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it's really a an amazing place and on a fantastic meeting so i'm
really really grateful to put indication and also for the introduction
so i programmed the longest title of this session lawrence this program and
it's not entirely my fault because i was asked to talk about
uh infants microbe iota and stuff like that which we don't really work so much
on that star program now we share some data on it with you today
but i i i think i can at least talk about something i know a little bit
more off and that was okay so that's why i have a long title here
okay so we're all excited because we're working on such a hot topic
you know everybody's talking about the bloom in the micro by now
and i have to disappoint you that this is a paper from a newspaper from nineteen thirty
six in the milwaukee chronicle actually exactly the same questions we trying to debate here today
and you can read here
the question is whether humanity would be better uh uh off or worse off without any widget
little box to contend it's exactly the same question we're trying to debate here today
so what does happen is that is that during the past decade
we have really developed tools to pass at start to answer questions
that was not able to answer that in those days and
these are of course in sequencing which we saw from the great talks from from at both dylan and those go
but also from the cannot uh biological facilities so huge were good job that mice we heard just a few minutes ago
and i think what's happening now is that we have been able to introduce
molecular biology into the gentry systems we can ask mechanistic questions she
so and the great thing about being like the four speakers that you don't have time given introduction
and so we only asked the trying to to stress that
if you study i the patient cohorts individually differently ceases you'll find differences
the micro bile and if you compare term for incumbents raced animals
you will also find differences in several different organ systems indices everything from behaviour didn't test all
functions to even to bowl homey stay says we fight participate or with found that that
jen for my for the high bone density compared with a commensurate counterparts
these find differences in and the genesis and of course in the tablets and that's what i will talk about today
so what i think one of the reasons why we are here today and a given that this is the annotation company
is that there are so many papers describing a difference between obese and lean subjects in the market bile
then these are of course a cross sectional studies and we've been debating these and some put some of us
may think it is us you know contribution causation reflections disease it's semantic i think it's really important and
up to day it's only one paper here and this is one from jeff gordon where they try to do a little bit more of causation
whether transplanted the microphone into gender mice and i will be other examples on how this is
done as well and and we asked what is from from any kinda previous talk
but so far most starts or or cross sectional and it mainly error for to be sitting
my life is not so interested in obesity as we are in diabetes and the
reason for that is obvious in this uh in this uh crowd here
not all the beast devoted to diabetes it's actually only just about what percentage does so
so can we find something that drives the conversion from just
health obese to uh to the type two diabetes
this is of course important that this is really dramatically increasing around the world
you can find this map which is predicted twenty twenty five that uh
so they'll be some countries like saudi arabia will have more
than twenty percent will have diabetes yes ten years and of course
then you will have a a tremendous burden to society
we heard ha discuss an discussion around this as well
so we have also been interested in this so we have it sounded a population based on on what we took
fifty page under fifty women and with it but you that it is fifty women with
impact looks tolerance and a fifty women with with the nobody looks tolerance
as we'll see later on the numbers or don't really match up because some
of the people had a stick together screwed me move between the groups
but nevertheless if we we can make like maps like this where we can show
that there are a bunch of bacteria that is associated with type
two diabetes a bunch of bacteria associate with knowledge lucas tolerance
and you can do correlation to several important clinical have by markers
and of course you'll find that these bacteria here is possibly correlated with fasting glucose for example
these guys here correlating with love it levels off with h. d. l.
l. it levels off at the next in that makes sense
what's a little bit more disturbing x. especially in a company like this is
that the bacteria here are like the say like an a and
once again this this associations i don't say that like the select cost type two diabetes
but i think that we need really need to understand why do we see increased levels of like to this a lot in type two diabetes
our favourite hypothesis right now is that these guys like look oh so you have more blue 'cause of the system here
on the other hand these guys here
they uh mainly directly using bacteria so i would like to ensure that these are costing the income improve because tolerance
but it's very hard for me here with a clean cut you say these are bystander an
infection of disease and these are promoting unhealthy uh you know uh be promoting health
but i think this brings to the note notion that we really have to understand and
parse out what all reflected of diseases what the cost indices
it's a lot to do what does go alluded to we can make nice models uh and and
start to classify subjects i don't sit addicted to classify because we can make a mathematical algorithm
based on the micro by on and say whether one subject would be type
two diabetic or not this is a very expensive way of mentioned locals
um but biased and whether it and so by taking just one single microbe and this is the red line here
we can actually come after rock five point six and if we go up to ten we about point seven
the black line out when we use that data off the speech is
it not to have an isolated then we come up to really
impressive numbers like point eighty three which is about what you got to the find risk and we can get the same kind of
results using this algorithm on on a court from china for example
that's nice but i said you don't do that to to tell if you
have diabetes and not become if you like right yeah glucose levels
it's got a little bit more interesting because we could use our subjects with impact lucas tolerance uses outgrew it
and i classify them i just type two diabetes like or as healthy like
and most of them fall into this spectrum off of type two diabetes like it's some seem to be more healthy
and that we can look at by marcus yet advocacy for example that the try this arrives on lower
in the subjects at heart healthy michael by also to say and see tactile levels also lower
so we have recall these that's all the forty nine so it's really hard to
make it you know to i can't we can't publish the anecdotally that's maureen
no i think no one of these groups have converted type duties and if you you are but it's promising
so we're now i'm moving into to do these it perspective because we think it's important enough to discuss that
if we can start to predict is getting the uh diabetes based on the micro while
that could be very important to to design a trading strategies and so forth and that's depicted on this like when i
i was also asked to speculate a little bit here and you know a a provoke
so what we envision is that if you had a population you'll find individuals
that have a high risk of develop that to that beats in this example but you can change to any disease i guess
and i like papa says that to the these guys with a different colour see all those that will devoted to that beat is
they all have different microphones but maybe it's such as this is a heterogeneous deceased it's almost like a
syndrome you measure it's useful sane and results but this gonna okay emerges so many different ways
it's sort of naive to say that like to sell us blah blah sure everything in type two diabetes
but perhaps if we can stratified these guys and phenotype them very carefully
so these guy here the yellow maybe you know having impaired fasting locals the red one may have uh
impart or because tolerance the green one may have been detected insulin secretion and so forth maybe they
just ratify them based on their phenotype in the
micro bile into tailor made a personalised treatments
such as problematic substance which would be great but i think we need to develop new products
or to give them a specific diet maybe the right guy should have a low fat
diet and the green one should have a local diet based on the micro bile
our would be most yeah the response response better to exercise maybe can decide what role you should be
on based on the micro while maybe we can identify who should have but it should be
and i think we really need to do is you know i couldn't help myself that it puts causation contribution reflection of this
easier and to pass this i think we really need to
have prospective studies that will control sufficient amount of people
and and we of course are all have our interest in the the ball to see says that we're rebuilding our courts around
but we also need to make interventions in humans to prove it so this
will uh what uh max is doing so beautifully we'll talk about tomorrow
and in order to bring this into the clinic we really need to understand the mechanism
and in order to do so i think we really need to animal experiments where we have a much cleaner system
so i'm i'm sharing this slightly because it's a ten year anniversary from our
first paper showing that that gender my third less fat comments raced animals
it's very easy to spot when you open up a job for most have
smaller fat as compared to those that were born race with microbes
well as we took a job for miles and just call and i think the two weeks it's
a massive expansion of off opposed to should come from that's to that just two weeks
we can also do that in more elegant ways by measuring the body factor don't with decks
i here's with m. r. i. is so different mouse strains in both males and females
still at your termites have less body fat convention raced might have more body fat
and if you recall nice these guys and measure them again after two weeks we have normalised amount of body fat
if you have more body fat you of course have a a worse in a a or
impaired because tolerance these are impaired yeah yeah i interpreted to mail you 'cause taurus test
where we look at the fasting glucose here see that the commensurate
myself higher fasting glucose compared to those of the germ free
we've been injected a boulder suffer glucose into the abdomen and measure the clears rate of the locals and we can
nicely show that you haven't impaired clearance in the convention raised mice compared to those of the germ free
so we want to move this forward i have high a very very good post doc these models hole
bruce development to develop a the hype is really make you best image plan you know
wage gently animals so you spend a year of doing surgery on the sterile conditions
and she could actually showed now that for to my my the first time
that you have to myself really haven't into into sensitivity in the periphery
and we think we by adding stuff more animals we can also show
that gender mice have it into these insensitivity also in the liver
which uh vitality p. h. d. student can also as opposed to sit here where he in
took a a general comments raised mouse it took a liver biopsy from that mouse
and put a suture there and then he injected incentives portal vein put waiting for fifteen minutes
took another biopsy and then what's the uh put put them in the blocking for false
related uh take it she which is a very good approximate marked into the sensitivity
sure the gentry mice have improved since it seems the sensitivity in
the liver compared to those at the convention raised mikes
it makes sense these are on chow guides in i the c. fifty seven my sports this web the mice
we have more fact in a cordless mouse every had reduced an instance signal
but how fast does this happen
so it another experiment but done via antonio and together we lease
they took gentry mice and then the colour nice that will one day three day seven days fourteen data twenty eight days
you can see that the amount of a fact start emerge about after the two weeks and this is
our sort of standard time point where we do our analysis which we were quite happy topic
if you look at the the fasting blood glucose
you can see that have to one day you have a slight elevation that or
go muscle go up three days then returned to baseline angles up again
and it's even more clear if we do a because taurus test after these times this
is the basis light but i'll walk you through it a germ free mice
but one day you have this blue line have it fantastic impaired because tolerance
which gets better and then the smallest of seven days and then have to tune in four weeks to get back to the slope
you can measure the air under the curve and you see that you have a very rapid incident uh recesses we think
due to the infection of the conversation that then it's clear you get some some kind of a ah a
uh uh it back to the normal level and initiate a show that it
takes about four to eight days to normalise it got michael by order
and that's a two weeks you get back to this more fish a lot you can sort of assistance which is associated with increased body fat
so this is nice but at this point we wanted to attribute it increased the paucity
in the colour eyes mice just because extract more energy from carbohydrates which direct
so we to test the hypothesis that the carbohydrates
are really the driving factor if we uh
use the fact that jeffrey mice uh you put gentle colour a customised on high
fat high should be died with out any yeah complex colour uh carbohydrates
and that we measure the amount of body fat gain over eight weeks and we found that the gentry
mice were resistant to die to this to the city that it again whether the control mice
whereas those that uh had bacteria gained five grams of twenty five percent of body weight
so to my mind this is really important because the explanation it cannot be asked easy that got
to micro biotech costa pasta only by mutual extraction it must be other signals as well
and to summarise some ten years of work we have another have basically gone over different organ systems that
we can show that the micro by oh that can affect metabolism in all these organ systems
from regulating appetites uh so tightly in the brain still toes as in the liver
oppose inflammation fat ass oxidation and the muscle probability of they got the perfume
and of course in secretion of hormones from from from and undefined cells
and all of these can they contribute into to a metabolic syndrome and phenotype
i would like to share some some unpublished data with you about barry the arctic surgery
so how do we think that got michael buyout ice associated with better take surgery
add to to bring everybody to sort of the same page that's
at least three types of projects or it is used today
it's banding where you basically asked at redo systemic size
let's leave distracted me where you cut off eighty percent of of the stomach
and then you have a more complex when why getting by possibly have a smaller stomach
but also re route so that to do do you know um is entering further down in the you
and it's well known that basic surgeries that type of
treatment that provide right a long term weight loss
so this is for this release the obesity study we have
controls other basis they'll be so over fifteen years time
if you have banding to types of banning you end up with sort of an intermediate phenotype
you lose weight but you don't lose as much weight as have to guess the bypass
and when the study was conducted the best 'cause he was not yet invented
but it seems to be very similar to get it by plus maybe not as efficient but very very simple
what do we know that's that's ever papers uh published out of thirty five
papers partisans is subject twenty nine reduce that there are six private papers
and i'll show you the results of those as the two of those
six tall cover thirty percent of the primer literature into slights
and this is the first study where they had three patients one uh i think was two females and one male or vice versa
what was what weight stable to we're not eight to fifteen months after surgery so despite these heterogeneous group you can
still see and if you focus on the three lies to the the the last of the right here
that you have more blue here is that the gamma probably bacteria like e. coli of more green here they're
microbial this the famous i come and see what a billion talk about and he is a little longer
and and
if you you can say about the same results in all all all the studies
published that you have more equal i oprah gamma probably bacteria at least
this is a i quite a recent study where they did not you know
makes so sick was all genes and present in in the subject
six subjects before three not a month after when and why guessing by plus
and what you can see is that all the six patients before
surgery are quite heterogeneous after surgery they become was similar
in the in the site we had before surgery in the outer the circle
your have after surgery you see an expansion here off the probably bacteria
you see expansion here to very kroger and reduction of the from
which is which is as shown in other papers as well
that's nice but so far that's that imitation sabine few subjects and short followup time
so we have been involved in a in a study where we
come pads subjects that work on either on the going banding
or classic bypass all that starts at the subject but these were matched
and follow up at the nine years after surgeries a very stable
and the one match such as that they had lost the same amount of weight and would be
my matched so this should be able to exclude weight loss if there were any differences
and if we look at which the speech at the and of course we have seven obese controls and if we look at the differences uh on on
tax enormous level and this are very low numbers and that's why we don't
see something significant changes the significant changes are these coloured blobs here
which are more prevalent here and the reason why competitive these controls
and it's the same old uh follows it's uh it's eurasia for example the other probably bacteria
if we do banding versus obese is a very similar pattern but they don't we significance
and if we compare the two surgery methods we don't see any significant changes whatsoever
but the beauty by doing shotgun method you know makes is that you can go and look it functions
and if you look at functions is that which i think is more important you can i define
that your hat specific functions that are rich compared to obese in the variable banning yeah
you have those it does specific for for the one why getting quite pulse and then you have those
that are are are a consistent between the two surgery come and it's to between the two surgeries
and these are two components systems this is the way bacteria census nutrients
it's nitrogen that i was a fat ass but tells so i mean ass if that doesn't the titles we think it's quite interesting
but once again these are yes associations so we used to uh the beauty
of of the human decision as uh as we have the previous speaker
i introduced to you so in our case it takes a piece microbiology or or this uh study
microbiology put into gender mice then analysts then two weeks after uh it uh the transfer
what we can see that the the ones that got to be smart group iota gain
the most fact over two weeks period of time this initial with m. r. i.
compared to those that have either ruin white or vertical banded and guess you
have to ruin why seems to be doing a little bit better
so of course this is much work remains to be done uh but we think and our pockets is right now
is that for that but to surgery at least to certain point work by modifying the micro by now
but how what would be a potential mechanism
so uh just as interest of time i don't have time to show for all our data we have on
pilots and the top was we got my proprietor relation to to that type two diabetes for example
but we could measure the bile acids in the seven subjects and we found that even at fasting the
room why uh subjects had a little bit higher for a biased levels compared to the other groups
but upon and a meal you see a tremendously upon a increase in in circulating
bile acids banning certain intermediate and the beast i don't have any induction
so why do we think that by losses are important
well by last it's a signalling molecules that not only help absorbing a lip it from from the diet
they can buy for example interceptors such just effects are either in the liver or in the small intestine
and what we found is that the michael by odessa really strong and you sort of effects are so if we measure uh
the transcript of f. j. fifteen which is a target of ethics are in the small the tested
we show that gender myself very low expression convention raced mice very high expression
if we delete ethics are and make this mice germs we we do not any longer see
any regulations is g. concluding that the market by what i'd uses f. exhaust signalling
so we do get with a randy ceiling care ryan at a universal cincinnati
we perform experiments where we want to to evaluate if ethics are it's
required for basic said for beneficial effect projects o. g. logo hole
if we take wild type mice and we perform better surgery to lose weight and i don't
show the data a because the papers published but they also have improved because tolerance
compared to those of us jam surgery is a weeks after a surgery but if
we take it ethics are not got the malls and do the same experiment
the initial dropping weight but it's all regained and they're even see a worsening of the tops
so of course our cat hypothesis now is that it's all to michael
pliable is altering the cap ability to seems to fix or
and we also see changes in the michael by all so if you do that
with you distracted me in a lot at most is it increase the rules
of area which always seems to be a good guy when comes to type two diabetes and if you do to knock out you don't see this increase
so now i'm gonna finish off by talking five minutes or so about
what i should have been talking for forty five minutes about
and it's sort of following that track that uh will have started this
morning so i don't have to give so much of an introduction
but i want to point out a paper that at least is weeding got huge media coverage
and that is a paper published in yamaha where they looked at
at about exposure twenty first twenty four months of life
and so i was very strong and i i think correlation to obesity later live
and they found that it's especially broad spectrum antibiotics that now a spectrum and backed into a worse
if you have more the for exposures doing these twenty four
months you really increase the rate ratio of developing obesity
and it also seems like if you had it early it was worse than if you had had late in the spirit
and if you look at in the literature this is sort fact actually quite consistent
and it what i can't understand is that it always seems to be worse for the box
so you know so it's nice to be able i may have a lot of time to buy outs when i was young it might have someone to blame
uh but what about mechanisms and this is uh i think it's a pretty
nice paper from martin places group that was part is not years ago
where they used to model where they had very low levels have
the biologics in the drinking water for four mikes early life
they didn't say it different in in the weight gain
but if you look here no matter if you use a penicillin of anger mice in or in combination this so i yeah
increase in fact amassing these yeah in these mikes compared to controls
which was quite quite dramatic and by several an uh you know
if you press four to six figure in this paper
they can show that in the late it had a
big effects in the liver metabolism in adulthood such
that the the the the mike that had about treatment have an increase in in like the genesis
so we are interested in this because we think yeah that then
really microphone can be important and this is something that everybody's been discussing we
have the privilege to to work together with uh some fantastic uh
uh politicians in in it got the bergen and home still where they
are following it for us five and twenty infants uh from birth
and about under fifty of these have been subject it's a bit were delivered by c. section after otherwise healthy yeah i guess is
and we are sampling these uh either the mother at so for the ones that are available and get the mother at birth
then we have the first the coney more souls would cause like four days is a little variable
there have four months which we think is a very important time pointing
sweden because that's when you are advised to introduce solid foods
and there were twelve months where we think that you are most of the much spot a breast feeding every three years or five
years and we now have funding so we can find of all of another of uh up to ten years of age
they're not pilot study i was sure some data with you today where we have
studied hundred of these infants at the mother and the first year of life
from human shotgun sequencing together with a one unit here and says here at b. g. i.
and then we got a one point six a better basis uh uh sequences you rated
and we build a infringing cello which we think can be very important
and what we find is that of course that the that the coney micro while it's very distant from the mother
and then as you get older you start to do do this journey and we're not at
that altered yet i think we need to have three of five maybe even more
was of course interesting is that i'll today first so that's what the this has been talking
about what how many different how diverse you michael by um is is relatively low
at first because you seem to be had either a lot of you call like or lot
b. feels or lot of backed road isn't the seem to compete against each other
and you have a huge variation between that uh children that would be the diversity
you see that the data diversity is reducing the alpha diversity is increasing along along this axis
what i what you thought was pretty neat because these are very close tires about what
that you don't need to be even the brand of the formula for example
and it's appears as the most important factor transform it adults microbe while
it's when you start having breast milk to probably depresses of
of your remote local x. h. m. o.'s human milk looks like
rights that are important to not the introduction of solid foods
and we can look for different functions this is a message slide and know that but i want to state
is that what we find in the newborns is to dawn of the genes involved in in acid absorption
and what we see in the older michael piles or i mean acid
production to the switch in the micro bile as we go along
we can also start this compare contrast uh some of the subjects
i'd had was the but but and see section for example
so this is a complex lie but basically we show i that you you call high enter caucus spectra of
the object was fabulous spectre is that in the mike from the the filler and serve the caucus
and we see how on many of the strange to cover in the mother covering the baby and so forth
and in fact no birth oh seventy five percent what you find in the in
the coding them we can also set find in the mother's micro by or
and what we see is that seventy five percent almost of the strange from the mother we can
file of economists finding the baby and then this is relatively constant up to twelve months
i was a similar pattern and even more for the back or that's the thing is pretty neat
but many of them are seem to be transferred from the mother and then remain but look here if you have a c. section
you don't have that transfer from the mother to the baby you think that
the future market by one is really important in shaping initial mike about
this goes well along with what what the rob night uh probably for example where you had
to see that the c. section babies seem to have more from the skin and environment
so it is important well that's also several papers showing that if you
do little by c. section you have a high risk for obesity
and it seems this is a uh these are relatively recent studies
and what you see here is children to deliver by c. section and then the allies after
four years that he's fifty is a twenty three years divide it in and man and uh females and
up to fifteen years that's a significant
a increase in obese individuals in those where delivered by sisters section compared to those with that little birds
and it's more pronounced in once again in them and and it wouldn't of some recent
it's gone at twenty three years still a friend but not significant
and in a completely different study you can also see that's the
difference starts to emerge around here at twenty months of age
so in the beginning there's no difference but then you start to see a difference in the beast it later life
so can we blame the old michael pile for this increase in obesity
well it's early days data you enter a last week it's always fun to to break some new data when you're at the conference
so we did a sin experiments where we took at the twelve months time point i that
faces from that no one chip from a what variable wanted or see section beloved dated
and introduce him to our gender mouse model of wanna interpret any out because tolerance test because
see that the ones that got the c. section seems to have slightly impaired glucose tolerance
and these are of course has to be repeated many times over but it's it's suggest to us that one reason why this baby's
a delay by c. section may have increased risk for b. still later like maybe that they have an old microbe wow
looking into the crystal ball and speculate a little bit because i think that's what uh we have done here today
we think that the micro biotech can contribute about about diseases and uh thirty
patients early life maybe really important for development of these diseases later life
we hope and invention as we can use a got mike about uh to predict deceased later like ah
add it also opens up a window for for development of per slice treatments based on the got microbiology
i know we're far from us a lot of work with like regulatory and so forth but i think
we need to keep in mind that how can we come to that point in the future
so what i'm a stay at the very nice hotel and having a good time eating
good food people actually working and i just want to point out the obvious that
volunteer in a it together with frederick onions the um and and
your has been driving the type two diabetes study we did
uh luis antonio's be developing means to analysts because motels mice in much higher resolution
randy celia valentino femoral is back on the bed exeter products together with jens of frederick
and then in the baby product it's uh you've on ah use if you know the clinicians
uh jim vine it's really been instrumental in by informatics and and
and uh it's sequencing and i i should say united to fight scene
and uh then i mean has been start to take this into to do two mice

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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