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thank you very much is the introduction and i'm grateful for the conference organisers for the chance to speak
of this prince to prestigious impose them it's my first visit to the nest a research centre
and this is not for two i'm going to um is and some of our findings
on the interaction between dice health and got mike about an older subjects in particular
i'm up in our research centre in corporate just call the elementary from about accent or we have
and numbers p. uh is a large number of scientists examining um got health and that's process interpretation
and with the recent recognition of the importance of the got my
provider that's become a major but non exclusive focus for us
and this cartoon represents the um observation of the got like about is essentially stated throughout
i don't hurt unless conditions such as uh every bubble single mar i video presents
but at the two extremes of life mainly infancy in old age the mike about it goes interested slides
i'm in once instance because it's undergoing issues accommodations and sex sessions
in transitions to and i will check mike about uh
but studies down through a recent decades of indicated that at the other end
of life it another with old age the mike about is also changing
and we have this week of projects these logos even reading to investigate the
microbial to composition function at these various like stages in life events
but for the the rest of talking with folks primarily an elder met um
we used to talk about helping helping people live longer but nowadays um
getting into agencies and health delivery agencies in various countries talk about not just
extending life but it's extending the hell span and probably this is too
the more the phase of life so that you live longer healthier and you
undergo serious or term of conditions for much shorter degree of time
this is well entrenched in policymakers health delivery professionals but the um
we were all in person living longer nobody really wants to be old but it's better
than the alternative so what we really want to be healthy for a long time
and this is okay i'm a cover chinese from the uh atlantic this
month's showing that's what we might be getting up to warmer
or a lot older and so if we have an i. pod to
says and a lot of mike about observation studies or hypothesis reasons
i guess would be that healthy rating maybe accomplish by nutrition model modulation of the got mike about uh
acknowledging the challenges of causation and correlation which i'll come back later my talk
um there's a lot of literature using posh depends studies which i'll summarise
yeah i'm in the slides taken from the view by woodman zinc products and
essentially what appeared to be the consensus from these culture dependent
studies was that when we got older the proportion of
particular organisms like actuaries and if the bacteria declines our
bills each pretty short change that asset also defined
and then it was imagine the cove into type transition to increase speech fashionable mine last it's
the problem with this brace summary attempt is that the work major the
conflicting conclusions from different studies throughout europe and um north america
and in the instance of one particular you project it reported that were
diametrically diametrically opposed age related changes and they got mike about in different
european countries and i don't think any these studies are necessary wrong
i think there are conflicts are based on small study sizes and at
that time ignorance of the environmental factors which are shaping the microphone
so in january two thousand eight with the aid of the arch
government funded by that part of agriculture for the marine
we set out at two savage the other mccourt which was composed five hundred subjects
we profile the microbiology at time zero and all the subjects
because we want to look at mike about the stability i'm not sure i
some that day today we call them back with remotes in six months
we did this against a backdrop of abroad panel off any thought of health measures
so by modern but by content based hundred five hundred not large cohort but
elderly subjects take a long time to consult the typical transportation can take
three four hours so that's one of the limitations but they're very well
thing or touch your checking into the mike problematic genome limits hello
an early on we decide to stratified and according to the numbers that you've been reading this
table the numbers are pretty much a movable feast um get hung up on those but
the more important considerations this actually the traffic light colour scheme whereby individuals living in long term
residential care throughout the top four code red if the people are living at home
one zero foot including their own meals are colour coded green and in between
we have a rehab forward which means along stables lesson six weeks
uh people going in and out of the hospital for war from measurements one dressings blood pressure check ups whatever
we also have small course for and about treatment c. d. f. and colon cancer
which i resisted for a long time in getting excited but no um
the first pass sectional report on the studies published three years ago now and
i'm using these kind of stack charts before each virtual uh
row is a person and this is their composition of the mike about file level so if you can see the
red and green colours you can get the take home message the composition phantom menace is level is very variable
and this publication predated the h. m. p. which reported similar
file level variation in a larger number of younger subjects
you might just about the up see this kind of yellow colour and those are actually
the action of bacteria which are typically five ten fold less opponents than younger subjects
and but we had no idea what was responsible if anything for
the uh significant variation of file on level between these
individuals so the next couple years we started to to tackle
that by unpacking the metadata and looking for violations
the first observation was that where you live determines your micro biotech
so you've seen these kinds of plots before but briefly
each circle represents a person or more specifically
there michael bios setup and their position on these plots amount depends
on how related to mike about is of two circles
overlap means those two people of identical mike about it the for their part the more dissimilar the mike about it it's
and the observation was if you draw a line along this axis here ninety five percent people living at
home are southwest of that line ninety five percent of people long stay or northeast of that line
and the day hospital in rehab folks are sort of in the middle and
the young controls by and large separates with the commute young people
this is not something we productive first principles because why should where you
live determine your microwave yes we began to drill into that
um this is the um the the panel on the right is a hierarchical clustering
with heat map a postage so i'll i'll take it through how this works
so these are the people across the x. axis in the same colour scheme applies so we
have a broader vision into two major branches community dwelling subject on long term residential subjects
the reason for those separations based on this diagram corresponding to the
intake patterns of a hundred and forty seven food items ten frequency categories
if you eat a lot it's colour didn't read the fee for eleven scored a blue people in uh
the community either a lot of these kinds of food and for um people in long steve am
very little under converse areas where people long steve a lot of that we can separate the at at the f. a.
q. data by a so called correspondence analysis and when we
examine the dried food types what we observe is that
people in the community each greater proportions of fibre
fruits vegetables quite nice or a fish cereals
people in long term residential key here the the absolute that the the lot
right me these a lot of fruits which reflect like snake index
and i'll show you some more data on the fruit am categories in the food properties later my car
and we creatively label these try to group one corresponding to a low fat high five
replies in the community to to teach before which is high fat moderate fibre
and um we next wants to examine the association between two variables namely
died on like a buyout uh and this is what's called an orthogonal the squares analysis which
is a horrible word and basically what's going on here is instead of showing each
person as a single circle were now representing the two i have variables
whereby the f. f. today for person is that the circle around the line and then on
a certain range is the microbiology data so those two variables were try to associate with a
tiny little lines and that's clearly not the case because some the lines are quite large
we overlay the colour screen you can see that there is still this
clustering into community dwelling long stay an intermediate to hospital groups
suggesting that those two variables are co segregating now i fully acknowledge
that you could fill that by messing around with the axes
one of the ways we quality control this was to manually curator data and the observation
was that when somebody went from commute into long stay there diocese actually changed overnight
but they're microbiology took from six months to one year to change from
the community type to the long states like so without the
most parsimonious interpretation of this observation was that the diet changes and
the mike about or changes as a consequence excuse me
if we characterise these individuals using a number of all makes methodology switch time limitations
pretty soon going into one of them which i'll briefly mention was not have along next
so with the aid of doctor lorraine brandon in at u. c. d.
she's colleague my kidneys we did and a mormon tablets feed water
and we could show using um by statistical methods that people living in community
had significantly higher levels of a number of my tablets including shortchanged any assets
we then went and we looked at the shotgun sequence data another with we put the
all of the sequence reads from the mike about it through an annotation pipeline
and we asked the question what are the bonuses of the microbial genes in the
micro biotech which in cold the production of those churches that yes it's
and you look at these grass well i've been describing them and you've probably worked out there are statistically significant
differences between genes for good reproduction community and we have versus long stay
also for acetate of appropriate there's a clear trends which doesn't quite reach the statistical significance
now that was here in the nutrition or our medical reign as we know
that short chain various is have a very large dossier of health associations
they are direct energy sources for flounder sites they're anti
clifford of their signalling molecules they promote barrier function
so well as as we will get into this the base of
course in fact we have circles circumstantial evidence here we've got
differential measurements of not have lights and we've got different levels of the genes encoding doesn't have lights
and um and we also showed that there were different
differences in hell status is of the individuals between
q. museum long stay which is what you predict because those folks going to long sleeve reasons because or sticker
so that's really a circular argument which is difficult to disentangle no
establishing a call uh uh starting correlations actually difficult enough
for microbiology data because you're dealing with a large kind of clinical measurements and you can have
mike about which had a hundred percent o. two level to be forty thirty thousand rates
so you have to use a a variety statistical methods um one which we use was to do
a linear regression analysis so what were essentially doings looking far for correlations between
the gradient have a clinical measure and the gradient of the microbial composition
and we published two years ago for a series of statistically significant um biologically significant
correlations between differences mike about a composition and a number of clinical measures
and these include things like readers from the geriatric depression test a guy stoic blood pressure
two measurements frailty the parts helen the functional independence measure uh um
have circumference and measures are being yeah and two
measures for information i always is your p.
and for some of these measures or plausible f. factors that one
could speculates with her already today but the bring that access
so it's plausible that mike probably might have liked could
make people more last question they become older um
the challenge is establishing cause allergy and we are
painfully aware the correlation is not causation
so we have embarked on a number of nationally funded preclinical studies nationally funded
human interventions and you're working white funded interventions
the first actually none of those are ready enough to tell you the outcome to today but i'll i'll describe the last one
this is the european union from that project new age it involves add partners from nestle
involve sebastien clean no and for swap yeah much time here and agnes like
and it's it's actually pretty cool story because it has allowed us to take twelve hundred fifty subjects
in each of five european centres indicate on the map put them on a mediterranean segmentation dies it's
too difficult and it's infeasible strain change that i completely it's a supplement station approach and
and follow them up after one year and subject them to a full battery of all
makes methodologies including method you know makes which is being done on my lap
so we're starting the baseline the three intervention measurements right now and the uh house
intervention to it would become one of the press a middle twenty fifteen
and that's studies anchorage repair university baloney accorded by plastic like different jesse
um in the meantime we we've been drilling down into the expanded elder imitated see
what more we can extract that one of the questions we're addressing last ability
in other words is the microphone to stay even in a over time in
these um older folks so we established a small panel of individuals an
whose numbers ones not that's most not that these numbers you can read on this
them on the table the slide and for each individual we've got two lines
the first one who's the microphone a change from zero to three months and
then the second part of the line is from three months six months
and the microphone was completely stable going no where those lines would be very short d.
and if you got a squint your eyes you might just above thing that the red lines are slightly longer than the greenwich which they are
you can type it up a bit by imposing an artificial cut off which is
if this that the distance in the microphone to change the difference
in spearman correlations is greater than point zero two five
that we will just will say that those individuals have a stable microphone basically take those guys out of the equation
um you're left with a smaller number of subjects for sure but you can see that
the the past lines in the microbiology arrive from uh last individuals are longer
and of course you can graph that to make a lot more how to blur easy on the eye in this case
we've actually retain the so called stable community uh subjects and
the on stable community on stable micro browser it's
only for the long stay this parameters looking at the train from zero to three months and there's not much of
a difference between them from three months six months to start look like these guys moving a bit more
if you look at the total path line from an zero to six months
it's graver in the longest individual suggesting the microphone is changing more
and another way to do that is to take the path lined the absolute distance from
here to here and subtract from that the path things from here to here and
because the community dwelling subjects the microphones morris coming back to the starting place has
become a negative number in the on stable microbiology subjects showing that the if
individuals live in the community if they're microbiology changes over time it tends to come back to
the starting place where that's not the case if they're living on long term residential care
the other aspect of this is when you look at the sherman diversity index which is a measure of the diversity in the community
it's significantly lower protectively for the launch the dwelling individuals who've an unstable microbiology
and this resonates with generally theological through which is that the more stable and ecosystem is
um the more diversity is excuse me the more stable is
to external perturbations and it's greater stability over time
um we've allies effective added by alex uh not a very briefly because there's less
of independent literature showing that and to that exterior fact the micro by the
that's good implications for obese yellow population level in the elderly what
um what we've graft here are the difference between time points
and for individuals who have not been through on and products to fatten proponents of both most of the time
points we've got antibiotics at the second time point around who receive not about some the first time point
to save what you see is that the difference in the micro but it's far
greater couldn't treat without about showing that it's temperature been the micro by itself
and then we haven't just about enough yet individuals in the study to see if there are different
effects between different classes and antibiotics and those are the kinds of things we're examining now
and it's like to version which was more or less impose on me
was uh for a into studying the foundations the method allergens are
a confusing the main of organisms and their associations with human
my current health associations seem to be very controversial
which is why stay clear of them and the thousands have been reports being increased in obesity
their increased uh anorexia for increased and africans their increase in some
western populations of that says this is too hard for me
and but i i became interested in them because we're actually in tonight yes
and like to hide isn't supposed to be never turn so we began measuring the foundations in right yeah subjects
and around the same time uh group in time of for all the the latin force what we share
reported that mathematicians increased an abundance and elderly that is
not entirely new but was was new was that
i described a new seventy or seventy order advantage uns which we're protecting abundant in the elderly
no this is not the time for an election the phylogeny mathematicians but it's
actually there's this new seventh order bear with me is not too bad
there are common in the environment you find them in lake sediments and in
march and surprisingly they were present in the got so that people
and protecting the elderly and they're different from your comment that sounded ready
back german army fantasy or step many so i said no
i can ignore this any longer better look at this so we began to collaborate with that the lapping chairman for all
and the first thing that we did is we stick with the genome to some of these organisms from enrichment cultures
and we start to look for jeans french hasn't adaptation because that's what you'd expect
but we also found were jeans for try metal aiming depletion uh
try wrestling mean is it a an interesting molecule because
it's recently had been reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease
this is largely but not exclusively the work of stand his
group in cleveland and how this works is that
dies which are really rich which a region carotene encoding uh our
metropolis pay elements of the microbial and converged actually anyway
and the team is actually dies in the lever if we've got a function sell jeans to t. n. though
in t. m. a. over am re programs macrophages in cause reverse class for transport
and causes from cell production and these phone sales and oppose
components of arterial plaque so that's the cardiovascular link
and if you really unlocking if you have an f. m. o. three mutation utility and they know that fish over you and syndrome
no that's good so our interest despair or the notion that the next time it is
at least we're predictive have the capability to depleting and they might
actually be projector for cardiovascular disease it is his own
inference from sequence status from sequencing genes we didn't actually know of these things couldn't have placed team at all
so in a paper earlier this year in got micro to show that they covered the grown nicely on
um a. t. m. main hydrogen that also might have lies diametrically me my wife and i mean
one of the peculiarities as they want scroll on hydrogen carbon
dioxide and they will grow into may alone so um
we actually common cheek all these things are key by alex we how much that but that would be tremendous
difficulties in developing these on a commercial basis producing them
are probably get number proof for consumption either
um interesting lee these are clear or not widely reported because they're not well
hat should with universal primers people use for bacteria so we have
up to muscles primers and even within this new seven order we've
identified a couple of independently images which for reasons of simplicity
i'll call amex one which is actually an incest analysis and the
next two three which has the name am i'll that's
and interestingly we found a an inverse distribution in terms
of the abundance of these organisms were right
in test analysis preferentially more abundant in the individuals who live under the long stay
and em out of us is more abundant mirror image in
terms of its distribution in the individuals from the community
um i'm we're currently trying to piece together to genes
of other members of this interesting advantage in order
and we can actually assembling directly from the manager normative it still surprises me but works
um to conclude this wanna talk about uh and how much
more we can extract from the ultimate data um
in the early days when people asked about cause incarnation they would say
well are the people living on long term residential care of a
good tires and have a good mike number or the people living in their own homes too terrible died and terrible mike about uh
now the first group of interviews you can find because when you go into a home we what's available
and you probably make lousy choices knots story for another day but um but you do we we all know people who are
really frugal and live alone a terrible died and diluting the will
of five million euro because they're just parsimonious them anyway
we thought we drill into that we yeah sam let poster through a record three
hundred people they went about it and we developed a new and uh
clustering methodology is less magically to look at these so
the this is the same kind of people representation and we're gonna
go to use here which are sequence pays bacterial reads
and the user lost the fox the previous suspect all of these individual uh living in
the community the community and mike rubber is characterised by an abundance of these guys
but you can see that there are individuals whose microbiology is approaching doubt along stay
and these mikey those individuals different theory was correct to had
a bad times and was driving last separation so
when we look at least welling long stay like individuals and we do some p. c. analysis you
can see no separation well reasonable separation from how
the true to residential care like michael buyer
the fruit is much messier and are much greater overlaps because from dave
is intrinsically noisy data but you can still see some sort of
trend whereby the fruit might be responsible for for driving this is not just simply call association
and when we drove down to what the fruit at the major for groups are
they're similar to what i previously told you were going to people in the house this group
or of how these drive group or even large
larger proportions of fruit fibre vegetables relatively
modest amounts of high clay scenic index food there's a a trend whereby this
consumption proportion decreases and we go through the long stay like
these people are even relatively little fruit and fibre
the reading a much higher proportion of high fat part very much lower proportions low fat target
and the reading it considerable volume of hike like scenic and exclude concluding prepackaged foods
ensure this is you know those there's a microbial sequence which follows that and we've been making sort of
a relational database whereby we can link may just two groups were particular mike by the types
and when we looked at health associations of the health properties of these individuals
and remember these rock people living in the community you can see that the people with this
last any like microphone and i have have the lowest escort for the bart hello index
and they also there's a clear trend towards lower scores for cotton function in the n. s. c. test
and it's also interesting to note that this intermediate long stay like group
which have significantly depressed tennessee values actually have the same age
distribution as the people on healthy style so none of these are
true h. depended them declines or or changes in the variable
we've also developed methodologies to trying to find in greater
detail what the elements in the microbiology are
by looking at the whole forward not just the people living in the community and
although diversity is important at the highest diversity group is not actually the highest or
the individuals highs microbial diversity and not have health used because this group here
how these individuals are these to have this kind of took out this kind of micro biotech
and they actually have a slightly lower divorce the microphone right and people in the community you've got the core
mike rubber corresponding to that but there are also some these
low abundance beneficial bacteria and some long stay type bacteria
and then as you move leftward in general there is reduction in the
mike about diversity you got the last individuals and and cluster group
so we're able to define different microwave the types
which corresponds to diet and health associations
and we can also look at the uh microphone stability by taking the
exact same piece you and and imposing i hate map on us
and this shows that the how this group with high diversity but not the highs
microphone highs diversity have the lowest change over time in terms of the
the alteration of the micro by also and the last individuals have the grace shift over time
and in recent months we've also been looking at the functional
changes associated with the difference in the mike about types
and these are just some descriptive stats to remind me to say that we have done shop command now make
so last week on around half of the total cool word ultimate subjects
and surprise surprise who says these long stay dwelling individuals with the low diversity micro
but also also loading count reminiscent what we heard from a number speakers today
and we can use these intimidating metabolic maps to show watts um
metabolic properties are difference we abundant and the corresponds to the pathways which
are just about with the red and for simplicity of label
goes the corresponds to nuclear type metabolism mindless metabolism i'm i'm a
mindless carbohydrate intake version and you were a carbohydrate metabolism
so if these association to microbiology and health status aren't anyway positive
these kinds of changes are potentially part of the uh a factor wrapped were involved
so to summarise rubbing going with that bitch will die correlates with
the microbiology and the microphone or composition correlates with health
individuals in long term residential care how the less stable microbe it and it's less diverse to begin with
the low diversity mike about is characterised by differential abundance of these uh m. x. group of mathematicians
and as a show there at the end of the fine detail
like robert i clustering in the community confirms these health correlations
and we're doing comes the low diversity might or by other so
to ensure the translation research can we make anything of this
now in court as another european uh and whorls centres
we have been doing fickle mike about transplants
primary insidious and as you all know what's contrast ugly factors
um but we do still have lingering anxiety about transplanting essentially
on known cocktails of bacteria into the asterisk individuals and
for that reason we would like to develop partitions to which is not a novel concept 'cause people like
trevor lonely in mice handling for two and m. l. undercover and well have been doing this already
um this is our representation mike about it's actually called we can plot after
chief we can in the census because it looks like a go no
and that's how was the nature was read to like together pass the other so
the good thing about awaken parts is that the diameter of the circles shows
you the buttons of the organism and these lines in the case of the positive
associations era so you can see that's an interactive interacting the logical ecosystem
and there are also negative associations which you know we don't show for reasons of simplicity
so if you want to establish the functional microbiology to know how to my mind you have
to be able to emulate all these interactions in a stable scaffold our ecosystem um
there are other ways of doing that you could use program works in cork reviews problem excess successfully to um
to kill a organ isn't like exterior that was quite
easy and when we went into an animal models
like mice and things we found relatively modest affects uh probably arcs on the micro by also
interesting it was reason paper and plus one by groupies and d. s.
l. three and they showed an increase in long term plastic city
in in all the rats accompanied by modest change mike about over so this is an increase in and um
brain function in some like chemical matter but i think that's probably direct the
fact that probably onyx because in fact the microphone from thirty miles
another way to do this using prepare nixon or going back to diet and this is a representative
example of one of many studies i could've chosen from plant gibson's lab and it's showing that
soluble corn fibre was reducing the gene of toxicity of three quarters
in a human feeding trial simply balance might work um
was getting record three approval for pretty violent acts for functional claims has been difficult
and the last week or two would be back to therapy which is hard going
back to the c. d. f. idea and we can envisage the scenario whereby
if and when we show that the reduce diversity my proposal of frail old people
it's cause of that will then that would be a case for a start of measures
so what we've been doing is using the way compounds the shopping list into hardworking
grass stains my life of them populating is like posting these organisms um
organisms previously described as an close trouble simply people haven't tried hard enough and
there are lots reports in the literature that manages organisms can be cultured
so we can only have a couple hundred strains from around one hundred species and the
n. games to establish a stable microbiology up for in vitro and framed evil applications
f. so to finish off we've and number of independent
change the types and they're all into connected and as microbiology sir primary
hunter point entry point is probably to study the micro vile
but obviously the microphone is interlaced with diet because they don't just feeding
them a microphone and probably the factor molecules which impact or not
could be tested it by a stunning and have a long how an
we're not particular we don't currently know how the mitre by um impacts on health um
but we and others are extremely exercise by this um we um
we also feel that it's not sufficient reported collection not test because it that way
and uh a breakout and that um we get definitive answers either way
i like to include by acknowledging all of my partners in crime in in u. c. c.
um my collaborators isn't tchaikovsky and for more for all these are
the people currently mel out marks claw some who is that
how scrap um i don't know how like minded lightly already work and funding came from a variety

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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Nutrition advocacy in action: the politics of sugar vs. fat
Marion Nestle, New York University, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 9:27 a.m.