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it's really a an amazing place and on a fantastic meeting so i'm
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really really grateful to put indication and also for the introduction
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so i programmed the longest title of this session lawrence this program and
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it's not entirely my fault because i was asked to talk about
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uh infants microbe iota and stuff like that which we don't really work so much
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on that star program now we share some data on it with you today
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but i i i think i can at least talk about something i know a little bit
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more off and that was okay so that's why i have a long title here
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okay so we're all excited because we're working on such a hot topic
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you know everybody's talking about the bloom in the micro by now
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and i have to disappoint you that this is a paper from a newspaper from nineteen thirty
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six in the milwaukee chronicle actually exactly the same questions we trying to debate here today
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and you can read here
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the question is whether humanity would be better uh uh off or worse off without any widget
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little box to contend it's exactly the same question we're trying to debate here today
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so what does happen is that is that during the past decade
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we have really developed tools to pass at start to answer questions
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that was not able to answer that in those days and
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these are of course in sequencing which we saw from the great talks from from at both dylan and those go
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but also from the cannot uh biological facilities so huge were good job that mice we heard just a few minutes ago
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and i think what's happening now is that we have been able to introduce
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molecular biology into the gentry systems we can ask mechanistic questions she
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so and the great thing about being like the four speakers that you don't have time given introduction
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and so we only asked the trying to to stress that
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if you study i the patient cohorts individually differently ceases you'll find differences
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the micro bile and if you compare term for incumbents raced animals
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you will also find differences in several different organ systems indices everything from behaviour didn't test all
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functions to even to bowl homey stay says we fight participate or with found that that
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jen for my for the high bone density compared with a commensurate counterparts
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these find differences in and the genesis and of course in the tablets and that's what i will talk about today
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so what i think one of the reasons why we are here today and a given that this is the annotation company
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is that there are so many papers describing a difference between obese and lean subjects in the market bile
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then these are of course a cross sectional studies and we've been debating these and some put some of us
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may think it is us you know contribution causation reflections disease it's semantic i think it's really important and
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up to day it's only one paper here and this is one from jeff gordon where they try to do a little bit more of causation
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whether transplanted the microphone into gender mice and i will be other examples on how this is
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done as well and and we asked what is from from any kinda previous talk
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but so far most starts or or cross sectional and it mainly error for to be sitting
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my life is not so interested in obesity as we are in diabetes and the
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reason for that is obvious in this uh in this uh crowd here
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not all the beast devoted to diabetes it's actually only just about what percentage does so
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so can we find something that drives the conversion from just
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health obese to uh to the type two diabetes
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so
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this is of course important that this is really dramatically increasing around the world
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you can find this map which is predicted twenty twenty five that uh
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so they'll be some countries like saudi arabia will have more
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than twenty percent will have diabetes yes ten years and of course
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then you will have a a tremendous burden to society
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we heard ha discuss an discussion around this as well
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so we have also been interested in this so we have it sounded a population based on on what we took
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fifty page under fifty women and with it but you that it is fifty women with
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impact looks tolerance and a fifty women with with the nobody looks tolerance
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as we'll see later on the numbers or don't really match up because some
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of the people had a stick together screwed me move between the groups
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but nevertheless if we we can make like maps like this where we can show
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that there are a bunch of bacteria that is associated with type
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two diabetes a bunch of bacteria associate with knowledge lucas tolerance
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and you can do correlation to several important clinical have by markers
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and of course you'll find that these bacteria here is possibly correlated with fasting glucose for example
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these guys here correlating with love it levels off with h. d. l.
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l. it levels off at the next in that makes sense
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what's a little bit more disturbing x. especially in a company like this is
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that the bacteria here are like the say like an a and
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once again this this associations i don't say that like the select cost type two diabetes
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but i think that we need really need to understand why do we see increased levels of like to this a lot in type two diabetes
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our favourite hypothesis right now is that these guys like look oh so you have more blue 'cause of the system here
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on the other hand these guys here
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they uh mainly directly using bacteria so i would like to ensure that these are costing the income improve because tolerance
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but it's very hard for me here with a clean cut you say these are bystander an
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infection of disease and these are promoting unhealthy uh you know uh be promoting health
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but i think this brings to the note notion that we really have to understand and
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parse out what all reflected of diseases what the cost indices
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it's a lot to do what does go alluded to we can make nice models uh and and
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start to classify subjects i don't sit addicted to classify because we can make a mathematical algorithm
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based on the micro by on and say whether one subject would be type
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two diabetic or not this is a very expensive way of mentioned locals
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um but biased and whether it and so by taking just one single microbe and this is the red line here
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we can actually come after rock five point six and if we go up to ten we about point seven
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the black line out when we use that data off the speech is
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it not to have an isolated then we come up to really
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impressive numbers like point eighty three which is about what you got to the find risk and we can get the same kind of
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results using this algorithm on on a court from china for example
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that's nice but i said you don't do that to to tell if you
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have diabetes and not become if you like right yeah glucose levels
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it's got a little bit more interesting because we could use our subjects with impact lucas tolerance uses outgrew it
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and i classify them i just type two diabetes like or as healthy like
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and most of them fall into this spectrum off of type two diabetes like it's some seem to be more healthy
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and that we can look at by marcus yet advocacy for example that the try this arrives on lower
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in the subjects at heart healthy michael by also to say and see tactile levels also lower
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so we have recall these that's all the forty nine so it's really hard to
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make it you know to i can't we can't publish the anecdotally that's maureen
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no i think no one of these groups have converted type duties and if you you are but it's promising
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so we're now i'm moving into to do these it perspective because we think it's important enough to discuss that
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if we can start to predict is getting the uh diabetes based on the micro while
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that could be very important to to design a trading strategies and so forth and that's depicted on this like when i
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i was also asked to speculate a little bit here and you know a a provoke
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so what we envision is that if you had a population you'll find individuals
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that have a high risk of develop that to that beats in this example but you can change to any disease i guess
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and i like papa says that to the these guys with a different colour see all those that will devoted to that beat is
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they all have different microphones but maybe it's such as this is a heterogeneous deceased it's almost like a
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syndrome you measure it's useful sane and results but this gonna okay emerges so many different ways
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it's sort of naive to say that like to sell us blah blah sure everything in type two diabetes
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but perhaps if we can stratified these guys and phenotype them very carefully
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so these guy here the yellow maybe you know having impaired fasting locals the red one may have uh
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impart or because tolerance the green one may have been detected insulin secretion and so forth maybe they
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just ratify them based on their phenotype in the
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micro bile into tailor made a personalised treatments
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such as problematic substance which would be great but i think we need to develop new products
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or to give them a specific diet maybe the right guy should have a low fat
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diet and the green one should have a local diet based on the micro bile
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our would be most yeah the response response better to exercise maybe can decide what role you should be
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on based on the micro while maybe we can identify who should have but it should be
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and i think we really need to do is you know i couldn't help myself that it puts causation contribution reflection of this
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easier and to pass this i think we really need to
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have prospective studies that will control sufficient amount of people
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and and we of course are all have our interest in the the ball to see says that we're rebuilding our courts around
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but we also need to make interventions in humans to prove it so this
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will uh what uh max is doing so beautifully we'll talk about tomorrow
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and in order to bring this into the clinic we really need to understand the mechanism
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and in order to do so i think we really need to animal experiments where we have a much cleaner system
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so i'm i'm sharing this slightly because it's a ten year anniversary from our
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first paper showing that that gender my third less fat comments raced animals
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it's very easy to spot when you open up a job for most have
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smaller fat as compared to those that were born race with microbes
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well as we took a job for miles and just call and i think the two weeks it's
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a massive expansion of off opposed to should come from that's to that just two weeks
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we can also do that in more elegant ways by measuring the body factor don't with decks
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i here's with m. r. i. is so different mouse strains in both males and females
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still at your termites have less body fat convention raced might have more body fat
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and if you recall nice these guys and measure them again after two weeks we have normalised amount of body fat
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if you have more body fat you of course have a a worse in a a or
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impaired because tolerance these are impaired yeah yeah i interpreted to mail you 'cause taurus test
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where we look at the fasting glucose here see that the commensurate
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myself higher fasting glucose compared to those of the germ free
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we've been injected a boulder suffer glucose into the abdomen and measure the clears rate of the locals and we can
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nicely show that you haven't impaired clearance in the convention raised mice compared to those of the germ free
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so we want to move this forward i have high a very very good post doc these models hole
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bruce development to develop a the hype is really make you best image plan you know
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wage gently animals so you spend a year of doing surgery on the sterile conditions
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and she could actually showed now that for to my my the first time
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that you have to myself really haven't into into sensitivity in the periphery
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and we think we by adding stuff more animals we can also show
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that gender mice have it into these insensitivity also in the liver
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which uh vitality p. h. d. student can also as opposed to sit here where he in
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took a a general comments raised mouse it took a liver biopsy from that mouse
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and put a suture there and then he injected incentives portal vein put waiting for fifteen minutes
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took another biopsy and then what's the uh put put them in the blocking for false
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related uh take it she which is a very good approximate marked into the sensitivity
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sure the gentry mice have improved since it seems the sensitivity in
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the liver compared to those at the convention raised mikes
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it makes sense these are on chow guides in i the c. fifty seven my sports this web the mice
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we have more fact in a cordless mouse every had reduced an instance signal
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but how fast does this happen
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so it another experiment but done via antonio and together we lease
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they took gentry mice and then the colour nice that will one day three day seven days fourteen data twenty eight days
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you can see that the amount of a fact start emerge about after the two weeks and this is
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our sort of standard time point where we do our analysis which we were quite happy topic
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if you look at the the fasting blood glucose
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you can see that have to one day you have a slight elevation that or
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go muscle go up three days then returned to baseline angles up again
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and it's even more clear if we do a because taurus test after these times this
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is the basis light but i'll walk you through it a germ free mice
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but one day you have this blue line have it fantastic impaired because tolerance
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which gets better and then the smallest of seven days and then have to tune in four weeks to get back to the slope
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you can measure the air under the curve and you see that you have a very rapid incident uh recesses we think
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due to the infection of the conversation that then it's clear you get some some kind of a ah a
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uh uh it back to the normal level and initiate a show that it
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takes about four to eight days to normalise it got michael by order
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and that's a two weeks you get back to this more fish a lot you can sort of assistance which is associated with increased body fat
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so this is nice but at this point we wanted to attribute it increased the paucity
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in the colour eyes mice just because extract more energy from carbohydrates which direct
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so we to test the hypothesis that the carbohydrates
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are really the driving factor if we uh
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use the fact that jeffrey mice uh you put gentle colour a customised on high
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fat high should be died with out any yeah complex colour uh carbohydrates
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and that we measure the amount of body fat gain over eight weeks and we found that the gentry
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mice were resistant to die to this to the city that it again whether the control mice
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whereas those that uh had bacteria gained five grams of twenty five percent of body weight
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so to my mind this is really important because the explanation it cannot be asked easy that got
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to micro biotech costa pasta only by mutual extraction it must be other signals as well
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and to summarise some ten years of work we have another have basically gone over different organ systems that
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we can show that the micro by oh that can affect metabolism in all these organ systems
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from regulating appetites uh so tightly in the brain still toes as in the liver
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oppose inflammation fat ass oxidation and the muscle probability of they got the perfume
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and of course in secretion of hormones from from from and undefined cells
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and all of these can they contribute into to a metabolic syndrome and phenotype
00:16:19
so
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i would like to share some some unpublished data with you about barry the arctic surgery
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so how do we think that got michael buyout ice associated with better take surgery
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add to to bring everybody to sort of the same page that's
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at least three types of projects or it is used today
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it's banding where you basically asked at redo systemic size
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let's leave distracted me where you cut off eighty percent of of the stomach
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and then you have a more complex when why getting by possibly have a smaller stomach
00:16:54
but also re route so that to do do you know um is entering further down in the you
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and it's well known that basic surgeries that type of
00:17:04
treatment that provide right a long term weight loss
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so this is for this release the obesity study we have
00:17:12
controls other basis they'll be so over fifteen years time
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if you have banding to types of banning you end up with sort of an intermediate phenotype
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you lose weight but you don't lose as much weight as have to guess the bypass
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and when the study was conducted the best 'cause he was not yet invented
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but it seems to be very similar to get it by plus maybe not as efficient but very very simple
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so
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what do we know that's that's ever papers uh published out of thirty five
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papers partisans is subject twenty nine reduce that there are six private papers
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and i'll show you the results of those as the two of those
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six tall cover thirty percent of the primer literature into slights
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and this is the first study where they had three patients one uh i think was two females and one male or vice versa
00:18:06
what was what weight stable to we're not eight to fifteen months after surgery so despite these heterogeneous group you can
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still see and if you focus on the three lies to the the the last of the right here
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that you have more blue here is that the gamma probably bacteria like e. coli of more green here they're
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microbial this the famous i come and see what a billion talk about and he is a little longer
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and and
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if you you can say about the same results in all all all the studies
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published that you have more equal i oprah gamma probably bacteria at least
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this is a i quite a recent study where they did not you know
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makes so sick was all genes and present in in the subject
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six subjects before three not a month after when and why guessing by plus
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and what you can see is that all the six patients before
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surgery are quite heterogeneous after surgery they become was similar
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in the in the site we had before surgery in the outer the circle
00:19:11
your have after surgery you see an expansion here off the probably bacteria
00:19:16
you see expansion here to very kroger and reduction of the from
00:19:20
which is which is as shown in other papers as well
00:19:24
that's nice but so far that's that imitation sabine few subjects and short followup time
00:19:33
so we have been involved in a in a study where we
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come pads subjects that work on either on the going banding
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or classic bypass all that starts at the subject but these were matched
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and follow up at the nine years after surgeries a very stable
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and the one match such as that they had lost the same amount of weight and would be
00:19:53
my matched so this should be able to exclude weight loss if there were any differences
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and if we look at which the speech at the and of course we have seven obese controls and if we look at the differences uh on on
00:20:08
tax enormous level and this are very low numbers and that's why we don't
00:20:12
see something significant changes the significant changes are these coloured blobs here
00:20:17
which are more prevalent here and the reason why competitive these controls
00:20:21
and it's the same old uh follows it's uh it's eurasia for example the other probably bacteria
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if we do banding versus obese is a very similar pattern but they don't we significance
00:20:34
and if we compare the two surgery methods we don't see any significant changes whatsoever
00:20:40
but the beauty by doing shotgun method you know makes is that you can go and look it functions
00:20:45
and if you look at functions is that which i think is more important you can i define
00:20:50
that your hat specific functions that are rich compared to obese in the variable banning yeah
00:20:57
you have those it does specific for for the one why getting quite pulse and then you have those
00:21:02
that are are are a consistent between the two surgery come and it's to between the two surgeries
00:21:09
and these are two components systems this is the way bacteria census nutrients
00:21:14
it's nitrogen that i was a fat ass but tells so i mean ass if that doesn't the titles we think it's quite interesting
00:21:22
but once again these are yes associations so we used to uh the beauty
00:21:28
of of the human decision as uh as we have the previous speaker
00:21:32
i introduced to you so in our case it takes a piece microbiology or or this uh study
00:21:37
microbiology put into gender mice then analysts then two weeks after uh it uh the transfer
00:21:45
what we can see that the the ones that got to be smart group iota gain
00:21:49
the most fact over two weeks period of time this initial with m. r. i.
00:21:54
compared to those that have either ruin white or vertical banded and guess you
00:21:58
have to ruin why seems to be doing a little bit better
00:22:02
so of course this is much work remains to be done uh but we think and our pockets is right now
00:22:09
is that for that but to surgery at least to certain point work by modifying the micro by now
00:22:17
but how what would be a potential mechanism
00:22:20
so uh just as interest of time i don't have time to show for all our data we have on
00:22:25
pilots and the top was we got my proprietor relation to to that type two diabetes for example
00:22:30
but we could measure the bile acids in the seven subjects and we found that even at fasting the
00:22:36
room why uh subjects had a little bit higher for a biased levels compared to the other groups
00:22:41
but upon and a meal you see a tremendously upon a increase in in circulating
00:22:47
bile acids banning certain intermediate and the beast i don't have any induction
00:22:53
so why do we think that by losses are important
00:22:57
well by last it's a signalling molecules that not only help absorbing a lip it from from the diet
00:23:03
they can buy for example interceptors such just effects are either in the liver or in the small intestine
00:23:10
and what we found is that the michael by odessa really strong and you sort of effects are so if we measure uh
00:23:18
the transcript of f. j. fifteen which is a target of ethics are in the small the tested
00:23:23
we show that gender myself very low expression convention raced mice very high expression
00:23:28
if we delete ethics are and make this mice germs we we do not any longer see
00:23:32
any regulations is g. concluding that the market by what i'd uses f. exhaust signalling
00:23:41
so we do get with a randy ceiling care ryan at a universal cincinnati
00:23:47
we perform experiments where we want to to evaluate if ethics are it's
00:23:52
required for basic said for beneficial effect projects o. g. logo hole
00:23:58
if we take wild type mice and we perform better surgery to lose weight and i don't
00:24:04
show the data a because the papers published but they also have improved because tolerance
00:24:09
compared to those of us jam surgery is a weeks after a surgery but if
00:24:14
we take it ethics are not got the malls and do the same experiment
00:24:17
the initial dropping weight but it's all regained and they're even see a worsening of the tops
00:24:24
so of course our cat hypothesis now is that it's all to michael
00:24:28
pliable is altering the cap ability to seems to fix or
00:24:33
and we also see changes in the michael by all so if you do that
00:24:39
with you distracted me in a lot at most is it increase the rules
00:24:43
of area which always seems to be a good guy when comes to type two diabetes and if you do to knock out you don't see this increase
00:24:54
so now i'm gonna finish off by talking five minutes or so about
00:24:58
what i should have been talking for forty five minutes about
00:25:01
uh
00:25:04
and it's sort of following that track that uh will have started this
00:25:08
morning so i don't have to give so much of an introduction
00:25:11
but i want to point out a paper that at least is weeding got huge media coverage
00:25:16
and that is a paper published in yamaha where they looked at
00:25:20
at about exposure twenty first twenty four months of life
00:25:24
and so i was very strong and i i think correlation to obesity later live
00:25:30
and they found that it's especially broad spectrum antibiotics that now a spectrum and backed into a worse
00:25:36
if you have more the for exposures doing these twenty four
00:25:39
months you really increase the rate ratio of developing obesity
00:25:44
and it also seems like if you had it early it was worse than if you had had late in the spirit
00:25:52
and if you look at in the literature this is sort fact actually quite consistent
00:25:57
and it what i can't understand is that it always seems to be worse for the box
00:26:02
so you know so it's nice to be able i may have a lot of time to buy outs when i was young it might have someone to blame
00:26:08
uh but what about mechanisms and this is uh i think it's a pretty
00:26:13
nice paper from martin places group that was part is not years ago
00:26:17
where they used to model where they had very low levels have
00:26:21
the biologics in the drinking water for four mikes early life
00:26:26
they didn't say it different in in the weight gain
00:26:29
but if you look here no matter if you use a penicillin of anger mice in or in combination this so i yeah
00:26:37
increase in fact amassing these yeah in these mikes compared to controls
00:26:44
which was quite quite dramatic and by several an uh you know
00:26:50
if you press four to six figure in this paper
00:26:53
they can show that in the late it had a
00:26:56
big effects in the liver metabolism in adulthood such
00:27:00
that the the the the mike that had about treatment have an increase in in like the genesis
00:27:10
so we are interested in this because we think yeah that then
00:27:15
really microphone can be important and this is something that everybody's been discussing we
00:27:20
have the privilege to to work together with uh some fantastic uh
00:27:24
uh politicians in in it got the bergen and home still where they
00:27:28
are following it for us five and twenty infants uh from birth
00:27:32
and about under fifty of these have been subject it's a bit were delivered by c. section after otherwise healthy yeah i guess is
00:27:39
and we are sampling these uh either the mother at so for the ones that are available and get the mother at birth
00:27:48
then we have the first the coney more souls would cause like four days is a little variable
00:27:53
there have four months which we think is a very important time pointing
00:27:55
sweden because that's when you are advised to introduce solid foods
00:28:01
and there were twelve months where we think that you are most of the much spot a breast feeding every three years or five
00:28:07
years and we now have funding so we can find of all of another of uh up to ten years of age
00:28:13
they're not pilot study i was sure some data with you today where we have
00:28:17
studied hundred of these infants at the mother and the first year of life
00:28:22
from human shotgun sequencing together with a one unit here and says here at b. g. i.
00:28:28
and then we got a one point six a better basis uh uh sequences you rated
00:28:34
and we build a infringing cello which we think can be very important
00:28:39
and what we find is that of course that the that the coney micro while it's very distant from the mother
00:28:47
and then as you get older you start to do do this journey and we're not at
00:28:51
that altered yet i think we need to have three of five maybe even more
00:28:57
was of course interesting is that i'll today first so that's what the this has been talking
00:29:02
about what how many different how diverse you michael by um is is relatively low
00:29:07
at first because you seem to be had either a lot of you call like or lot
00:29:11
b. feels or lot of backed road isn't the seem to compete against each other
00:29:16
and you have a huge variation between that uh children that would be the diversity
00:29:21
you see that the data diversity is reducing the alpha diversity is increasing along along this axis
00:29:29
what i what you thought was pretty neat because these are very close tires about what
00:29:33
that you don't need to be even the brand of the formula for example
00:29:37
and it's appears as the most important factor transform it adults microbe while
00:29:42
it's when you start having breast milk to probably depresses of
00:29:46
of your remote local x. h. m. o.'s human milk looks like
00:29:49
rights that are important to not the introduction of solid foods
00:29:55
and we can look for different functions this is a message slide and know that but i want to state
00:30:00
is that what we find in the newborns is to dawn of the genes involved in in acid absorption
00:30:06
and what we see in the older michael piles or i mean acid
00:30:09
production to the switch in the micro bile as we go along
00:30:18
we can also start this compare contrast uh some of the subjects
00:30:21
i'd had was the but but and see section for example
00:30:25
so this is a complex lie but basically we show i that you you call high enter caucus spectra of
00:30:32
the object was fabulous spectre is that in the mike from the the filler and serve the caucus
00:30:37
and we see how on many of the strange to cover in the mother covering the baby and so forth
00:30:43
and in fact no birth oh seventy five percent what you find in the in
00:30:48
the coding them we can also set find in the mother's micro by or
00:30:54
and what we see is that seventy five percent almost of the strange from the mother we can
00:30:58
file of economists finding the baby and then this is relatively constant up to twelve months
00:31:04
i was a similar pattern and even more for the back or that's the thing is pretty neat
00:31:09
but many of them are seem to be transferred from the mother and then remain but look here if you have a c. section
00:31:16
you don't have that transfer from the mother to the baby you think that
00:31:19
the future market by one is really important in shaping initial mike about
00:31:24
this goes well along with what what the rob night uh probably for example where you had
00:31:29
to see that the c. section babies seem to have more from the skin and environment
00:31:35
so it is important well that's also several papers showing that if you
00:31:40
do little by c. section you have a high risk for obesity
00:31:44
and it seems this is a uh these are relatively recent studies
00:31:49
and what you see here is children to deliver by c. section and then the allies after
00:31:55
four years that he's fifty is a twenty three years divide it in and man and uh females and
00:32:03
up to fifteen years that's a significant
00:32:07
a increase in obese individuals in those where delivered by sisters section compared to those with that little birds
00:32:14
and it's more pronounced in once again in them and and it wouldn't of some recent
00:32:19
it's gone at twenty three years still a friend but not significant
00:32:25
and in a completely different study you can also see that's the
00:32:29
difference starts to emerge around here at twenty months of age
00:32:34
so in the beginning there's no difference but then you start to see a difference in the beast it later life
00:32:41
so can we blame the old michael pile for this increase in obesity
00:32:47
well it's early days data you enter a last week it's always fun to to break some new data when you're at the conference
00:32:54
so we did a sin experiments where we took at the twelve months time point i that
00:33:01
faces from that no one chip from a what variable wanted or see section beloved dated
00:33:07
and introduce him to our gender mouse model of wanna interpret any out because tolerance test because
00:33:13
see that the ones that got the c. section seems to have slightly impaired glucose tolerance
00:33:19
and these are of course has to be repeated many times over but it's it's suggest to us that one reason why this baby's
00:33:26
a delay by c. section may have increased risk for b. still later like maybe that they have an old microbe wow
00:33:34
looking into the crystal ball and speculate a little bit because i think that's what uh we have done here today
00:33:39
we think that the micro biotech can contribute about about diseases and uh thirty
00:33:44
patients early life maybe really important for development of these diseases later life
00:33:50
we hope and invention as we can use a got mike about uh to predict deceased later like ah
00:33:57
add it also opens up a window for for development of per slice treatments based on the got microbiology
00:34:02
i know we're far from us a lot of work with like regulatory and so forth but i think
00:34:07
we need to keep in mind that how can we come to that point in the future
00:34:11
so what i'm a stay at the very nice hotel and having a good time eating
00:34:15
good food people actually working and i just want to point out the obvious that
00:34:21
volunteer in a it together with frederick onions the um and and
00:34:25
your has been driving the type two diabetes study we did
00:34:29
uh luis antonio's be developing means to analysts because motels mice in much higher resolution
00:34:36
randy celia valentino femoral is back on the bed exeter products together with jens of frederick
00:34:41
and then in the baby product it's uh you've on ah use if you know the clinicians
00:34:47
uh jim vine it's really been instrumental in by informatics and and
00:34:52
and uh it's sequencing and i i should say united to fight scene
00:34:57
and uh then i mean has been start to take this into to do two mice

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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