uh the dietary up compounds
they have an effect on an impact on the market by or whatever it is personalised market becomes
more prevalent more important so people the percentage on it is more personalisation so the specific
variation is more important than the diet however that it is important
this is a very local by age people are losing weight like crazy and you get a large impact on the market by now
this is a fibre diet will come back to that is only few percent whatever it can be very important you presented don't
since then i mean you can be very important sections to market changing and then they have an acceptable circulated
probably others don't do much but that's we have seen also they do more in the upper
g. i. tract immune elation and is already like the justice on the slide shows
so the presentation actually overrides the fluctuation from normal diet which is good because you are maybe different
i mean he colon have rather than she or recall one of my goals for for a couple of days
we not going to have the same mccabe or which is good because we have to have the flexibility
we have to have the precise links because the market's willing to very
separate probably they have this special which well isn't this interaction option
b. o.s it's your button market maybe different of course the principles can be the same and therefore we look at them right
also good market bills table before people for more than ten years i found there for stable so
it's good to keep that in mind you can actually recognise people because that record cased well
be different but they also the same effect their mechanisms there of course that truly system mechanisms that to
explain the introductory fountain the mate i project their high level negotiations solution to set five thousand
people your commitments picture of that showing that tells separate into clusters and you find your favourite part
of zero to clusters the low he also to certify subjects i'll come back to that
but or something else we found we talk on the status as we had about ten people don't
like books i wasn't l. c. subject because you want to know what's happening it helps
they looked at all the market you got fired we found something special somewhat
cops have this by model distribution so people that high another hello
that's for something which we started to work on actually suggest there's some
some feedback loops because like the captain that situation little conflict to it because many of fluctuating but others are not
suggest that a positive feedback loops because as out of the galactic event
in a situation they stay in the same position them flip back
but actually innocent of all the stable states which have be formulated in ecology
actually that that was work this uh of martha's however uh he works as a sin that in marketing and and to relate that he
actually publish this the paper uh as a review about the uh
pacific it shifts in in ecosystems i inform the animals alone
to the ocean to me as far as education whatever you can apply this model everywhere
but it is yeah but you have you know a species in a in a stable state here this is little ball here
and it's state is resilient it can't move as you can see if the conditions are changing
so if you died exchange views with antibiotics or some other factors that make changes
such a way that the perturbation can get over this hill crazily and such
the fact that you have to sit in healthy people this chip is a minimum here suggest and this by stable
by model uh organisms suggest to have this kind of alternative stable states in the good because in here
you can see here have a dollar but just want a buttons in healthy people and
fabulous just all the way actually sherry low in that in l. c. people
but gossipping disease people ever the other girls down in this these people and there's
a lot of on again included yet so could just cause a lot
see all this actually they actually i love it very and uh but we see if he actually fall
this two cohorts software individuals which are compromised because he
associates with the obesity and and ideas fits
so we can use this system our discussion it's on the basis that paradigm for how we can interpret this good
it's maybe also is is also complexity sinker salsa species maybe have to
look that by stable wants to try to understand what's happened
oh yeah i've heard from people that they speak fast so why yeah sort well i yeah
we usually asked before as a as a close election because and everybody has got
market coffee so i have to have to summarise so so nicely that here for the people who've lost track they can look up okay
so we have a house and disease so the conclusion is real difference we have
a person as michael by mark about that is affected by by it
but we have limited inside the new concept on which emerging from the data sets that we
have a lot of the concepts i want to share issue is the one like
as max's these later on and they're in actually we have this little cycle isn't rocket science but it's a way to sneeze
we are in your home yesterday can result in my company all highly diverse
that this change it all to the stables taste a little ball candles the minimum there
but if there's an infection you get a bit of a couple of actor actor you know
or maybe you go to the airport so and that you haven't the books we changed
by all the time you have a very high fat diet for four weeks
because life thought it maybe get to go to this difference you know community they said this
table status changing this little ball exchanging it goes over the hill to another state
and that can lead to basically warning signals advocacy already in the guts of many of the people we are compromised
after is associate lisa when isn't which should make l. p. s. a gram positive negatives
uh which i may cause a a a logan information the same as for the flight lines and you come back to that later in the talks
that may lead to tissue destruction or some affection the body and it can
eventually too strong so you do stuff for the tea cups of
shapes of the coloured also ecosystems are described in the ocean and others
on the covers of shift used to come with these huge development
the only thing you can do is to restore the market the or whatever the arrows irreversible but
we think he we're sort of at that minimum you can get out you have to be
stored that's practical transportation comes in but maybe also to try piece which right dietary or five are
really will come back to it later you can go back to the state it again
but this is the model well so what size as i said that's helpful
to understand what's happening there because this early warning signals can be used
maybe there's only warning single sorting only stays in really and they that can be used
to justify individuals when you want to do interventions is a huge issue from up
because it's important to have a somewhat units population possible in spite of the fact that we are all different
now this the field movie you have been you only get about a house in
the season on they couldn't animals some human well for some reason maybe
because animals these of youthful we can do a lot is that and learn about a concept
no concepts but that indicate to you you only have percent market by all
about the sink what happens when you put your mike about animals so uh it's different so we have to be aware of that
so i prefer to look at you record studies and talk to understand also what happens there is human i say
test you probably isn't too because we can see that we can work along those lines
not really sure the field that's often is binary my computer component compared to take a healthy person uh this each person
you look at the market will so difficult to take some shit they've actually the layout admitted that i wouldn't
a fine differences well that's not stringent priority would be nice if you put us for the for the same c.
because in biology straight difficult to prove something identical phrase to do something different
as we favourite careful that you'll find differences so we didn't mean and how can you use that
so what the well is is useful tool to follow things in time and associated to
a development is easily but of diet it's important to do that we get there in that in the beginning i was
saying that is not a good way spike would like to do to start but we have to follow up
i don't have for my computer based therapies and we'll give you some account of that because
that's the ultimate proof of the pudding is the eating so you have to do something
before going there i show little bit that the architecture of the good friday it as a a load it up
uh by yourself i i love this picture of a house seven i guess about
twenty five kilometres away from us uh abuses we're gonna do it so
uh this is the uh really a more the the short ball a jar tracked and here
no single happening uh you heard about at this time because of stellar station tank with a full comes in first goes to the yep
a small ball and then since from the time in the call and there's all kind
of a last annotation last that pipeline solutions uh because that's what happens there
uh about five percent of the coloured logo still taken up in the in the column
in the former shorter factors that you'll answer sites or the different systems there
doesn't work when you want to be married their systems which are different there's a
progressive causation look at the numbers this is about well up to uh huh
on the south and the million fall sometimes lower as compared to the common market your
goes with progressive in the in the yep so all the numbers about your different other shows that type of bacteria different but that's
well sings i happen good to keep that in mind collision porto and everything what's in there should come out so you
can look at the end i had problems because it it gives us some memory of the past was good to to keep
in mind that the uh could you are quite different world because there's the competition is the host that's worse things happen
no i talk about that that was already alluded actually textbook you find the screen the screen reader is not is
not the tennis court anymore since uh this uh this summer um as your colleagues or friends actually far out
since third grade reader so it's only it's only serves box that's because god said well the tennis courts of box that's fine
uh it's important most important part of that is quite what's or like that that's how does not report apart
and this is where these things are happening this is where it all happens in his tennis court
here your fancy going to be a giant actively he's here we did this work is it
human volunteers were eating uh probably like uh i like the supply of sound effect on
the expression and a hole in your system uh uh i would say triggering
and uh and tolerance which is a is a a fact under so it's important park
for the gesture in between transport that takes place in the project vitamin a receptor is always have this whole
there this is where things are happening republican you see we talk about right so you know that
and the market will talk and so this is an important area so how to get there not easy you can go in this
corpus we can also use a year storm operations we did different ways of looking at it and actually do the story is
that interpret your article that actually does less materials you can see from the park also the brackets back here
this is the college material little bar called liberty yeah especially strict and hopes that will present an
opera jarred like that is not on the same level that just unfolds on the lower
a sceptical kind of on the larger dormitories so different coloured
market your data actually occur special powers were conducted out
and there's some remote affected which also affect the market but uh compositions
machine which architect depends your diet and then the human he'll have
shown that if you take a screen you can see that coming back in the administration in the in the project at michael
another thing is actually calculators which i've excel paper of these a
couple says it it's a lot of people just expose them
i some correspondence is that because you can't hear it everywhere of course
helsinki got people thought that usable ready in the the details
that actually valuations individual checked okay that is changing your morning like
of your that in the platters different anything like the other
simply stated his foot a food intake and the noise went out that night
the nice all seven different like the or minimise all fine or so
the fungal space travellers supervision over the years ago longer tunnel study where people actually
kane other analysts for them fickle market that we found that you on
your face table the fun sometimes less is that last ability
one was using antibiotics as she others i've been times on travelling so we reported
already about uh she got it is there anyway i factor back appeal
if you don't have any tools to work on it and do something about this difficult so it's good to keep that in mind always interested the next step
how to then go from that to the next step how to use that in a practical way
so here we looked in practical way to be a are a second notices to the transcription of the mark up there
so what came out actually i said is that that there's a competition up and your tracks between like option almost
well more concise either because my comes complete everywhere a complete also deserves the complete
for easy to degrade sure which so the glucose isn't so much a variable
people start your money or your analysis there you get low cost there and this typical chi i don't want
to take it up there for lot for transport system for two hours to complete results for shoppers
the maid lactic acid like i guess is not all the support for us it's fantastic
to make plastics but not too good for so you have to compare the computer
so you can cover to the cup in it and always unlike helena is doing that's effective when it's
all this can take as it they collected because also because it it uh also the
the like the so i do that under specially under a little bit oxygen conditions
is it more favour belinda that the uh so that the liked it can be covered and retract but
not all organisms are doing that only if you so we isolated goes into look at that
this that is the only state database just illustrates the fact that
looking at the the remarkable compositions multi also resist to individuals
and they're cool actually dominated by yeah by the instant recall quite
i'm blue red this archetypal studio so beloved different you see
oh look at the pas ways of florida's doing that than that found that this is is possible it's green
well the screen is not on most visible there but the screen is the violent allow this conversion
of the prop it select appropriate to a costly as us closer they don't buy file another
so if you look at this your uh market real data uh the that you know i'm a sack you won't
see it but if you look at the power switches on the no that's why this is important factor
this is the conversion which is relevant because that's signals to our host of the show you that
like little so that's uh that's how to approach so it's not so not so easy
so they talk to us that yeah that they produce something richer vitamin production is million a project
like you by the probably the vitamin b. twelve council which is very important factor for us
travel chains are are uh like here it i would change separate using them molecules that
fuel our system but also signal signal has already indicated uh oh come back to
and you uh that this pieces are there because those organisms living heart
environment everyday articulate some nice bile is they're all kind of
stuff there enzymes don't want to be there so they want to be there and they were concerned we have been selected
so i stopped him if they wanna compare you want to look control multiple analysis to show
you the yeah the the the power of that no i just talk to the last
well that's what it all starts uh maybe start before the life i've been out at its it
mine is nine months maybe maybe it maybe even before but still before
conception even they started novell up but then still it's important
you were fortunate strongly coalesced progressively quickly and relax
and i think this is a program microbial transportation well so much for the vagina
i'm sort of course a lot of the solemnity they're a lot like the selected once you find a job troubles fountain nobody is fickle market
well the bacteria finding your in your system they come from what feeds
have to come from somewhere but everything is everywhere as i show you the look on her
this program mark about us but they should give others for that and that being
the silliness of moderate but maybe transfers in our history our g. different
because we have this yeah oh uh uh because of my father mother and family members with the same holds for the mike cox
you can anything it has it has been made of years we've lotion and little estate constructions involving so i'm our costs
actually have been involved in how many that's about it so you want to be out of different from my
it's only the phone was okay in the family impact not looking at the root of the problem with this is
the data set of about five thousand people that lay on allies that actually because see diversity which is
a which isn't even as they call up in time actually it was surprised to see we're not completely sure
this is rated show because we have a little bit less uh people yes compared to the rest
but that starts on zero it got upright quickly it takes a long time to develop good good
button marked what i'm missing at least more this we're pretty literature maybe five ten years
but you get this diversity uh we just maybe in time and of course not have to say this is not
a single individual fulton time because that's not funny his he advances for a hundred years so it doesn't work
so this is a good source of people that we've collected here we go one day i will
come back to that later but not much because other people talk about the same coupled recorder
so what happens in the first week of life on a colossal show you but most of the baby so
low collection a level the show you have to have a similar they're not the same as the mother
so how then can it be that you know when this this market we are going to look like them
work so we had an experiment but it was a lot of is used to it than that
intercourse city council are weak and suppose somebody had this uh course an addict
in the freezer to go out and that wasn't the professor there
and to look at that so we have maybe samples of the model and the
and the big uh the baby is another's for about three years of time
if you look at the similarity between the mother and the baby is very
lonely beginning custom the big different market by on as different photo ah
that's not of milk or whatever only after meaning you consider similar to
coming and actually high similarity that counts three years well that's why
stop so i think a college uh with this with the quick six but look at this he was a baby
and this week the mothers after she years compared up because he that the kit kit similarity was much lower
stick it to model similarities you can see here it's a little different really much higher because of this the similarity
indexes is you telling if you look at the at x. y. plots are almost or line in some cases
that also even uh there of course also more similar to the on more than two random up so it's good to keep that in
mind so this is really difference already you can see their differences here so we got our market be out of our mother
i think this is just a fine for that our results we haven't is it's all these days experiments you can do
that by you can see that but then you'd is it's it's so i would say support document will transfer
but how does it come that that you can see the getting all this is actually has to do with the program how computers location
the market today already but you don't see that because it looks like this is our
baby looks in time every bar every uh every barcode here is michael speeches
is even call him sends out a bit of a mixture of everything that has to do with the fact that this is and the times
lower actually in terms of uh of uh of of the and they so actually is very low level but so many things out there
it would later you can see the different but your comment there they they got a status alert coming going back throw this is coming
and you see the product you're coming this the typical breastfed baby a volunteer from the sofa
you can see the little composer that's actually use almost an alien uh we're not even a call
those are also absent an indian summer tour low level also low level in the babies
but there are there you can see them so maybe do all this hard to put stuff you can find out actually the but you
don't actually to sing a fountain unbiased way that all this markup speeches are there in the babies and the base of the baby
and it's not only be for the bacteria also stick under option to indicated here you reptile uh you
became highly i i come on the ah i don't know that there there are low level
i just there to find the genes of did you find the signature of them are there if you look at the
needed you know you can see that the l. c. babysat the l.'s they share on all the speeches together
i'm not exactly the same but this is just to indicate that anyway everything is never ever been so lex that's
all folks signs up that scientists studying the about cracking under direct campaign cleaning his radiant sixty years ago
but how does it work on my support what's important because it explains what we see it
also explains what's happening and that how does it work i'll give you some might
what is the point also is listed here is our new system it's quite different individual as compared
to post little development also you can see all the markets which are interacting educating amused
and there's a cognitive element of our new system in the market the causation
so here's wrestle habits it does goes wrong it may have profound effects
good good at the moment this is not happening well interview my says be different so we have to be really mulder start
so there's different irish broken interaction between markups host so how does it work we did like you
submitted products we didn't look only at the genome and the d. n. a. deals with
the proteins system for that you reported that that actually is looming on the metabolic process of
the bacteria you see obvious things that this issue 'cause i. b. yeah a degraded
if the material there that they could is a beautiful up possibly is is it good service or product delays
he uses i guess it the mom different bacteria actually yeah i forgot all phosphate
right right for further somewhere to turkey enzymes missing in that if you can see them
all expressed in the other bacteria also the more involved in some of the
uh uh uh was it difficult metabolism which is an important factor will come back to it
later so this is all working because the rubber but we also saw something special
you got to market your babies is dominated by human proteins in real life does
it make only in later on you can see it goes down goes down
four years before the same maybe for four years of time as you've got the users
you your this is you want me to go when i see is is low
so actually we live dominated by a products coast proteins they've made
plenty of uh the coming in the korean they may be
coming from the program of um your fluidly allows that to which for similar to what that babies are slowing the
neutral ceases produce there but they they make themselves and also comes of course from the mother because we know that the
levels goblins and here at the local parties as well because the baby is making a lot of this uh products
resume that on one of these uh proteins actually yeah it's big because also
but actually the official term is uh the a. b. thing wrong
it's a deficient in my like the brain to more than one percent of all time
so we yeah it does it have maybe negative connotations just discover to first
there it's because all's i would say yeah actually five hundred in your oral cavity
to it's a yeah a a protein which i didn't expect your yeah
those are right but not in the new flirt but show you in terms of uh volume
this probably has been a license and you will function i didn't expect your because you
have to it's over it also because the new system in texas the component
so really large program the bones are cross wise that i think this kind of produce payroll whatever this
for that you can see a couple of maybe four top and time this is now online
uh i'm a fluid has this also protein this is set mostly we'd also problem that's also is uh is and the body
and he used to make only because you couldn't full of it of course not it later but
it's still there also if one uses but with different uh different baby so that variable about
you said seems to not so high but if you calculate that there's ah the leader of a of an inflow with their
various this nickel use only if you can so it's a massive amount of of this probably present the um no flow
but the band it is to get probably analysis for binding to uh to bacteria we find it binds but agents
this is a bit screwed up in the plane then maybe it maybe it's a good is
there uh but uh basically it comes down to the fact this is super maidens
often this also is a protein respect human does the uh the eluded one so disappointed it
means that's all there is to put maidens it can't be loaded because there's nothing there
over here you have this wouldn't hear little can be loaded meeting that it is also the bindings within the bacteria
so we haven't been to the point of commons all's some bind something apart and i think that makes a difference is
actually explains why it is kind of a tomato proteins or structural they may also shaped young farmers are you
but this is pretty for before i was happy that yours is probably because actually the but a picture
for my lap it's a date for bright nor open on and then she's a p. h.
d. student that she uh she's artistic together as clara belle says you make is not pictured it
assumes around on that that that's uh why i just don't put all my slides on that
uh because you have to put the context um but the complex is here is the development in your life in later
life will go to talk about uh old wife with the other than that works as a a a or
probably offices cable one yeah it's in the mirror use index signs of information in a a
so i'm going to not lot that reduce michael diversity and reduce the uh
bitter producers are more about the buttons that you see the same the
same signatures u. u. c. l. scenario i've been crying babies
yeah a dress colour breaks and actually before that the time for nicely ten samples from the days
several maybe so quite a few because of analysis and we found that you could see already early warning
signals of this crime before they start really crying after six weeks before the same pictures here
that indicates it was hosting as a very important impact on the old news system signalling a unit
vector and and as i indicated to you but also really by marcus can be developed
coming back to the up story of the uh the life we have to be
aware of all kind of conform yeah facts one is used by the
products the blade will push on that this is marty and uh it's things
keep getting it to beneficial bacteria all can basically maybe on that one
it depends how you see it of course antibiotics ever useful has brought us uh
at this stage we are now but then too much is too much
um if you have that all the time marks you get the different markedly order it has been done already and it really yeah the fifties
this is a paper showing that that uh the grocer sponsored rule africans
uh uh so that's americans is affected by uh the other cues
a double the modern published yeah buddy that and actually if you look at the paper it says
but the other products have an effect on record freebie yawns neck
influence infection because these kids have all connections still should
therefore it works with an analogy was that is animals production animals i don't forget that
it would appear that maybe also for evil grabbers attack something that's all for
good to keep that in mind so would set it weren't predicted fifty years ago how does it work we have to
be addressed that in the faculty and graham with analysis in
finnish people finish tickets finished cage go to daycare
as highly highly religious ideas that i i'm not a
seven years a high level of education eighty percent
of the what our borders sucked delicate daycare icons have meetings at four or five o'clock anymore
because of my post accent to get the kids from school from a daycare now have to go there five o'clock to have to be
there so might meetings are two o'clock because you know i can get on there didn't have to go with it and find out
because all the kids go to daycare is free like hell scares free everything is
free from that education is free uh it makes it makes life easy
not only as a foreigner or european citizen but also for studies like this
because all the data had been collected because everything is reimbursed so you can see
what government isn't there so we looked at the uh this ticket score
twenty got permission to look at the records for about a sixty seventy percent of them and they look they did it gets to be found
they use the products because they they can all time that figure factions and the fact is sort
of maybe and they probably want to work with the scroll there's a bit of antibiotics
that is a special code and or something with the novel and actually you can see the pro chase
of the antibiotics and we call the parents are good for something of that because of what
we have to go over approaches to you can see the the difference but it's very similar as
you can see here but we talk about twenty five courses of antibiotics in the same get
this is what the big action project they're gonna be called something at least so that's a whole so
we sort of looked at me look at the market by all the bills would be market problem
because this data and information to you so that you can see or somebody books you might use
this is for years very futuristic usual gets marty that separate them because the diversity still changing i
showed you so we segmented them and the struggles of wouldn't get it's changing it's noisy
for use control five you've got sick use even more because it had more courses because uh and the more abstract to what to them
beyond my isn't it you can calculate it's about one kilogram per course of antibiotics
so is this correlation as of conversation or we can talk about that i think is pretty strong
and we look at the back of your market your uh uh not as as i look at the at the
we could you know mum another says i she looked also the colour actually look at the
the link between mark uh like for instance here in your to images and which isn't colonies it'll much correlation
well so precise harder precincts comes h. i. you give a uh like a larger you
got my quite resistance rising disease causation the same as the genes also come up
exit longer because probably they're not holding turns wouldn't be here because it's usually actions
to marketer resistant after all you can see uses d. spreading in the community
so we see isn't loses you can fold increased after the work it is it
causal precincts all but still is a social studies like these models that
so we can put all the republic the properties are changing but you also found the foreground increased impossible title is
jeans which employment in the bile uh uh a cycle welcome to talk about other single people do
that but fat isn't important driver of your market we'll community and actually signals all the time
to host you don't want it so much that that's a good thing because if you do that
you get to a bar show that you get the real difference you market by now
never be not concrete seventy percent of that is that like it does that so
we have to be careful there but you can see reduction branson's heart
i mean how from work actually done a p. c. n. n. cork it's a tradition hand and other people there
if you mean the place it but also title is levels intelligent way
more various age is less obesity heart attack the mice but surely 'cause like
that there's like that any of the the tells you something that
this may be important part so here we are is this yeah this record you could but for because you follow tickets longer time
any phone not maybe taking us and that's a bit interview them they're having us some of them all
the ones that have ah smart have once here those are the ones which have even the markets
you can see more michael large more as i actually can look at the market
into you can take that recognise right around the corner from the production
very nice production of your smartly alive based on this the last two years
before the before the asthma development so actually we could predict that
whose whole has to hold up a large records that we work on that i could be on computers as
early by market and you have an l. x. corded before that for twelve years look what's happening
so this kind of things are important so i yep this is almost that come to the and
ah a lot of fifteen id to finish of the i'm not speaking too fast ah
so this is a to understand something else you know i'm mark option not alone there we have teen still
yeah for other quite a lot in maybe that has to do that maybe more functional otherwise we're not michael so you have to be
also we have that so we have this interaction between did you not so well i really interacting all there's only if you begin showing that
uh we also show something about is uh according with others in my somewhat about human
can we see something of that probably not very at the millions of sits there and does the terrible show you also later how that works the director
so we looked at the special phenotype this is the key if you can't you mean or it's mostly
creatures but it's napier maybe not makes a course on their uh other servers so basically an autocorrelation
and you could just have attitude you know type because you simply little because it has to do with the efficiency of people's lives
you can see the market we always changing too big for the correlation between the uh uh the the most uh clears everybody isn't
like you we're not body out is a message and and if you link also to the uh to that well there's more
profoundly associated i. b. d. i. b. s. actually also most accuse related to it because it's it's
so you see my control so here uh for those are interested to microphone office is one of the ways and you find was an i. b. s.
is it is it is always in which we don't want to be nowhere isolated sequences
and here we have for other organisms that are present in that to compute like because producers
more difficult you yeah more ah come on the on some background speech all actually when
isn't that aren't for confucius african signs are you give them because the comfort
uh so they have expression traction real life they're coming to live in that because courses
so that's the idea in the cell because is this a few goes along and
we could also try shots actually the whole whole uh processing of the
uh the caucus selections affected this announcer creatures it has impeccable kind of diseases
so this is the kind of relations you can i can think of
so what if these are we live cool licenses implement too little to the local spectral
of course we want to move more prudent to back the other studies ongoing because
a lot of fun something sequence nowadays we can look at that was it
i want to focus on don't you not so much to be for the next year because maybe other people come back to that
oh come on c. r. is my favourite it's an organism which people doubt about uh what ten years ago
actually it's very good because it doesn't you know time is a trademark always i don't know
so in the basement jeans it that you know all kind of jeans of often because
it was age is low you know basically people is low and i begin closing
it has a link this helps stare healthy people misunderstood also what i've been doing actually was named after i'm gonna come ons
on my your coworkers up when he retired c. d. using name or species after people retire about
she hasn't after from swan boats we have a couple of those uh around so we are
you were trying to get to name their problem is you don't know what is a good guy bad
guy was named after so i i said i don't want it and then that is fine
okay anyway so this is the soccer moms yeah this is sitting there in the in the mucus isn't because command because you get nicely
considering going because later frame i actually like the the the asian or a well written in because later and
you see here about the does it make you can use an ace is all kind of enzymes
and one allies then did teased reasonable 'cause i'm going to just put fathers extrovert change we can make
the actually control oh come on z. of the secular documented next betrayed also so you can
in seattle for chase trees produce find all the bacteria with mexico connect an acetate and
that's actually oh you are viewing the cells also signalling the human system and
keep your sector workers that are so we have a have a worried about the
time i don't have time to talk about so there's always little interest
we get an expert is separate is kind is the only mouse experimental show um
but i think it's got a cute i don't know the dates is the subtle if there's a command yes on ports can be see something
and actually he discovered his work on mice that little so depleted high sets uh
adobe smarts so we took this a normal my simple i find that
you can see what happens is it to get more l. p. s. in this here think about what i
explained before l. p. has produced by probably bacteria that mice but still maybe this in my good apart
if you have a high fat diet gets it then which you got more productively and make l. p. as in doubles
you give a command yeah see it goes down you get killed documents you is not so much any lives
yeah you can see the fat loss control most high fat noise i think
might get fat is more concise give them arguments yeah because now
your documents you just do so this way it was repeated several times i didn't believe you know i'm not going
to believe all the size or just that they don't so we did a couple times that's all over again
the police that the good nature it says obese mice lost weight is not
the case there's not appease my job well it'll be to get
a high fat diet so we doing something this is also what amount to what were your bottom we don't believe everything but uh
it looks nice it's not completely crack so look at the facts the same mistakes that it's a uh
what was it he said uh artificial sweeteners if you drink six leaders of colour and then the purple
look at the doses and that's was on the six people often or for non backed up max not not do your interviewed about the
medical model because a single sheet of paper to be honest i like the idea that is not good you have to look at
so here fourteen it was also reproduced via via korean group they also talk i come ons yeah
you put the two high fat my mouse is not from the foreman because
most many complex and rub you can see they actually at the rate
at the post issue information by inducing the t. rex so you can
see the evidence it's in my case it goes to the rex
so this is the mobile behalf for it like you you may have seen that that was alluded to it
already this set the shorten fantasy the signal to market your receptors actually it's a two to x.
and this is a a a so summary of of work of uh of vinegar it's a a group where they look
at this is to link you can see here the the summary of of your power you can see here
her fibres in the column will like that sort of assets and i got to be the axles and you know
feature to x. more fibre i like that very that would understand that i mean this is fibre fibre hypothesis
i will say make mucus or put documents yeah there because the commons yes stimulates
because production seen that in my case we have to get the new
it was also activated mechanism be working out more because it would use it has autocratic
when i'm a situation promotes itself that makes more property it makes populate the deficit
and also mister which is making a pitch so visible comes on so it has this cycle that
the social that interview animals you look at your special already the usable amuse uses
mice or commits a like a show or at least a little slap
on the short also the signalling overcome on the article but you had a
commands yes it is more difficult you that's just human trials ongoing for
back to the diet because i think i think is offered by it no doubt ration
of rice fluctuation will buy it and never be can manipulate the market we always
tight you can do that you get a high fat diet maybe more with this this
if a local diet or does it just preview if you can see ethics
this is what happens is is work of ahead of flint that it works the same uh losses data again
you can see this is the maintenance diet of about a dozen or so well uh talked about because males
you get a new one starts polar or polymers and big brown storage right you can see not much is happening
but he can see these things are happening cousin starch give them distances large because the cologne
the farmers are there and you see a major change the blue of to win isn't
you can look under the goldwater metals you but can we powder records probably
interesting when it's actually we did some work on that before the problems there's already the certificate which agency
not suppose look in the insurance let you see city starch put toward artificial directive is market buyer
see there's a commanding market got me small that was approaching before
basically a local control me i make some lace excessive paid and become or teletext it up you can see
it in the cease really label going here comes as he should be to it so we could see
the cost of the table so you can see that so destructive chains are here and we can show
them in vitro and i'm sure we can do the most people and the work on those ones
but also input unit we actually use this data i'm not going to get all those will
do that was thinking do my could be on makes predictions of respond wasn't no response
associated to the attack probably this intervention as well as the in the in the resistance
so that's been proven to be actually expanded that to other data sets we didn't only use this
data to use actually capability said not to be those ellen part but is candy and
and this uh other people also sentiment and we put all this data together obese still could predict
respondent noticeable so it seems to be very robust system based on diversity a specific markups
going back to this a cycle i tried to convince if this is true
well i've to say also this is a model a model this hypothesis
the good model is a good couples and that's how these that's what that is much
too is is good for this it gives you shape of mind does not proof
even when there's a good model is all the proof it's maybe you can show might it's not proof so we
have here and i'll give you some i would see evidence for it that that may be like that
the best evidence come from our corporate structure this is maybe comes in 'cause
i mean this is set for max he wasn't refuting signs that
that sounds mari writes about it so we didn't work to be fickle transportation in unless you get page one history
rachel times medicine i haven't seen the bins out but maybe it comes back to it already here
oh yeah yeah i don't know you know the artist sorry that's it yeah you know much
more than i do and it has been cool to yellow uh doesn't they are
or other sources or you know super city schools and then many single case happy then be reports
quite successfully but we didn't uh study actually does it does what colour was a resting on his neck
this makes other people else of note i'm actually found that in this case looks at better than trucks
your different my son treatment separate operation you had a lot of action and
stuff but they should be first to didn't work actually medical boards
that's the told us to stop that difference it wasn't article anymore to don't give
them the my course so remarkable got us but they should was superior
so people to about a look at the uh what happens there is the spectacle f. x.
don't or has this kind of a network something remarkably local communities is corporate networks
they're not there and see if it see the patients that you store them in
the house is that which actually there was a paper also a single minded
i think i'm just it from this morning in the bus a buyer bins are is that there was a paper out in
nature also addressing does it my son take the stuff that was fine at the probably putting just eating you could got
so how do we do it is actually a good because max nice like this a scene he has here this is the transportation have
big dollars from people show up on it but i want to show you actually what we learn from this for the presentations
this is the experiment maybe get an apologist transportation that means
people going there can get in the double blind way on market got a back up the locus or
together all signal to this is all that let's say quite a sophisticated you can do better
so we didn't so we do business at because you can do it but we found
we looked at me touching all the slips in that don't work for so
you know to get is be bored because this is a computational quite challenging uh experience
you can see the outlook as a presentation you see nothing
is happening there everything is hundred percent the sane
in snips as the door yeah or concisely could sink that about immediately because i got all because once
those are the ones that have the house you don't trust addition to get better next talk about that because your kids exactly
well that of snips of the don't more market we all these are established
in the market beyond what perceptions is after nine ninety days he wants
actually we look at at a nicely you can see it integrated calling me to put two days
fourteen days full two days before you can see it's all going there so some bacteria speeches
which uh come of adorn our our starvation ourselves as a business back a signature or so so moves and something
why is that important is important run format and also all the impact isn't that
market younger thought about how to take those things out and take the
most compare the stains that's also it has impacted by this kind of work you do we need to understand more about the content but there's
so this isn't what i uh say isn't discovery to because of the plastic
to first of all you cure people seconds you can learn from it
a search i think it's typically buckle in future so that's uh so are we already do so we do this
reverse engineer we select right mike option like to be a actually expose also the relevance of the new there
maybe the reverse and engineering and if it doesn't work you go back we do by small disapproval concept
that doesn't work we can go back let's go production human trials this is maybe have to go
this is a definitely taken the fact that you've got it already quite a
few organisms you have normally see to to think about the government
you don't get a lot of money from the government and the nautilus unfortunately but we were so happy to
up the pet funding to the five million for new and robert microbiology institute into a spot in the
in in different places in the in the midlands made of the
first version of market below the bargaining sort of happiness that
and we have this ethical transportation you work so actually that's us when we go
sister for coffee uh but uh what happens now here we have this i think this impact of medical innovation is is
different from what market the market's indicated i think we on the on the doorstep of real cases
why is that my problem but most accessible they can use that to differentiate transform is not responsible come back there
remarkable terribly sad so we can exploit this market by because
of the formidable which particular sponsors because the second mechanisms
a sporty targeting is going to be in my sewing human i don't care but it works it works it's last from of course
and you have to see most the growing together sometime are going to get a packet
farm industry here because this is right because that's where different initially uh
which is gonna be could be instrumental in developing cities yeah
what's next
this is a multi sentencing that's yeah what's happening why is it important because you
only with different so we have to bias and the bias the bias
the need for the the melodic some you can have a whole series selective about that i'm not going to do that
with those that are useful to follow things in time you could really warning stickers like if you examples of that
bush was approaches recent iteration or or or or or or whatever per position nutrition whatever
you can think of are there new instructions certification or it will offer diagnostic opportunities
and i can't emphasise more the impact of relied causation label like
tells us think we have something here which is really important
that is the premature bursts and especially this is art deliveries and
the whole hygiene uh changes our society use of antibiotics
uh other fruit we have to address that i think it's it is a matter of far off
the topic or else uh as well as uh october two different companies to go with that
people don't petitions the discovery tool in that they are that is the case you can you more from the host markup interactions
and i think and you have to put a putting steely eyed back several hundred for short
joe or that are into the human not only showed them human
designer nutritional or a farmer intervention i show it works
i think that's a very are because we can have a lot of promises that idea well
we discussed at the last night is to score because all that and more grey hair so i'm not to see the results
so there are also say i don't work so much which marks because they're so nice you can do so wonderful six
but you can never come back to be like situation you have to go to in order to drive the information cycle so if

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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