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thank you very much is the introduction and i'm grateful for the conference organisers for the chance to speak
00:00:05
of this prince to prestigious impose them it's my first visit to the nest a research centre
00:00:11
and this is not for two i'm going to um is and some of our findings
00:00:15
on the interaction between dice health and got mike about an older subjects in particular
00:00:22
i'm up in our research centre in corporate just call the elementary from about accent or we have
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and numbers p. uh is a large number of scientists examining um got health and that's process interpretation
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and with the recent recognition of the importance of the got my
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provider that's become a major but non exclusive focus for us
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and this cartoon represents the um observation of the got like about is essentially stated throughout
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i don't hurt unless conditions such as uh every bubble single mar i video presents
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but at the two extremes of life mainly infancy in old age the mike about it goes interested slides
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i'm in once instance because it's undergoing issues accommodations and sex sessions
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in transitions to and i will check mike about uh
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but studies down through a recent decades of indicated that at the other end
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of life it another with old age the mike about is also changing
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and we have this week of projects these logos even reading to investigate the
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microbial to composition function at these various like stages in life events
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but for the the rest of talking with folks primarily an elder met um
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we used to talk about helping helping people live longer but nowadays um
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getting into agencies and health delivery agencies in various countries talk about not just
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extending life but it's extending the hell span and probably this is too
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the more the phase of life so that you live longer healthier and you
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undergo serious or term of conditions for much shorter degree of time
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this is well entrenched in policymakers health delivery professionals but the um
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we were all in person living longer nobody really wants to be old but it's better
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than the alternative so what we really want to be healthy for a long time
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and this is okay i'm a cover chinese from the uh atlantic this
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month's showing that's what we might be getting up to warmer
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or a lot older and so if we have an i. pod to
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says and a lot of mike about observation studies or hypothesis reasons
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i guess would be that healthy rating maybe accomplish by nutrition model modulation of the got mike about uh
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acknowledging the challenges of causation and correlation which i'll come back later my talk
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um there's a lot of literature using posh depends studies which i'll summarise
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yeah i'm in the slides taken from the view by woodman zinc products and
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essentially what appeared to be the consensus from these culture dependent
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studies was that when we got older the proportion of
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particular organisms like actuaries and if the bacteria declines our
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bills each pretty short change that asset also defined
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and then it was imagine the cove into type transition to increase speech fashionable mine last it's
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the problem with this brace summary attempt is that the work major the
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conflicting conclusions from different studies throughout europe and um north america
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and in the instance of one particular you project it reported that were
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diametrically diametrically opposed age related changes and they got mike about in different
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european countries and i don't think any these studies are necessary wrong
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i think there are conflicts are based on small study sizes and at
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that time ignorance of the environmental factors which are shaping the microphone
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so in january two thousand eight with the aid of the arch
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government funded by that part of agriculture for the marine
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we set out at two savage the other mccourt which was composed five hundred subjects
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we profile the microbiology at time zero and all the subjects
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because we want to look at mike about the stability i'm not sure i
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some that day today we call them back with remotes in six months
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we did this against a backdrop of abroad panel off any thought of health measures
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so by modern but by content based hundred five hundred not large cohort but
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elderly subjects take a long time to consult the typical transportation can take
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three four hours so that's one of the limitations but they're very well
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thing or touch your checking into the mike problematic genome limits hello
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an early on we decide to stratified and according to the numbers that you've been reading this
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table the numbers are pretty much a movable feast um get hung up on those but
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the more important considerations this actually the traffic light colour scheme whereby individuals living in long term
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residential care throughout the top four code red if the people are living at home
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one zero foot including their own meals are colour coded green and in between
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we have a rehab forward which means along stables lesson six weeks
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uh people going in and out of the hospital for war from measurements one dressings blood pressure check ups whatever
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we also have small course for and about treatment c. d. f. and colon cancer
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which i resisted for a long time in getting excited but no um
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the first pass sectional report on the studies published three years ago now and
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i'm using these kind of stack charts before each virtual uh
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row is a person and this is their composition of the mike about file level so if you can see the
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red and green colours you can get the take home message the composition phantom menace is level is very variable
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and this publication predated the h. m. p. which reported similar
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file level variation in a larger number of younger subjects
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you might just about the up see this kind of yellow colour and those are actually
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the action of bacteria which are typically five ten fold less opponents than younger subjects
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and but we had no idea what was responsible if anything for
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the uh significant variation of file on level between these
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individuals so the next couple years we started to to tackle
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that by unpacking the metadata and looking for violations
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the first observation was that where you live determines your micro biotech
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so you've seen these kinds of plots before but briefly
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each circle represents a person or more specifically
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there michael bios setup and their position on these plots amount depends
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on how related to mike about is of two circles
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overlap means those two people of identical mike about it the for their part the more dissimilar the mike about it it's
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and the observation was if you draw a line along this axis here ninety five percent people living at
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home are southwest of that line ninety five percent of people long stay or northeast of that line
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and the day hospital in rehab folks are sort of in the middle and
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the young controls by and large separates with the commute young people
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this is not something we productive first principles because why should where you
00:07:08
live determine your microwave yes we began to drill into that
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um this is the um the the panel on the right is a hierarchical clustering
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with heat map a postage so i'll i'll take it through how this works
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so these are the people across the x. axis in the same colour scheme applies so we
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have a broader vision into two major branches community dwelling subject on long term residential subjects
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the reason for those separations based on this diagram corresponding to the
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intake patterns of a hundred and forty seven food items ten frequency categories
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if you eat a lot it's colour didn't read the fee for eleven scored a blue people in uh
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the community either a lot of these kinds of food and for um people in long steve am
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very little under converse areas where people long steve a lot of that we can separate the at at the f. a.
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q. data by a so called correspondence analysis and when we
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examine the dried food types what we observe is that
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people in the community each greater proportions of fibre
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fruits vegetables quite nice or a fish cereals
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people in long term residential key here the the absolute that the the lot
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right me these a lot of fruits which reflect like snake index
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and i'll show you some more data on the fruit am categories in the food properties later my car
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and we creatively label these try to group one corresponding to a low fat high five
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replies in the community to to teach before which is high fat moderate fibre
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and um we next wants to examine the association between two variables namely
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died on like a buyout uh and this is what's called an orthogonal the squares analysis which
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is a horrible word and basically what's going on here is instead of showing each
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person as a single circle were now representing the two i have variables
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whereby the f. f. today for person is that the circle around the line and then on
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a certain range is the microbiology data so those two variables were try to associate with a
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tiny little lines and that's clearly not the case because some the lines are quite large
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we overlay the colour screen you can see that there is still this
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clustering into community dwelling long stay an intermediate to hospital groups
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suggesting that those two variables are co segregating now i fully acknowledge
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that you could fill that by messing around with the axes
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one of the ways we quality control this was to manually curator data and the observation
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was that when somebody went from commute into long stay there diocese actually changed overnight
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but they're microbiology took from six months to one year to change from
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the community type to the long states like so without the
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most parsimonious interpretation of this observation was that the diet changes and
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the mike about or changes as a consequence excuse me
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or
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if we characterise these individuals using a number of all makes methodology switch time limitations
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pretty soon going into one of them which i'll briefly mention was not have along next
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so with the aid of doctor lorraine brandon in at u. c. d.
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she's colleague my kidneys we did and a mormon tablets feed water
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and we could show using um by statistical methods that people living in community
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had significantly higher levels of a number of my tablets including shortchanged any assets
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we then went and we looked at the shotgun sequence data another with we put the
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all of the sequence reads from the mike about it through an annotation pipeline
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and we asked the question what are the bonuses of the microbial genes in the
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micro biotech which in cold the production of those churches that yes it's
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and you look at these grass well i've been describing them and you've probably worked out there are statistically significant
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differences between genes for good reproduction community and we have versus long stay
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also for acetate of appropriate there's a clear trends which doesn't quite reach the statistical significance
00:11:17
now that was here in the nutrition or our medical reign as we know
00:11:20
that short chain various is have a very large dossier of health associations
00:11:25
they are direct energy sources for flounder sites they're anti
00:11:28
clifford of their signalling molecules they promote barrier function
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so well as as we will get into this the base of
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course in fact we have circles circumstantial evidence here we've got
00:11:40
differential measurements of not have lights and we've got different levels of the genes encoding doesn't have lights
00:11:47
and um and we also showed that there were different
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differences in hell status is of the individuals between
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q. museum long stay which is what you predict because those folks going to long sleeve reasons because or sticker
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so that's really a circular argument which is difficult to disentangle no
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establishing a call uh uh starting correlations actually difficult enough
00:12:10
for microbiology data because you're dealing with a large kind of clinical measurements and you can have
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mike about which had a hundred percent o. two level to be forty thirty thousand rates
00:12:21
so you have to use a a variety statistical methods um one which we use was to do
00:12:26
a linear regression analysis so what were essentially doings looking far for correlations between
00:12:32
the gradient have a clinical measure and the gradient of the microbial composition
00:12:37
and we published two years ago for a series of statistically significant um biologically significant
00:12:43
correlations between differences mike about a composition and a number of clinical measures
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and these include things like readers from the geriatric depression test a guy stoic blood pressure
00:12:57
two measurements frailty the parts helen the functional independence measure uh um
00:13:02
have circumference and measures are being yeah and two
00:13:06
measures for information i always is your p.
00:13:10
and for some of these measures or plausible f. factors that one
00:13:14
could speculates with her already today but the bring that access
00:13:18
so it's plausible that mike probably might have liked could
00:13:21
make people more last question they become older um
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the challenge is establishing cause allergy and we are
00:13:30
painfully aware the correlation is not causation
00:13:33
so we have embarked on a number of nationally funded preclinical studies nationally funded
00:13:40
human interventions and you're working white funded interventions
00:13:44
the first actually none of those are ready enough to tell you the outcome to today but i'll i'll describe the last one
00:13:51
this is the european union from that project new age it involves add partners from nestle
00:13:57
involve sebastien clean no and for swap yeah much time here and agnes like
00:14:03
and it's it's actually pretty cool story because it has allowed us to take twelve hundred fifty subjects
00:14:09
in each of five european centres indicate on the map put them on a mediterranean segmentation dies it's
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too difficult and it's infeasible strain change that i completely it's a supplement station approach and
00:14:22
and follow them up after one year and subject them to a full battery of all
00:14:26
makes methodologies including method you know makes which is being done on my lap
00:14:30
so we're starting the baseline the three intervention measurements right now and the uh house
00:14:36
intervention to it would become one of the press a middle twenty fifteen
00:14:40
and that's studies anchorage repair university baloney accorded by plastic like different jesse
00:14:46
um in the meantime we we've been drilling down into the expanded elder imitated see
00:14:51
what more we can extract that one of the questions we're addressing last ability
00:14:57
in other words is the microphone to stay even in a over time in
00:15:00
these um older folks so we established a small panel of individuals an
00:15:06
whose numbers ones not that's most not that these numbers you can read on this
00:15:10
them on the table the slide and for each individual we've got two lines
00:15:15
the first one who's the microphone a change from zero to three months and
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then the second part of the line is from three months six months
00:15:24
and the microphone was completely stable going no where those lines would be very short d.
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and if you got a squint your eyes you might just above thing that the red lines are slightly longer than the greenwich which they are
00:15:35
you can type it up a bit by imposing an artificial cut off which is
00:15:40
if this that the distance in the microphone to change the difference
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in spearman correlations is greater than point zero two five
00:15:47
that we will just will say that those individuals have a stable microphone basically take those guys out of the equation
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um you're left with a smaller number of subjects for sure but you can see that
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the the past lines in the microbiology arrive from uh last individuals are longer
00:16:06
and of course you can graph that to make a lot more how to blur easy on the eye in this case
00:16:13
we've actually retain the so called stable community uh subjects and
00:16:18
the on stable community on stable micro browser it's
00:16:21
only for the long stay this parameters looking at the train from zero to three months and there's not much of
00:16:27
a difference between them from three months six months to start look like these guys moving a bit more
00:16:33
if you look at the total path line from an zero to six months
00:16:37
it's graver in the longest individual suggesting the microphone is changing more
00:16:41
and another way to do that is to take the path lined the absolute distance from
00:16:46
here to here and subtract from that the path things from here to here and
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because the community dwelling subjects the microphones morris coming back to the starting place has
00:16:56
become a negative number in the on stable microbiology subjects showing that the if
00:17:05
individuals live in the community if they're microbiology changes over time it tends to come back to
00:17:09
the starting place where that's not the case if they're living on long term residential care
00:17:14
the other aspect of this is when you look at the sherman diversity index which is a measure of the diversity in the community
00:17:21
it's significantly lower protectively for the launch the dwelling individuals who've an unstable microbiology
00:17:28
and this resonates with generally theological through which is that the more stable and ecosystem is
00:17:34
um the more diversity is excuse me the more stable is
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to external perturbations and it's greater stability over time
00:17:43
um we've allies effective added by alex uh not a very briefly because there's less
00:17:48
of independent literature showing that and to that exterior fact the micro by the
00:17:53
that's good implications for obese yellow population level in the elderly what
00:17:58
um what we've graft here are the difference between time points
00:18:03
and for individuals who have not been through on and products to fatten proponents of both most of the time
00:18:10
points we've got antibiotics at the second time point around who receive not about some the first time point
00:18:17
to save what you see is that the difference in the micro but it's far
00:18:20
greater couldn't treat without about showing that it's temperature been the micro by itself
00:18:26
and then we haven't just about enough yet individuals in the study to see if there are different
00:18:32
effects between different classes and antibiotics and those are the kinds of things we're examining now
00:18:39
and it's like to version which was more or less impose on me
00:18:43
was uh for a into studying the foundations the method allergens are
00:18:48
a confusing the main of organisms and their associations with human
00:18:52
my current health associations seem to be very controversial
00:18:56
which is why stay clear of them and the thousands have been reports being increased in obesity
00:19:01
their increased uh anorexia for increased and africans their increase in some
00:19:05
western populations of that says this is too hard for me
00:19:09
and but i i became interested in them because we're actually in tonight yes
00:19:14
and like to hide isn't supposed to be never turn so we began measuring the foundations in right yeah subjects
00:19:20
and around the same time uh group in time of for all the the latin force what we share
00:19:26
reported that mathematicians increased an abundance and elderly that is
00:19:30
not entirely new but was was new was that
00:19:34
i described a new seventy or seventy order advantage uns which we're protecting abundant in the elderly
00:19:41
no this is not the time for an election the phylogeny mathematicians but it's
00:19:45
actually there's this new seventh order bear with me is not too bad
00:19:49
there are common in the environment you find them in lake sediments and in
00:19:52
march and surprisingly they were present in the got so that people
00:19:57
and protecting the elderly and they're different from your comment that sounded ready
00:20:01
back german army fantasy or step many so i said no
00:20:05
i can ignore this any longer better look at this so we began to collaborate with that the lapping chairman for all
00:20:11
and the first thing that we did is we stick with the genome to some of these organisms from enrichment cultures
00:20:16
and we start to look for jeans french hasn't adaptation because that's what you'd expect
00:20:21
but we also found were jeans for try metal aiming depletion uh
00:20:24
try wrestling mean is it a an interesting molecule because
00:20:29
it's recently had been reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease
00:20:34
this is largely but not exclusively the work of stand his
00:20:37
group in cleveland and how this works is that
00:20:41
dies which are really rich which a region carotene encoding uh our
00:20:46
metropolis pay elements of the microbial and converged actually anyway
00:20:50
and the team is actually dies in the lever if we've got a function sell jeans to t. n. though
00:20:55
in t. m. a. over am re programs macrophages in cause reverse class for transport
00:21:01
and causes from cell production and these phone sales and oppose
00:21:04
components of arterial plaque so that's the cardiovascular link
00:21:08
and if you really unlocking if you have an f. m. o. three mutation utility and they know that fish over you and syndrome
00:21:15
no that's good so our interest despair or the notion that the next time it is
00:21:21
at least we're predictive have the capability to depleting and they might
00:21:25
actually be projector for cardiovascular disease it is his own
00:21:29
inference from sequence status from sequencing genes we didn't actually know of these things couldn't have placed team at all
00:21:35
so in a paper earlier this year in got micro to show that they covered the grown nicely on
00:21:41
um a. t. m. main hydrogen that also might have lies diametrically me my wife and i mean
00:21:47
one of the peculiarities as they want scroll on hydrogen carbon
00:21:50
dioxide and they will grow into may alone so um
00:21:54
we actually common cheek all these things are key by alex we how much that but that would be tremendous
00:22:00
difficulties in developing these on a commercial basis producing them
00:22:04
are probably get number proof for consumption either
00:22:08
um interesting lee these are clear or not widely reported because they're not well
00:22:13
hat should with universal primers people use for bacteria so we have
00:22:18
up to muscles primers and even within this new seven order we've
00:22:22
identified a couple of independently images which for reasons of simplicity
00:22:26
i'll call amex one which is actually an incest analysis and the
00:22:30
next two three which has the name am i'll that's
00:22:33
and interestingly we found a an inverse distribution in terms
00:22:38
of the abundance of these organisms were right
00:22:40
in test analysis preferentially more abundant in the individuals who live under the long stay
00:22:47
and em out of us is more abundant mirror image in
00:22:51
terms of its distribution in the individuals from the community
00:22:55
um i'm we're currently trying to piece together to genes
00:22:59
of other members of this interesting advantage in order
00:23:02
and we can actually assembling directly from the manager normative it still surprises me but works
00:23:10
um to conclude this wanna talk about uh and how much
00:23:15
more we can extract from the ultimate data um
00:23:19
in the early days when people asked about cause incarnation they would say
00:23:22
well are the people living on long term residential care of a
00:23:25
good tires and have a good mike number or the people living in their own homes too terrible died and terrible mike about uh
00:23:32
now the first group of interviews you can find because when you go into a home we what's available
00:23:37
and you probably make lousy choices knots story for another day but um but you do we we all know people who are
00:23:44
really frugal and live alone a terrible died and diluting the will
00:23:48
of five million euro because they're just parsimonious them anyway
00:23:53
we thought we drill into that we yeah sam let poster through a record three
00:23:57
hundred people they went about it and we developed a new and uh
00:24:01
clustering methodology is less magically to look at these so
00:24:05
the this is the same kind of people representation and we're gonna
00:24:09
go to use here which are sequence pays bacterial reads
00:24:13
and the user lost the fox the previous suspect all of these individual uh living in
00:24:19
the community the community and mike rubber is characterised by an abundance of these guys
00:24:25
but you can see that there are individuals whose microbiology is approaching doubt along stay
00:24:31
and these mikey those individuals different theory was correct to had
00:24:34
a bad times and was driving last separation so
00:24:38
when we look at least welling long stay like individuals and we do some p. c. analysis you
00:24:43
can see no separation well reasonable separation from how
00:24:47
the true to residential care like michael buyer
00:24:50
the fruit is much messier and are much greater overlaps because from dave
00:24:54
is intrinsically noisy data but you can still see some sort of
00:24:59
trend whereby the fruit might be responsible for for driving this is not just simply call association
00:25:06
and when we drove down to what the fruit at the major for groups are
00:25:10
they're similar to what i previously told you were going to people in the house this group
00:25:16
or of how these drive group or even large
00:25:19
larger proportions of fruit fibre vegetables relatively
00:25:24
modest amounts of high clay scenic index food there's a a trend whereby this
00:25:30
consumption proportion decreases and we go through the long stay like
00:25:34
these people are even relatively little fruit and fibre
00:25:37
the reading a much higher proportion of high fat part very much lower proportions low fat target
00:25:43
and the reading it considerable volume of hike like scenic and exclude concluding prepackaged foods
00:25:50
ensure this is you know those there's a microbial sequence which follows that and we've been making sort of
00:25:55
a relational database whereby we can link may just two groups were particular mike by the types
00:26:02
and when we looked at health associations of the health properties of these individuals
00:26:08
and remember these rock people living in the community you can see that the people with this
00:26:13
last any like microphone and i have have the lowest escort for the bart hello index
00:26:18
and they also there's a clear trend towards lower scores for cotton function in the n. s. c. test
00:26:24
and it's also interesting to note that this intermediate long stay like group
00:26:28
which have significantly depressed tennessee values actually have the same age
00:26:32
distribution as the people on healthy style so none of these are
00:26:36
true h. depended them declines or or changes in the variable
00:26:43
we've also developed methodologies to trying to find in greater
00:26:47
detail what the elements in the microbiology are
00:26:50
by looking at the whole forward not just the people living in the community and
00:26:56
although diversity is important at the highest diversity group is not actually the highest or
00:27:02
the individuals highs microbial diversity and not have health used because this group here
00:27:07
how these individuals are these to have this kind of took out this kind of micro biotech
00:27:13
and they actually have a slightly lower divorce the microphone right and people in the community you've got the core
00:27:20
mike rubber corresponding to that but there are also some these
00:27:23
low abundance beneficial bacteria and some long stay type bacteria
00:27:28
and then as you move leftward in general there is reduction in the
00:27:31
mike about diversity you got the last individuals and and cluster group
00:27:37
so we're able to define different microwave the types
00:27:41
which corresponds to diet and health associations
00:27:45
and we can also look at the uh microphone stability by taking the
00:27:50
exact same piece you and and imposing i hate map on us
00:27:53
and this shows that the how this group with high diversity but not the highs
00:27:59
microphone highs diversity have the lowest change over time in terms of the
00:28:05
the alteration of the micro by also and the last individuals have the grace shift over time
00:28:14
and in recent months we've also been looking at the functional
00:28:18
changes associated with the difference in the mike about types
00:28:21
and these are just some descriptive stats to remind me to say that we have done shop command now make
00:28:26
so last week on around half of the total cool word ultimate subjects
00:28:31
and surprise surprise who says these long stay dwelling individuals with the low diversity micro
00:28:38
but also also loading count reminiscent what we heard from a number speakers today
00:28:44
and we can use these intimidating metabolic maps to show watts um
00:28:50
metabolic properties are difference we abundant and the corresponds to the pathways which
00:28:56
are just about with the red and for simplicity of label
00:29:00
goes the corresponds to nuclear type metabolism mindless metabolism i'm i'm a
00:29:05
mindless carbohydrate intake version and you were a carbohydrate metabolism
00:29:11
so if these association to microbiology and health status aren't anyway positive
00:29:18
these kinds of changes are potentially part of the uh a factor wrapped were involved
00:29:24
so to summarise rubbing going with that bitch will die correlates with
00:29:27
the microbiology and the microphone or composition correlates with health
00:29:32
individuals in long term residential care how the less stable microbe it and it's less diverse to begin with
00:29:38
the low diversity mike about is characterised by differential abundance of these uh m. x. group of mathematicians
00:29:45
and as a show there at the end of the fine detail
00:29:48
like robert i clustering in the community confirms these health correlations
00:29:54
and we're doing comes the low diversity might or by other so
00:29:58
to ensure the translation research can we make anything of this
00:30:02
now in court as another european uh and whorls centres
00:30:07
we have been doing fickle mike about transplants
00:30:10
primary insidious and as you all know what's contrast ugly factors
00:30:15
um but we do still have lingering anxiety about transplanting essentially
00:30:20
on known cocktails of bacteria into the asterisk individuals and
00:30:27
for that reason we would like to develop partitions to which is not a novel concept 'cause people like
00:30:32
trevor lonely in mice handling for two and m. l. undercover and well have been doing this already
00:30:39
um this is our representation mike about it's actually called we can plot after
00:30:43
chief we can in the census because it looks like a go no
00:30:47
and that's how was the nature was read to like together pass the other so
00:30:51
the good thing about awaken parts is that the diameter of the circles shows
00:30:55
you the buttons of the organism and these lines in the case of the positive
00:30:59
associations era so you can see that's an interactive interacting the logical ecosystem
00:31:05
and there are also negative associations which you know we don't show for reasons of simplicity
00:31:11
so if you want to establish the functional microbiology to know how to my mind you have
00:31:15
to be able to emulate all these interactions in a stable scaffold our ecosystem um
00:31:22
there are other ways of doing that you could use program works in cork reviews problem excess successfully to um
00:31:28
to kill a organ isn't like exterior that was quite
00:31:32
easy and when we went into an animal models
00:31:36
like mice and things we found relatively modest affects uh probably arcs on the micro by also
00:31:42
interesting it was reason paper and plus one by groupies and d. s.
00:31:46
l. three and they showed an increase in long term plastic city
00:31:50
in in all the rats accompanied by modest change mike about over so this is an increase in and um
00:31:57
brain function in some like chemical matter but i think that's probably direct the
00:32:02
fact that probably onyx because in fact the microphone from thirty miles
00:32:06
another way to do this using prepare nixon or going back to diet and this is a representative
00:32:11
example of one of many studies i could've chosen from plant gibson's lab and it's showing that
00:32:17
soluble corn fibre was reducing the gene of toxicity of three quarters
00:32:22
in a human feeding trial simply balance might work um
00:32:26
was getting record three approval for pretty violent acts for functional claims has been difficult
00:32:32
and the last week or two would be back to therapy which is hard going
00:32:35
back to the c. d. f. idea and we can envisage the scenario whereby
00:32:40
if and when we show that the reduce diversity my proposal of frail old people
00:32:45
it's cause of that will then that would be a case for a start of measures
00:32:50
so what we've been doing is using the way compounds the shopping list into hardworking
00:32:54
grass stains my life of them populating is like posting these organisms um
00:33:00
organisms previously described as an close trouble simply people haven't tried hard enough and
00:33:06
there are lots reports in the literature that manages organisms can be cultured
00:33:09
so we can only have a couple hundred strains from around one hundred species and the
00:33:14
n. games to establish a stable microbiology up for in vitro and framed evil applications
00:33:21
f. so to finish off we've and number of independent
00:33:26
change the types and they're all into connected and as microbiology sir primary
00:33:31
hunter point entry point is probably to study the micro vile
00:33:36
but obviously the microphone is interlaced with diet because they don't just feeding
00:33:42
them a microphone and probably the factor molecules which impact or not
00:33:47
could be tested it by a stunning and have a long how an
00:33:51
we're not particular we don't currently know how the mitre by um impacts on health um
00:33:58
but we and others are extremely exercise by this um we um
00:34:03
we also feel that it's not sufficient reported collection not test because it that way
00:34:08
and uh a breakout and that um we get definitive answers either way
00:34:13
i like to include by acknowledging all of my partners in crime in in u. c. c.
00:34:19
um my collaborators isn't tchaikovsky and for more for all these are
00:34:23
the people currently mel out marks claw some who is that
00:34:26
how scrap um i don't know how like minded lightly already work and funding came from a variety

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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