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running everybody and welcome to the to this meeting uh on that michael bowman the
00:00:06
intestine of 'cause i know i cannot avoid chewing mice at the beginning and
00:00:11
uh so a big thank you to the people of organised is uh too much spectra
00:00:17
the harness liquid and of course the theme ha and of course the nest
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led to him to put this meeting so it's very important that
00:00:25
uh uh uh a company like nestle is being exposed
00:00:30
to the latest science uh has to have
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a critical discussion about some issues which have been developing over the last years and of cause
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good question uh michael but homes and how michael palms and and
00:00:43
fruit influence so helpless and and and immunity in general
00:00:48
of course very important so i wanted to
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oh stop this a little bit to serve personally annexed help when i started known
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laboratory many years ago in toronto this one moved back to to your work
00:01:05
uh i was actually on the p. h. p. committee of a young student
00:01:10
and he was studying diabetes and obesity in the particular a mouse time
00:01:16
so that publish lots of nice papers and that describe nice final
00:01:21
types and all of a sudden the final type completely disappeared
00:01:26
so for two years nobody in this laboratory could actually produce
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any of the findings which had been done before so this was of course uh yeah the
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see this issue for me being a young faculty member of university of
00:01:41
toronto's of what was going on so this was in the mid
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ninety is and the solution to the problem actually was in
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two years earlier they had to change the water supply
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and there's supply of water was actually changing the p. h. of trouble to
00:01:59
and to page of the hope that we would probably now
00:02:01
all conclude changes the composition of the michael bowman
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and this was like with the solution of the issues with the change table to back
00:02:10
to the old one and we'll our next day the mice got diabetes again
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so this was kind of an early entry into some saying which we at that time believe to cancel
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servicing this genetic sandwiches make more markov models of the data and we can explain the world
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and of course it was a little more complicated and of course for me also is it time to my knowledge is
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we always knew that for instance a a no the mice
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mice which is susceptible to diabetes i have very different
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not types and different laboratories in one laboratory they got that way only in the next one that basically
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didn't get it at all and so i think over the years we came to grips was
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but but there's something more than genetics there's something more than happy genetics is
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another important what in an awful the which is of course sculpted
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by nutrition um a water supplies and many many other little sayings
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so if a little introduction to the uh intestine and
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and this meeting i think would be spectacular or
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this this because we lined up and and have been lined up by on this in this teen
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i will give a very good inside what's going on in terms of defining michael built a uh_huh
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of what the might be doing in house indices of this is a changing over time
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just to give a little idea so you know visually of us we could probably play
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m. s. soccer game uh they got so fast because it's it's quite some
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some a large uh it so phase and i just want to
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show you this movie because i love it a form
00:03:59
form a hans clay was laps over the last years below the lot i'll pick up
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this thing built one can actually come home and find to stem cell so
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and i've worked for many people and uh uh from hans point sense when the
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small intestine the the light and then one can fly into the crypt yeah
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uh this themselves and of cause every day in out tests in the
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main is cells which diane many cells which one up one
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in this little place here that this time so it l. g. of five positive self
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the somehow colonel morley expand the intestine and and basically
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have a conveyor belt of new cell so
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one can even take them a clone band and make little cats so could mean
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the guardsmen it work under its which of course really interesting for research
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one can make a pancreas snout of them live out of that and many
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other tissues in it in the end up is this beautiful little saying
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and there's a mighty this even anymore spinning around it
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i think i need to show you know again
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uh_huh that's really hans labels were busy little guy
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so that's basically what we're dealing with is a very complex uh uh issue
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it's uh
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and of course to cells don't live by themselves so the the live for this
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the topic of this meeting uh yeah that's probably a really and
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uh and we might uh about the like the state of most speakers
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uh i appeal under false and and and to scully alley
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uh about like the status of the box probably ten
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times more octavia living this our cocks then
00:05:54
and then our full tilt cell numbers uh and of course
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inflates holes metabolism uh there's some data the influence behaviour
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uh there's some really cool data into soft filler another's pieces a lot of
00:06:09
uh apparently the putting it in the cup influence sexual behaviour so
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so mating behaviour preference of mates so be careful about it in the evening here
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uh uh of course house and susceptibility to disease
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and over the years uh of course people of fig about the as and this is
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a michael bolton living this us intestine mm contributes to lots of of jeans and
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and uh it's get enough can once said that this book to relieving the salsa to chemists
00:06:46
they can do spectacular chemistry can just leave each we kind of grew
00:06:51
providers of cause a new tool isn't there is lots
00:06:55
of advantages breaking down fruit components uh helping
00:07:00
to provide vitamins for body and of course there's microbe romans was on
00:07:05
this winter will probably give you much better introduction to this
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it's being sculpted by and by life experiences of course the first
00:07:14
big life experiences purse uh_huh so that probably differences between back in oppose
00:07:20
and goes to see section or because part of the early my couple ms actually comment but
00:07:26
from from the time of the mother and the baby is born is a very important issues of of of
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helps probably in the future uh but breast feeding in particular show because
00:07:38
which are in the in the mail a big scalp to
00:07:41
michael bole move cause the fruit we eat carp in the my
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trouble and this is i think a very important issue
00:07:49
for companies like an estimate of for process fruit because of course over evolution
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uh the the is the population have basically not you processed
00:08:00
food yeah the fruit was like this material and uh
00:08:06
and for instance in this example here in c. v. to certain bacteria
00:08:11
which people have always been eating if them up in process the not
00:08:14
inactivated in this bacteria actually campaigns for the d. n. a.
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two party of a living in our uh intestine and but doing so
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the the there's does permanent gene transfer going on and of cause
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the michael bulb and uh is is uh
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and to all these new d. n. a. in doubt was new
00:08:38
chemical capabilities in this case uh_huh and now has the
00:08:42
capability to break down put to commercial goes
00:08:45
from c. v. so basically doing evolution they have good permanently eating bacteria which then
00:08:52
have been putting it in the in a intel michael bole and by doing so have scalp to us as we are
00:08:59
and of course a scout at our house and of course an important issue to consider in terms of
00:09:05
of processed food and of course the michael bowman sculpted over time and
00:09:10
in the babies but breast feeding a formula feeding and the little
00:09:15
popular so treatments of into brought takes a nutritional preferences are
00:09:22
in their doubt uh_huh and of course being started in the elderly so the of course they're interesting
00:09:28
a book going on how this changes all co what influences just changes
00:09:34
which part of the michael bowman stable which one can be changed
00:09:39
and even hear lots of excellent talks about this topic this is just a very superficial
00:09:45
introduction so forgive me if i if i'm missing something
00:09:50
and there's of cause uh another issue in pieces
00:09:54
it's not just a particular region that's outside and then or the the
00:09:58
got luminance and of course intact is that it still may um
00:10:03
but of course we have important to scouting our immunity and of course immunity meaning our
00:10:09
reaction to to mit isn't and tolerances
00:10:14
and and what i find really interesting is that seventy percent of our immune system actually lives
00:10:21
in the in testing so that all mostly living no spleen or a a plot of land floats
00:10:28
but in casting is actually by far the largest immune system so that p. so that he salsa
00:10:34
plasma cell centre board is that i go to a t. cells the very you maybe
00:10:40
innate immune cells within here of course later in in the talking and and
00:10:45
and of course this this permanent interplay between the captain michael bole
00:10:50
talking to that she limped talking to the new cells and but when so changing immunity in scouting
00:10:57
have c. immune system so this is how it basically looks it's a beautiful image of of
00:11:04
that is the it is really um and the descriptor captures
00:11:09
the concrete examples the various sub types of t. cells
00:11:14
so a little bit about something i have been doing over the years so many and and
00:11:20
uh though many years ago but actually clothes gene called angel pins in converting enzyme number two
00:11:27
when flight genetic so now what we're we're not here yet and genetic engineering to make flies estes
00:11:34
they're getting yeah but it's still a little complex now
00:11:39
and over the years we figured out that turns out to be master regulator
00:11:43
of the rain in injured tones insistent it controls up operations with you
00:11:48
up with blake is is the system which bottom it's of not quite sure how function kidney disease
00:11:54
which was quite are cool and then drove the figured out that it's actually the essential
00:11:59
receptor for the sauce cool not by ah so this is
00:12:04
how the soft white was actually into sauce else
00:12:07
which is also interesting in in figuring out some some vinyl into reverse actors so
00:12:13
this is actually the sars virus are not compromise the by laws cannot replicate
00:12:18
and then i realised and found paper that the sauce bylaws replicates in the got it is really
00:12:26
which didn't make any sense and so we started to actually look if those will
00:12:30
turn that invoking on for for ten years compliment heart function about special
00:12:35
but the actual switched last implant be present and they got it she leo and amazingly enough uh_huh
00:12:43
it's actually at the outside at the luminance office of the not
00:12:47
helium so it's highly expressed his little brooklyn cool things to
00:12:53
so this back the question boat is the master regulator of population control actually doing
00:12:59
in the that she knew so what it's doing there and uh_huh turns out
00:13:05
and he's through contours expansion of put tickle amino acids pants pockets
00:13:11
so it had a completely different function uh as described in control
00:13:16
of that question and actually what it does is it controls
00:13:20
a single amino acids transporters it but doing so components to uptake of
00:13:25
particle amino acids from the tired from the diet to be eat
00:13:29
and one of the amino acids actually trip to find an essential amino acid
00:13:34
and as a consequence this mutant animals actually have reduced levels off at the fan
00:13:41
and as a consequence of this but actually found is this meiosis
00:13:45
super susceptible to get intimate away all this is um
00:13:52
and so the question was then uh_huh could does actually explain
00:13:56
well one of the the explanations how ma notation uh
00:14:02
in people who who don't get enough to eat or people with anorexia
00:14:07
uh could does actually explain by this leads to information of the intestine entire yes
00:14:15
and so but they actually you also the there's big you developed
00:14:18
of tired for animals which was script different for you
00:14:23
and when you do this and we got the call like this when customer information
00:14:27
does this little part here and the animals develop supposed to be a collects
00:14:35
and uh_huh business developed there is it is collide prison and actually started to trip
00:14:40
the friend again recently peptide because this to happen transport to still active
00:14:46
then we could basic common my part collectors again so i'm pretty isn't was turns out that
00:14:53
it's more like your uh antwerp different or regulate the ecology of the captain michael bell
00:15:02
and i will put it all together what it'll be made it actually on the on
00:15:05
the cover of of nature there because in essence what we had found is
00:15:11
this is a very important molecule how tied to have in the last uh taken up in the intestine
00:15:17
and this thing happens to the moon system in the cup to innate immunity
00:15:23
and because in that the new it is changed because of the
00:15:26
change in diet because of tied to have a trip different
00:15:31
uh uh the bacteria change in the cup and because the bacteria
00:15:34
change in in test in this animals become susceptible to
00:15:39
information so we belief this could be one of the explanation uh probably many explanations out there
00:15:46
how malnutrition leads to inflammation of the intestine ontario's
00:15:51
because if there's not enough of the essential amino acid trip to fan innate immunity changes and they got the
00:15:57
microphone changes in the captain of causal does they don't quite feel cool uh changing the michael but home
00:16:03
the microbial changes and this of course leads them to
00:16:06
susceptibility to information so this was former recent review
00:16:12
about our work so this is is to controlling the summary no acid transporter of cause
00:16:18
to to find out which fruits uh i'm sure trip to find this is just the surface of many other
00:16:24
foot factors which could be very similar things inferences they got that
00:16:29
was really on the microbial here and it's also influences
00:16:34
byron macabre lights which are being generated downstream of paper fan
00:16:39
the directly influence the indians just come probably at the end of the day
00:16:45
that is uh but we'll all go is that might figure out over
00:16:49
the next uh years and decades how put tickle uh and uh
00:16:54
of fruit loops change and at being but populist in the in the intestine
00:17:00
how does not couple lights than actually bite taken over sept us a particular innate immune cells
00:17:07
are kept on how the thing it into the microbial and of course but doing so
00:17:13
this uh particular nutrients than would scout immunity
00:17:17
and but stopping unit to and of course metabolism in many other functions scott house so
00:17:24
i do believe slowly we can move into the direction of a molecular description
00:17:30
how food and nutrients happen to in unity and
00:17:34
couple to metabolism in hell's entire body
00:17:38
so this of course only the surface of it so recently the verb is nice papers published in nature
00:17:44
but another a product from the not my problem could we provide
00:17:49
can type to change for instance regular pretty souls a pen whitman has beautiful book published it
00:17:56
but to call up but it in the test in control but as cell type
00:18:00
call the teen help a seventeen cell which might be a link between top microphones
00:18:07
and uh psyched is so if this is a leo then one could actually does nutritional interventions
00:18:12
uh reduce incidence of us liked is which would be spectacular if possible of course there's lots of of up to
00:18:19
be down adjust to bring this back to to the creation and and of course put in the larger context
00:18:27
is this reason start is just publish the artificial sweeteners
00:18:32
a change to coast tall and it's um
00:18:38
uh one can of course you know see the data's one
00:18:41
wants it and uh_huh and itself was very interesting issue
00:18:46
and and just another anecdote than in the school of my twelve year
00:18:50
old daughter for instance to tell them please don't think uh
00:18:54
a diet cokes and and and soft range so
00:18:59
of its official speak to know so this is kind of already feel that we need to the schools i was
00:19:05
last week i was invited that that michael bill between in two won't put the hospital
00:19:11
for sick it's in an older bikes uh you cannot find any diet uh
00:19:16
soft drink anymore so that just sort of soft drinks was this older should because
00:19:21
so i think one has to face these issues because the published in nature that this costs in the
00:19:27
in the popular press and a former former student of
00:19:32
mine he actually did a very similar experiments
00:19:35
it's not published yet in in in post awful lot in fly and it changes the behaviour
00:19:41
so um so actually does the issues he have to figure out and and
00:19:46
of course it needs a lot of research a lot of thought
00:19:50
because at the end of the day than many many questions uh
00:19:54
motors this one or the us but uh the questions of
00:19:59
uh hum candy ever figure out the michael bolton to develop
00:20:03
in in groups or can define as single uh
00:20:07
uh but yeah they offer incense bitch because mulder made put in the local and then we you know we can
00:20:14
it moderate incidents of us hike to us um can defeat newborns but to call the
00:20:20
uh but yeah yeah to push them a uh_huh into allergic in fact for the future
00:20:27
actually to lots of issues of the shoes off what's the chicken or
00:20:31
the egg uh how can we really established in the complex
00:20:36
a tissue like this is our sense of different bacteria
00:20:41
uh how can be established course i like t. how do we really know that that particular
00:20:46
subgroup of bacteria is responsible for easy to for instance what is actually obesity
00:20:53
changing of foot up taken due to an uptake and this is
00:20:57
the reason why the michael bowman changes to sink them lots of questions uh
00:21:03
and some of the questions will be discussed it's a it's a it's a valid yet exciting time it's a very important
00:21:09
issue uh_huh well company for next year and of course for
00:21:13
global hell's business came opportunities because if one figures out
00:21:18
how nutrition particular food groups feed into and uh in test in
00:21:23
like it was hell syntax since give us a uh_huh
00:21:27
a change audience systems and you can societies of old also suitability is
00:21:32
going to came close behaviours punishment is a very intriguing abate too
00:21:37
to possibly make a major impact on the house and this worked so listings a backchannel
00:21:45
and into the use of a speaker will and the force who has
00:21:51
studied biochemistry and obtain a p. h. d. at calming in university
00:21:55
uh yeah and all that much blank institute for molecular
00:22:00
genetics and billy and so is since twenty five
00:22:03
years is a professor darkening in university uh also holds
00:22:07
it yeah uh in microbiology and is it
00:22:11
office of the universe it with works with the academy of sciences in the university of helsinki
00:22:17
isn't on many many prices up the price uh i uh i like is the the
00:22:24
netherlands most into probably not real scientists of what some maybe you can tell us
00:22:30
about how you can mind that michael bone for new
00:22:33
business opportunities isn't that many of the other plate
00:22:37
chemistry on could be broken and of course yes made
00:22:41
major major contributions on on the molecular uh
00:22:47
a composition of the michael bole on the matter channel mix of the mike problems uh
00:22:53
and the whole system off it and and he of course is
00:22:57
made major contributions on michael bowman the intestinal tract of humans
00:23:02
so it's not just my as my favourites pieces of the puzzle
00:23:04
filler but this says is that 'cause actually real impact
00:23:09
i'm human house and so thank you so much for

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Conference program

Introduction of the Session 1 : The Gut Microbiome: Facts and Figures
Josef Penninger, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Vienna
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:07 a.m.
The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 9:31 a.m.
Q&A : The role of commensal bacteria in the gut
Willem de Vos, Wageningen University, The Neterlands
23 Oct. 2014 · 10:29 a.m.
Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:07 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbial richness impacts human health
Dusko Ehrlich, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:44 a.m.
Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 11:56 a.m.
Q&A : Cross-talk between the mucosal immune system and environmental factors
Hiroshi Kiyono, The University of Tokyo, Japan
23 Oct. 2014 · 12:31 p.m.
Introduction of the Session 2 : Host - Microbiome Interaction
Susan Suter, University of Geneva, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:41 p.m.
Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 1:55 p.m.
Q&A : Mechanisms of cross talk in the gut
Annick Mercenier, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
23 Oct. 2014 · 2:34 p.m.
Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 3:52 p.m.
Q&A : Relationship of diet to gut microbiota diversity, stability and health in older people
Paul O'Toole, University College Cork, Ireland
23 Oct. 2014 · 4:27 p.m.
Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 9:16 a.m.
Q&A : Gut microbes and their role in malnutrition and obesity
Rob Knight, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:01 a.m.
The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:19 a.m.
Q&A : The gut metagenome - your other genome
Jun Wang, BGI, Shenzhen, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 10:53 a.m.
Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:04 a.m.
Q&A : Fecal transplant to mine for novel probiotics
Max Nieuwdorp, Amsterdam Medical Center, The Netherlands
24 Oct. 2014 · 11:25 a.m.
Introduction of the Session 4 : Nutritional Interventions
Keiko Abe, The University of Tokyo, Japan
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:46 p.m.
Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet
Liping Zhao, Jiao Tang University, Shanghai, China
24 Oct. 2014 · 12:56 p.m.
Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 1:47 p.m.
Q&A : Pediatric intervention - what works and what doesn't work
Hania Szajewska, The Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
24 Oct. 2014 · 2:15 p.m.
Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:02 p.m.
Q&A : Perspectives for nutrition and the gut microbiome
Nicholas Schork, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, USA
24 Oct. 2014 · 3:46 p.m.

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