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running everybody and welcome to the to this meeting uh on that michael bowman the
intestine of 'cause i know i cannot avoid chewing mice at the beginning and
uh so a big thank you to the people of organised is uh too much spectra
the harness liquid and of course the theme ha and of course the nest
led to him to put this meeting so it's very important that
uh uh uh a company like nestle is being exposed
to the latest science uh has to have
a critical discussion about some issues which have been developing over the last years and of cause
good question uh michael but homes and how michael palms and and
fruit influence so helpless and and and immunity in general
of course very important so i wanted to
oh stop this a little bit to serve personally annexed help when i started known
laboratory many years ago in toronto this one moved back to to your work
uh i was actually on the p. h. p. committee of a young student
and he was studying diabetes and obesity in the particular a mouse time
so that publish lots of nice papers and that describe nice final
types and all of a sudden the final type completely disappeared
so for two years nobody in this laboratory could actually produce
any of the findings which had been done before so this was of course uh yeah the
see this issue for me being a young faculty member of university of
toronto's of what was going on so this was in the mid
ninety is and the solution to the problem actually was in
two years earlier they had to change the water supply
and there's supply of water was actually changing the p. h. of trouble to
and to page of the hope that we would probably now
all conclude changes the composition of the michael bowman
and this was like with the solution of the issues with the change table to back
to the old one and we'll our next day the mice got diabetes again
so this was kind of an early entry into some saying which we at that time believe to cancel
servicing this genetic sandwiches make more markov models of the data and we can explain the world
and of course it was a little more complicated and of course for me also is it time to my knowledge is
we always knew that for instance a a no the mice
mice which is susceptible to diabetes i have very different
not types and different laboratories in one laboratory they got that way only in the next one that basically
didn't get it at all and so i think over the years we came to grips was
but but there's something more than genetics there's something more than happy genetics is
another important what in an awful the which is of course sculpted
by nutrition um a water supplies and many many other little sayings
so if a little introduction to the uh intestine and
and this meeting i think would be spectacular or
this this because we lined up and and have been lined up by on this in this teen
i will give a very good inside what's going on in terms of defining michael built a uh_huh
of what the might be doing in house indices of this is a changing over time
just to give a little idea so you know visually of us we could probably play
m. s. soccer game uh they got so fast because it's it's quite some
some a large uh it so phase and i just want to
show you this movie because i love it a form
form a hans clay was laps over the last years below the lot i'll pick up
this thing built one can actually come home and find to stem cell so
and i've worked for many people and uh uh from hans point sense when the
small intestine the the light and then one can fly into the crypt yeah
uh this themselves and of cause every day in out tests in the
main is cells which diane many cells which one up one
in this little place here that this time so it l. g. of five positive self
the somehow colonel morley expand the intestine and and basically
have a conveyor belt of new cell so
one can even take them a clone band and make little cats so could mean
the guardsmen it work under its which of course really interesting for research
one can make a pancreas snout of them live out of that and many
other tissues in it in the end up is this beautiful little saying
and there's a mighty this even anymore spinning around it
i think i need to show you know again
uh_huh that's really hans labels were busy little guy
so that's basically what we're dealing with is a very complex uh uh issue
it's uh
and of course to cells don't live by themselves so the the live for this
the topic of this meeting uh yeah that's probably a really and
uh and we might uh about the like the state of most speakers
uh i appeal under false and and and to scully alley
uh about like the status of the box probably ten
times more octavia living this our cocks then
and then our full tilt cell numbers uh and of course
inflates holes metabolism uh there's some data the influence behaviour
uh there's some really cool data into soft filler another's pieces a lot of
uh apparently the putting it in the cup influence sexual behaviour so
so mating behaviour preference of mates so be careful about it in the evening here
uh uh of course house and susceptibility to disease
and over the years uh of course people of fig about the as and this is
a michael bolton living this us intestine mm contributes to lots of of jeans and
and uh it's get enough can once said that this book to relieving the salsa to chemists
they can do spectacular chemistry can just leave each we kind of grew
providers of cause a new tool isn't there is lots
of advantages breaking down fruit components uh helping
to provide vitamins for body and of course there's microbe romans was on
this winter will probably give you much better introduction to this
it's being sculpted by and by life experiences of course the first
big life experiences purse uh_huh so that probably differences between back in oppose
and goes to see section or because part of the early my couple ms actually comment but
from from the time of the mother and the baby is born is a very important issues of of of
helps probably in the future uh but breast feeding in particular show because
which are in the in the mail a big scalp to
michael bole move cause the fruit we eat carp in the my
trouble and this is i think a very important issue
for companies like an estimate of for process fruit because of course over evolution
uh the the is the population have basically not you processed
food yeah the fruit was like this material and uh
and for instance in this example here in c. v. to certain bacteria
which people have always been eating if them up in process the not
inactivated in this bacteria actually campaigns for the d. n. a.
two party of a living in our uh intestine and but doing so
the the there's does permanent gene transfer going on and of cause
the michael bulb and uh is is uh
and to all these new d. n. a. in doubt was new
chemical capabilities in this case uh_huh and now has the
capability to break down put to commercial goes
from c. v. so basically doing evolution they have good permanently eating bacteria which then
have been putting it in the in a intel michael bole and by doing so have scalp to us as we are
and of course a scout at our house and of course an important issue to consider in terms of
of processed food and of course the michael bowman sculpted over time and
in the babies but breast feeding a formula feeding and the little
popular so treatments of into brought takes a nutritional preferences are
in their doubt uh_huh and of course being started in the elderly so the of course they're interesting
a book going on how this changes all co what influences just changes
which part of the michael bowman stable which one can be changed
and even hear lots of excellent talks about this topic this is just a very superficial
introduction so forgive me if i if i'm missing something
and there's of cause uh another issue in pieces
it's not just a particular region that's outside and then or the the
got luminance and of course intact is that it still may um
but of course we have important to scouting our immunity and of course immunity meaning our
reaction to to mit isn't and tolerances
and and what i find really interesting is that seventy percent of our immune system actually lives
in the in testing so that all mostly living no spleen or a a plot of land floats
but in casting is actually by far the largest immune system so that p. so that he salsa
plasma cell centre board is that i go to a t. cells the very you maybe
innate immune cells within here of course later in in the talking and and
and of course this this permanent interplay between the captain michael bole
talking to that she limped talking to the new cells and but when so changing immunity in scouting
have c. immune system so this is how it basically looks it's a beautiful image of of
that is the it is really um and the descriptor captures
the concrete examples the various sub types of t. cells
so a little bit about something i have been doing over the years so many and and
uh though many years ago but actually clothes gene called angel pins in converting enzyme number two
when flight genetic so now what we're we're not here yet and genetic engineering to make flies estes
they're getting yeah but it's still a little complex now
and over the years we figured out that turns out to be master regulator
of the rain in injured tones insistent it controls up operations with you
up with blake is is the system which bottom it's of not quite sure how function kidney disease
which was quite are cool and then drove the figured out that it's actually the essential
receptor for the sauce cool not by ah so this is
how the soft white was actually into sauce else
which is also interesting in in figuring out some some vinyl into reverse actors so
this is actually the sars virus are not compromise the by laws cannot replicate
and then i realised and found paper that the sauce bylaws replicates in the got it is really
which didn't make any sense and so we started to actually look if those will
turn that invoking on for for ten years compliment heart function about special
but the actual switched last implant be present and they got it she leo and amazingly enough uh_huh
it's actually at the outside at the luminance office of the not
helium so it's highly expressed his little brooklyn cool things to
so this back the question boat is the master regulator of population control actually doing
in the that she knew so what it's doing there and uh_huh turns out
and he's through contours expansion of put tickle amino acids pants pockets
so it had a completely different function uh as described in control
of that question and actually what it does is it controls
a single amino acids transporters it but doing so components to uptake of
particle amino acids from the tired from the diet to be eat
and one of the amino acids actually trip to find an essential amino acid
and as a consequence this mutant animals actually have reduced levels off at the fan
and as a consequence of this but actually found is this meiosis
super susceptible to get intimate away all this is um
and so the question was then uh_huh could does actually explain
well one of the the explanations how ma notation uh
in people who who don't get enough to eat or people with anorexia
uh could does actually explain by this leads to information of the intestine entire yes
and so but they actually you also the there's big you developed
of tired for animals which was script different for you
and when you do this and we got the call like this when customer information
does this little part here and the animals develop supposed to be a collects
and uh_huh business developed there is it is collide prison and actually started to trip
the friend again recently peptide because this to happen transport to still active
then we could basic common my part collectors again so i'm pretty isn't was turns out that
it's more like your uh antwerp different or regulate the ecology of the captain michael bell
and i will put it all together what it'll be made it actually on the on
the cover of of nature there because in essence what we had found is
this is a very important molecule how tied to have in the last uh taken up in the intestine
and this thing happens to the moon system in the cup to innate immunity
and because in that the new it is changed because of the
change in diet because of tied to have a trip different
uh uh the bacteria change in the cup and because the bacteria
change in in test in this animals become susceptible to
information so we belief this could be one of the explanation uh probably many explanations out there
how malnutrition leads to inflammation of the intestine ontario's
because if there's not enough of the essential amino acid trip to fan innate immunity changes and they got the
microphone changes in the captain of causal does they don't quite feel cool uh changing the michael but home
the microbial changes and this of course leads them to
susceptibility to information so this was former recent review
about our work so this is is to controlling the summary no acid transporter of cause
to to find out which fruits uh i'm sure trip to find this is just the surface of many other
foot factors which could be very similar things inferences they got that
was really on the microbial here and it's also influences
byron macabre lights which are being generated downstream of paper fan
the directly influence the indians just come probably at the end of the day
that is uh but we'll all go is that might figure out over
the next uh years and decades how put tickle uh and uh
of fruit loops change and at being but populist in the in the intestine
how does not couple lights than actually bite taken over sept us a particular innate immune cells
are kept on how the thing it into the microbial and of course but doing so
this uh particular nutrients than would scout immunity
and but stopping unit to and of course metabolism in many other functions scott house so
i do believe slowly we can move into the direction of a molecular description
how food and nutrients happen to in unity and
couple to metabolism in hell's entire body
so this of course only the surface of it so recently the verb is nice papers published in nature
but another a product from the not my problem could we provide
can type to change for instance regular pretty souls a pen whitman has beautiful book published it
but to call up but it in the test in control but as cell type
call the teen help a seventeen cell which might be a link between top microphones
and uh psyched is so if this is a leo then one could actually does nutritional interventions
uh reduce incidence of us liked is which would be spectacular if possible of course there's lots of of up to
be down adjust to bring this back to to the creation and and of course put in the larger context
is this reason start is just publish the artificial sweeteners
a change to coast tall and it's um
uh one can of course you know see the data's one
wants it and uh_huh and itself was very interesting issue
and and just another anecdote than in the school of my twelve year
old daughter for instance to tell them please don't think uh
a diet cokes and and and soft range so
of its official speak to know so this is kind of already feel that we need to the schools i was
last week i was invited that that michael bill between in two won't put the hospital
for sick it's in an older bikes uh you cannot find any diet uh
soft drink anymore so that just sort of soft drinks was this older should because
so i think one has to face these issues because the published in nature that this costs in the
in the popular press and a former former student of
mine he actually did a very similar experiments
it's not published yet in in in post awful lot in fly and it changes the behaviour
so um so actually does the issues he have to figure out and and
of course it needs a lot of research a lot of thought
because at the end of the day than many many questions uh
motors this one or the us but uh the questions of
uh hum candy ever figure out the michael bolton to develop
in in groups or can define as single uh
uh but yeah they offer incense bitch because mulder made put in the local and then we you know we can
it moderate incidents of us hike to us um can defeat newborns but to call the
uh but yeah yeah to push them a uh_huh into allergic in fact for the future
actually to lots of issues of the shoes off what's the chicken or
the egg uh how can we really established in the complex
a tissue like this is our sense of different bacteria
uh how can be established course i like t. how do we really know that that particular
subgroup of bacteria is responsible for easy to for instance what is actually obesity
changing of foot up taken due to an uptake and this is
the reason why the michael bowman changes to sink them lots of questions uh
and some of the questions will be discussed it's a it's a it's a valid yet exciting time it's a very important
issue uh_huh well company for next year and of course for
global hell's business came opportunities because if one figures out
how nutrition particular food groups feed into and uh in test in
like it was hell syntax since give us a uh_huh
a change audience systems and you can societies of old also suitability is
going to came close behaviours punishment is a very intriguing abate too
to possibly make a major impact on the house and this worked so listings a backchannel
and into the use of a speaker will and the force who has
studied biochemistry and obtain a p. h. d. at calming in university
uh yeah and all that much blank institute for molecular
genetics and billy and so is since twenty five
years is a professor darkening in university uh also holds
it yeah uh in microbiology and is it
office of the universe it with works with the academy of sciences in the university of helsinki
isn't on many many prices up the price uh i uh i like is the the
netherlands most into probably not real scientists of what some maybe you can tell us
about how you can mind that michael bone for new
business opportunities isn't that many of the other plate
chemistry on could be broken and of course yes made
major major contributions on on the molecular uh
a composition of the michael bole on the matter channel mix of the mike problems uh
and the whole system off it and and he of course is
made major contributions on michael bowman the intestinal tract of humans
so it's not just my as my favourites pieces of the puzzle
filler but this says is that 'cause actually real impact
i'm human house and so thank you so much for

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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