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thank you adam for that of amazing introduction
00:00:04
i'm adam didn't mention one part of
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of an introduction to me which is that i am
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not related to the family that owns the company
00:00:14
that is sponsoring this come with a conference on but i'm very very happy to be here
00:00:20
um and i thank you all for the opportunity to address you this morning
00:00:25
about the politics of of the should reverses fat we
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live at that time of enormous public confusion
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about nutrition and health at least in the united states where
00:00:37
people to hear their air out trying to figure out
00:00:41
what to do about protein and carbohydrate and fat and
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this isn't a topic that i usually talk about
00:00:48
because i think that the issue of whether faster carbohydrates are
00:00:53
worse for your health is really the wrong question
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oh and the question shouldn't be a bout individual components
00:01:00
of the diet because that's not how people easy
00:01:03
people eat food and they eat diets and me tighter according to dietary patterns
00:01:09
and the dietary guidelines for americans which is going to hear a lot about during this session um
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oh recommends a new eating pattern that is largely based on food yours
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your diet is supposed to contain fruits vegetables dairy grains or else
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and uh this weird category called protein um that is the chefs term
00:01:31
for uh sources of protein eating things from like
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me and not send other kinds of foods
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i didn't know what to call it so they call the protein never
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mind uh the um uh when you put a diet together
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is so simple and dietary advice is so easy and so simple
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that the fruit rider michael pollen can do within seven words eat
00:01:57
fruit not too much mostly plans really it's that simple
00:02:02
um in my own work i have a slightly more complicated
00:02:06
way of saying the same thing basically i think
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i'm healthy diets mean that people make better choices meeting more
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fruits and vegetables or less junk food really nothing more
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complicated than that and then if you're worried about obesity we
00:02:21
lessen move more in please don't it might board
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um but if it's a it's more complicated than that it surely because
00:02:30
of what the australian sociologist georgie spring yes
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calls nutrition is some um pejorative lee nutrition is them
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which means the use of individual components of
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the diets salts should or fat
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uh the vitamins and minerals as indications of
00:02:50
uh the diet is a whole a very productive approach to looking at dietary patterns
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the dietary guidelines for americans for example say that a
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dietary pattern includes all of these different fruits that
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guidelines talk about from its when they're talking about what they want you to eat more oh
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when they you start talking about what they want you to eat less self they switched to nutrients
00:03:16
so you're supposed to eat more fruits and vegetables but just
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post a less saturated fat trends that salt and sugar
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um and he's then become euphemisms for diets and dietary patterns
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now the interesting sugar goes way back um in the nineteen seventies they were group
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of researchers in england in the united states were convinced that the problem with
00:03:43
diets wasn't the flu that people reading or the diets that people were consuming it
00:03:48
we should or if you were white and deadly it was chilling us
00:03:53
uh exposing we should or the killer in your
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diet um so this was the nineteen seventies
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um by the late nineteen eighties there had been a complete switch
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in interest to uh be anti fat
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or um proportion uh and in the late nineteen eighties there were two reports that came out
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of the federal government or quasar i federal government one was the the surgeon general's
00:04:21
a report on nutrition and health for which i was the managing editor so i know a lot about that report
00:04:27
and then a year later the national research council came out with an even larger
00:04:32
diet and health study and both of them said exactly the same thing
00:04:37
they said that the single most important dietary problem was too much fat
00:04:42
and they advised eating a diet that contain few were foods that were high and fast
00:04:48
again talking about that not talking about the food sources of fat but
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i can tell you because i with today or that um this
00:04:58
assumes that if you were going to eat a diet that was lower
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in fat you would be eating less meat and dairy products
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um you would replace those foods because you still needed calories
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you would replace those foods with fruits and vegetables
00:05:12
that would automatically reduce your caloric intake that takes care of obesity
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you reduce your intake of saturated fat that takes care of heart disease
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and it would reduce your risk of all these other conditions for which obesity
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um and saturated fat and so forth were risk factors
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um what nobody thought of of um or at least nobody who was in
00:05:36
charge of the final executive summary on this which i was not
00:05:40
fonder of was what came next which is referred to as the snack wells phenomenon
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on an nabisco produced cookies that were fat free there were
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lines of people waiting in front of grocery stores
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when the trucks arrived delivering these cookies to buy
00:05:59
these cookies they flew off the shelves um
00:06:03
the snack wells cookies and the fat free versions had ten calories less per could be
00:06:09
then uh the cookies that contains that because they
00:06:14
replace the fat with sugar on so they were they had the same number of calories but
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uh they flew off the shelves and this led to some really
00:06:25
really bad epidemiology and i love better but email it
00:06:29
it's really fun and i particularly love this one the obesity epidemic in united
00:06:34
states started almost exactly the same time as a low fat recommendation
00:06:39
low fat recommendations are responsible for obesity
00:06:44
uh and so here it just proves it right and uh so as you might expect
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somebody like me who is the co author of vocal why calories down takes a
00:06:56
dim view of that kind of epidemiology and it's my responsibility to point out
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that during the period under consideration when the prevalence of obesity in united states
00:07:08
um was rising quite rapidly the number of calories in
00:07:12
the food supply per capita was also rising quite
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rapidly it went from thirty three hundred in the early nineteen eighties to the present
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four thousand calories a day per capita roughly twice with the population needs
00:07:27
and the sources of those calories were also pretty obvious
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um the main so the main reason for the increase in school work
00:07:37
intake uh among the population is plenty of evidence that americans began to eat more
00:07:43
and that the number of calories they were consuming predate not just was it
00:07:48
in the food supply increased had to do with the increasing portion sizes
00:07:52
that occurred it just the same time and this slide
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uh which i like 'cause just so nicely illustrated
00:07:59
shows the enormous increase in portion size that occurred in united states if any
00:08:05
of you have been there recently you know what i'm talking about
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um the larger portions of i had one nutritional concept that i could get
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over an conveyed world it would be that larger portions have more calories
00:08:22
you can say with a straight face um it has a larger portions are more fat they
00:08:27
have more sugar and they also have what's more calories and those calories come from everywhere
00:08:33
if you look at the changes in nutrient composition
00:08:38
where the composition of commodities in united states
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from the nineteen sixties uh to the current time everything in protest
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uh the calories come from everywhere omar just increased interesting we came from fast
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uh there's more fat consumed um now than there was twenty or thirty
00:08:59
or forty years ago but everything else and increase the also
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um to account for that arise in calories
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so we have a situation where people are eating more portion sizes were larger
00:09:13
and it's no surprise that race uh that the province of obesity increased
00:09:18
so now we come to the modern era um and it regardless of the
00:09:24
factual information that people that there's more fruit is more fat produced in united
00:09:30
states people are eating more fat we know have the profile mafia
00:09:35
uh in the united states a of food writer named nina type roles robot called
00:09:40
the big fat surprise why bother me and she's belong in a healthy diet
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and then this um her work and various articles that she's written
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uh were taken over by time magazine with this
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famous cover a telling americans to eat butter
00:10:00
i'm a scientist labelled fact the enemy why they were all uh um
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uh it's scientists get to work and and then the corollary of
00:10:11
the pro fat people are the anti shock or people
00:10:15
and we have a of of a science writer fruit right the science writer gary turnout
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couldn't article in the new york times magazine and twenty eleven calls
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sweden villages in which she began his um campaign against sugar
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uh most recently he has a book called the case
00:10:34
again sugar which he describes as a legal brief
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all the legal argument proving that a calories from should
00:10:42
or worse than calories from any other source
00:10:44
and that a server if you stop eating sugar that will take your your dietary problems
00:10:49
and the physician robert let's take 'em has this book a
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book called beating the odds again should are processed food
00:10:57
um and he believes and has articles on the string worshippers poison
00:11:04
uh so that's kind of where we are now is um where
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their articles coming out one after another after another in
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some very respectable sources fat versus come arms what's really worse for
00:11:19
yourself is it fact that's killing you or it's a shocker
00:11:23
i continue to believe that this is absolutely the wrong question and
00:11:27
it's not getting at the basis of dietary problems at all
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um that doesn't stop a great deal of argument
00:11:37
about the whole question of sugar and fat and i was completely fascinated by
00:11:41
this historical study that came out and jam internal medicine last year uh
00:11:47
and the sugar industry in coronary heart disease risk and these investigators
00:11:51
found some all documents that demonstrate that the sugar research foundation
00:11:57
uh went to a lot of trouble to try to get investigators at harvard
00:12:02
to choose dietary fat as the problem in coronary heart disease
00:12:08
um and ignore the role of sugar no i wrote the editorial better company
00:12:14
that article and i reproduced in any in my
00:12:19
editorial what i thought was the key figure
00:12:22
from the studies that were published as a result of that investigation
00:12:26
and they show up very close epidemiological
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correlation between sugar unsaturated fat
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in the food supply and and mortality in fourteen countries
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the role of saturated fat and the role of sugar in is
00:12:41
epidemiological correlation is virtually indistinguishable you can't tell them hard
00:12:47
but of course you could put a number of other things in the same figure and it
00:12:52
would look exactly the same and of course one of those is calories remember calories
00:12:58
um and the user in issue because in a um now nest times in my book
00:13:04
uh why calories count we talk about a study
00:13:09
that i found very interesting that was done
00:13:11
in nineteen sixty four in the metabolic ward
00:13:15
in which i'm highly obese and then
00:13:18
were placed in a metabolic ward and placed on various diets over a period of time
00:13:25
um and the diets ranged enormously in fat and carbohydrate composition the
00:13:30
fat range from thirteen to eighty three percent of calories
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and the carbohydrate range from three to sixty percent of calories
00:13:38
and no matter what the composition of the diet
00:13:41
uh that these men were placed on if calories were
00:13:45
held constant they lost waited exactly the same race
00:13:49
um this study was so carefully controlled that even though it's olden even though
00:13:54
was done on a very small number of individuals it seemed to
00:13:58
me to make a really important point with which is that it's not
00:14:02
composition of the diet that man is then total number of calories
00:14:08
and and this study was repeated independently although with calories not so well controlled
00:14:14
by these two guys in a great britain and in the united states
00:14:18
their twin brothers were both physicians and they decided they would prove
00:14:24
which one of these diets was healthy or one of them went on a diet that contain
00:14:28
virtually no carbohydrate the other one went on a diet that contain virtually no fat
00:14:34
uh they spent a month on those diets the postal they both lost weight and they both had
00:14:39
horrible metabolic arrangements and all kinds of problems as
00:14:44
a result and they ended up thinking
00:14:47
that a balanced diet lower in calories was probably the best way to lose
00:14:51
weight it's um it made headlines but the back to gary turnouts
00:14:56
cool has um i theory that he is trying very very hard to prove
00:15:01
which is that eating too much sugar uh causes insulin to be released when there's too much
00:15:07
insulin it makes people hungry and it causes calories that are not immediately burned for energy
00:15:13
uh to be stored as fat and the big problem there and
00:15:17
ish rubber because if you we should or whatever calories of
00:15:20
leftover gonna go right into fast and bats his major uh that's
00:15:25
what he's trying to prove in a case against rubber
00:15:29
just say uh that i have to give him a lot of credit for putting money where his mouth is
00:15:35
uh he got funding from the arnold foundation a foundation united
00:15:40
states to create an organisation called the nutrition science
00:15:44
initiative new c. it's called um whose goal is to
00:15:49
produce canoes conclusive evidence in the next decade
00:15:53
that calories from shove are different from any other kind of calories
00:15:57
and so his website asks the question are all calories equal the answer to that
00:16:03
is no records the enemy the answer to that is yes and so forth
00:16:08
however one very very serious mistake in my view and
00:16:13
that was that he recruited top notch researchers
00:16:17
to do his work and to do the study and they have published the results of
00:16:22
a metabolic word study in which they put people on two different kinds of diet
00:16:26
um and uh the the studies have been published respectable journals
00:16:31
and much to gary tab should grant uh the study
00:16:36
show that calorie for calorie dietary fat restriction results
00:16:40
in more body fat loss but carbohydrate restriction when you
00:16:44
control for calories and control for everything else
00:16:47
um you would think that this would bring this argument to wind and but no such luck
00:16:54
um he there that he and the investigators who did this
00:16:58
work or uh have endless flights and twitch or
00:17:02
about whether the study was done well but this study showed quite clearly that if you
00:17:07
do i so clark substitution of fat for carbohydrate you get similar metabolic defects
00:17:13
i'm in people who are on diets of different composition when calories or control
00:17:19
um so what we do to control calories um the leading
00:17:23
source of calories an american diets i'm fascinated to say
00:17:28
oh our grain is desserts what what the department of
00:17:31
agriculture calls grain based desert that means cakes pastries
00:17:36
croissants probably and he spread this check in sweden
00:17:41
breaks pizza and alcohol uh don't even ask
00:17:44
um so we have a lot of work to do when it's pretty obvious what
00:17:47
that work has to be um but that brings the to the dietary guidelines
00:17:53
which do not say directly eat fewer desserts trick less alcohol or do
00:17:58
any of those other kinds of things they talk about eating more
00:18:03
uh fruits of the kinds of things you're supposed to eat more fruits vegetables whole grains
00:18:08
when they talk about what not to eat they switch to nutrients saturated
00:18:12
fat ten percent of calories not talking about me or junk food
00:18:18
i added sugars ten percent of calories nothing much said about
00:18:21
desserts or sugary drinks or at least not said directly
00:18:26
uh that's where politics comes in so it's in the dietary
00:18:31
guidelines have been fascinating uh to somebody like me who
00:18:34
follows politics the main sources of saturated fat any american diet
00:18:39
or meat poultry fish eggs added fats in derry
00:18:42
um any any recommendation to eat less saturated fat is immediately picked up
00:18:47
by the meat industry um as a euphemism for each lesson even they don't like it
00:18:53
uh and there was enormous opposition to uh these to the saturated fat recommendation
00:18:59
not only from the meat lobbies but also from problem eat journalists
00:19:04
uh so the meat law they did okay uh it did a major attack on me
00:19:10
dietary guidelines advisory committee and on the guidelines themselves they went to congress
00:19:16
uh they complained they and they were very successful in chain
00:19:21
in making sure that the dietary guidelines toned down
00:19:25
the meat recommendations of the dietary guidelines advisory committee wanted to make
00:19:31
uh the the guidelines committee had a very clear statement that usually lesson even processed
00:19:37
meats that statement is is not present in the file and the final bridal
00:19:42
uh but the most interesting it tax came from the pro any journalist uh nina tie calls
00:19:48
um and she gets something absolutely amazing to me this is an
00:19:52
example of what one lobbying individual well funded can do
00:19:58
uh she wrote an article in the b. m. j.
00:20:02
that was paid for by the arnold foundation and
00:20:05
she was paid by the oral foundation to do it in which you choose the dietary guidelines
00:20:10
committee of weeks science all week scientific process
00:20:15
of reef of relying on conflicted read references references that
00:20:20
were paid for by industry and that the um
00:20:25
guidelines when britain then the members of the dietary guidelines
00:20:28
of the advisory committee also had conflicts of interest
00:20:32
that were not fully disclosed and not fully evident in at the guidelines process needed to
00:20:38
be changed to get rid of these conflicts um j. article caused a furor
00:20:46
and uh the and nutrition advocates of united states were furious about it particularly centre
00:20:52
for science in the public interest which called for an immediate retraction got hungry
00:20:57
scientists assigned that calling for retraction of the
00:21:01
article because of its scientific flawless
00:21:05
uh the british medical journal or the b. m. j. took the call
00:21:09
for retraction quite seriously the first thing i did was to publish
00:21:13
oh correction of nina tie calls own conflicts of interest and to
00:21:19
or reveal the arnold foundations interest in that then it um
00:21:23
send the or paper out to two independent external reviewers
00:21:28
to get their opinion of what the b. m. j. should do as
00:21:32
a result of that they published a long list of corrections
00:21:36
to the article but they decided not to retract it um the reviewer is
00:21:42
uh looked at the look at the uh at the paper and said that it's science was deeply
00:21:49
flawed and in fact it's quality was so for in the signs was so badly flow uh
00:21:55
flawed but they essentially confirmed everything that centre for science in the public interest had
00:22:01
said in criticism but they advised against retraction saying that when was well within
00:22:07
uh her rights is somebody with an opinion to say which she thought
00:22:11
but at the guidelines process really did need to be fixed
00:22:15
that it was not a sufficiently rigorous process and it
00:22:18
needed a fix while all this was going on
00:22:22
i mean uh tie calls had created something called the intrusion coalition
00:22:27
funded by the oral foundation again in a huge issue colleges manifesto
00:22:32
oh is that the dietary guidelines were so deeply scientifically
00:22:36
flawed that they really had to be completely fix
00:22:40
and then she should call vision went to congress i'm i think still can hardly believe this and they
00:22:45
lobby congress into congress to appropriate a million dollars
00:22:50
to give to the national academy of medicine
00:22:53
to do a review of the dietary guidelines
00:22:57
process and to this end to fix
00:23:01
the dietary guidelines process so that it would be more transparent less biased
00:23:06
and would maintain a much stronger level of research integrity and
00:23:12
that's all that in fact happened and rubber soul
00:23:15
who is the chair of that committee is here in this room you should ask him about this
00:23:20
um but there are other committee came out in very short order
00:23:25
with two reports the first report came out in february this year and
00:23:30
and it talked about the selection process for the dietary guidelines
00:23:34
it recommended third party nomination of members of the advisory
00:23:39
committee public disclosure of everything about those members
00:23:43
of the advisory committee at a completely transparent conflict
00:23:46
of interest policy process i run it
00:23:49
to eat um that they did not that their first reported not just close the conflicts of
00:23:55
interest of the members of the committee who wrote that report because it was not the
00:24:01
uh academies policy to allow those conflicts to be made public
00:24:05
the second report just came out um and it has
00:24:09
many recommendations for improving the scientific quality of the
00:24:13
review of the scientific review as part of the dietary guidelines process
00:24:18
and it's suggest ways in which to manage biases among committee members
00:24:24
um maybe they shouldn't serve maybe they should only serve unlimited capacity
00:24:29
oh and one maybe they should make sure that they balance the biases of members of the committee
00:24:34
it would be very interesting to see what the these recommendations get incorporated into the
00:24:40
process with the twenty twenty dietary guidelines which should be going on right now
00:24:45
and and they didn't discuss disclose the conflicts of interest of the
00:24:49
members of this committee because the academies process changed in between
00:24:54
very very interesting reports and be it was gonna be interesting to see what happens
00:24:59
so the politics and the science are completely i. x. are completely linked
00:25:04
they are in extra couple and i wanted to know to
00:25:07
just looking at the politics of what's going on with sharper right
00:25:11
now because we're in the sugar ascendant phase of what's happening
00:25:16
um the dietary guidelines and the world health organisation had both issues report
00:25:22
and recommending that added sugars be consumed a
00:25:27
level no higher than ten percent
00:25:30
of a daily calories and amount that's roughly
00:25:34
half of what americans these consume now
00:25:37
this is a matter of what from many people this would be an average of about fifty grams of shivered day
00:25:44
um and it's interesting to me that i have leader a
00:25:47
soft drink contains fifty grams of sugar so if you
00:25:50
have a half meter soft drink you done your server
00:25:53
for the entire day and that's absolutely the maximum
00:25:57
um many or public health organisations actually recommend less than that
00:26:03
and so uh this brings me to the question is so the politics and
00:26:07
not only because i wrote a book about it that came out in
00:26:10
uh twenty fifteen basically and advocacy manual for how
00:26:13
you advocate uh for drinking less soda
00:26:17
um but there's a reason for talking about should
00:26:21
be sweetened beverages because they comprise almost half
00:26:25
of sugar intake at least in the united states uh this
00:26:30
should be sweetened beverages have enormous amounts of sugar
00:26:34
and that makes soft drinks low hanging fruit in public health terms
00:26:39
meaning that if you're going to go after one particular fruit this is an
00:26:43
easy one they have servers they have water they don't have anything else
00:26:47
uh that's nutritionally reading so they're great target and an easy target
00:26:54
um sales of should between beverages in in i stay so are falling rapidly and continually
00:27:00
and have fallen since their peak in the late nineteen nineties really two thousands
00:27:06
uh the so the industry believes that this is due to public health advocacy
00:27:11
um and i'm not going to auction with them about that uh there are many many groups in
00:27:16
the united states that doing public health advocacy and they we may and they range from
00:27:22
a healthy food america which is particularly science based in its approach to killer croak
00:27:29
which doesn't worry about science and deals mainly with the with the politics
00:27:33
oh and everything in between but it's been very successful
00:27:38
in the advocacy to drink less or has been enormously successful that's why
00:27:43
i subtitles my book sort of politics and winning in parenthesis
00:27:49
um but there are attacks on soda in lots of other ways as
00:27:54
well and i wanna say just a few words about those
00:27:57
i'm in august of twenty fifteen the new york times published a front page article
00:28:03
and cole was a finding of groups
00:28:06
of researchers who was a public
00:28:10
stances that exercise is more important than what you eat in obesity
00:28:15
and a report that was so shocking uh even fox news was shocked by it
00:28:21
uh no but no nobody could believe that coke role
00:28:25
would find a research so obviously self serving
00:28:29
that research is what it had would accept money from coca cola for doing this kind of research
00:28:35
um or that universities will while researchers to take money from corporal for
00:28:40
doing is which shows you how little the new york times
00:28:43
on just or these reporters understand about how universities work um but be that as it
00:28:50
may it have an enormous effect on the company uh the company went transparent and
00:28:56
publishers lists on its web site of everybody that
00:28:59
funds and this offers analysts the opportunity
00:29:03
to look at the kind of research that cock roll it up has been funding
00:29:08
and generally that funding of its research falls
00:29:11
into four areas one is to demonstrate
00:29:15
at the importance of physical activity is supposed to die had another is show that
00:29:21
a national data sources that link the shoulders we we've ever
00:29:25
just obesity have no validity that any statement that
00:29:29
uh so didn't have anything to do with obesity years overstated and that should reserve really harm
00:29:36
uh no matter which kind or how much of them you consume and
00:29:40
go call and spent a hundred thirty eight million dollars between
00:29:44
uh twenty sixty between twenty ten twenty sixteen to produce this kind of research
00:29:50
um and in fact i analyses of coca cola funded studies instead is
00:29:56
funded by the beverage association this one from the annals of internal medicine last
00:30:01
year asked the question or sugary drinks related to obesity and diabetes
00:30:06
and they found twenty six studies that said no there's no relationship
00:30:10
and every single one of them was funded by industry
00:30:13
and and i found thirty four studies that say yes there's a connection between oh
00:30:17
uh we should re beverages and obesity and diabetes and only one of those was funded
00:30:22
by industry and you can bet that those investigators we never funded by industry again
00:30:29
really yeah that is even weirder source of criticism of
00:30:34
um those should be sweet beverage industry and this one is so weird i don't
00:30:38
even know how to talk about it those have you been following american politics
00:30:43
i know that the russians um interfered in the last american election on
00:30:49
and one of the ways that they interfered with by publishing emails
00:30:53
and that were written by members of
00:30:56
hillary clinton's campaign including um
00:31:01
a a real clean insider name compression marshall who's a friend of hillary clinton
00:31:06
um and these emails were published on d. c. another site called
00:31:10
d. c. lakes and and the d. c. links website
00:31:15
um included a set of emails coincidentally
00:31:20
between compression marshall an executive
00:31:22
of coca cola i'm running michael goals men and big
00:31:27
has a confusion marshall while she was working on hillary clinton's
00:31:31
campaign was billing cock role is seven thousand a month
00:31:35
for consulting services and we know this because for invoices or in the
00:31:41
cache of emails no i was particularly interested in these emails
00:31:46
and because i'm in one of them actually i mean more than one but this is a good one
00:31:53
uh so um i was in australia from january march
00:31:57
twenty sixteen working at the university it's it may
00:32:00
and and i was i was giving talks all over the place in written up in uh
00:32:05
sydney morning herald and is an cool cool was fine and i i had no idea uh
00:32:12
three years the summary of marianne wrestles presence at the uh presentation at sydney university and then it
00:32:19
goes through where i've been talking and how many places i've talked and what i've been doing
00:32:24
um i knew that a cup holder representative was in the audience because there is
00:32:30
somebody from call call at every talk idea of you know who you are
00:32:36
um
00:32:38
um but uh the sydney morning herald had final also talking about
00:32:43
what was secret plan to monitor the person in whose group i was
00:32:47
working recent bureau who's a researcher on conflict of interest in research
00:32:52
um and so this got a lot of publicity um and also uh
00:32:58
various analyses were done of these emails one of them by
00:33:02
uh one of my favourite advocacy groups called new engines for help of all things
00:33:07
and and they've had several articles on coke always political strategy to heal so
00:33:13
the texas and that brings me to the whole question of so taxes
00:33:17
which is the place where you really see advocacy against rubber in action
00:33:23
so we had a lot of solar tax uh initiatives united states the most successful by
00:33:29
far has been one berkeley california okay it's berkeley but they did it right
00:33:35
and that was sort of tax was passed by a vote of seventy six percent which is simply astonishing
00:33:41
and one of the reasons why they did it right was that of a huge amount of of
00:33:46
community organising around it i got the entire
00:33:50
uh berkeley community rich to work
00:33:53
up the hills down on the flats involved in it
00:33:56
it was really a very very well done campaign
00:33:59
um and i won and they won by a lot and set
00:34:02
a standard for how you do advocacy around so taxes
00:34:07
now there are a lot more of these at the local level
00:34:10
the navajo nation was actually the first that passed us overtaxed
00:34:15
but there have been many many others and there are many in the works um and uh lots of them had
00:34:21
that the one in santa fe did not succeed the so the industry has
00:34:26
put of fortune into fighting these taxes absolutely extraordinary amounts of money
00:34:33
um and this of course is uh an international effort
00:34:37
so there are countries throughout the world uh that
00:34:40
have passed so taxes south africa saudi arabia
00:34:45
oh and united kingdom and i just read yesterday that the
00:34:48
portugal so taxes resulted in a twenty five percent drop
00:34:53
in so the consumption in for trouble that just came in yesterday
00:34:57
on the want mexico has been particularly well studied uh the sort mexico past uh so the
00:35:04
tax even local call uh said that it would invest eight point two billion dollars in
00:35:10
mexico by twenty twenty that did not succeed in getting a copy the government to not
00:35:17
pass the tax it's been very well studied and there's a fair amount of evidence
00:35:21
that there's been a the sistine consumer response meaning that sales are
00:35:25
done well the curious things about the taxes is that
00:35:29
the the way the country's and the places that are doing it taxes want the revenues
00:35:35
for usually for public health purposes but people don't drink solders those
00:35:40
rev revenues go down but if the purpose is to get
00:35:44
people not to drink sodas they've been very successful of
00:35:48
any you to be very bravely in mexico
00:35:51
to advocate for a soda tax uh the new
00:35:55
york times and other publications and announce that
00:35:59
ace by where created in israel and sold only to governments
00:36:06
has was downloaded on the telephones of mexicans so
00:36:10
the text advocates to spy on them
00:36:13
and when i was in the corner pocket the public health institute earlier this year on a full bright
00:36:19
uh whenever i talk to simone bark terra i'm at meetings they
00:36:24
would collect everybody's phones and put them in the refrigerator
00:36:28
um the main sort of checks advocate is a hundred called video and he had
00:36:32
this put on his telephone too so i mean this is a serious business
00:36:38
uh so oh sure you drinks or social justice issue um i think
00:36:42
there's no question about that they're framed is a social justice issue
00:36:46
uh because the p. the very people who were consuming the most orders or the ones where
00:36:51
most liable to the obesity diabetes and other problems that occur right come with that
00:36:57
framed is a social justice is you would get some lot of advocacy does work
00:37:02
and so this brings me to nestle which is doing l.
00:37:07
a herculean work to reduce the sold in its products
00:37:12
this is been announced all over the place
00:37:14
planning an enormous cut in sugar uh in europe and in various other places
00:37:21
and it's a really great step in the right direction
00:37:25
but it doesn't really address the fundamental underlying question
00:37:29
and once again we have to thank the new york times
00:37:32
for bringing the fundamental underline question to public attention
00:37:36
this article came out about ten days ago and and it's an article that's mostly about nestle is work
00:37:43
in developing countries uh the key statement about is that nestle pepsico
00:37:48
in general mills of it aggressively expanding their presence in
00:37:52
developing nations on and that this is up in the traditional
00:37:57
diets throughout the world that it seems to me
00:38:01
is the real question that needs to be addressed in this day in age and
00:38:07
and it occurs to me that this would be a true graphics subject
00:38:11
for the fifteenth international nutrition conference next year and i hope you'll

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Conference Program

Nutrition advocacy in action: the politics of sugar vs. fat
Marion Nestle, New York University, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 9:27 a.m.
490 views
Fat and carbohydrate recommendations - Have they changed?
Barbara Schneeman, University of California, Davis, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 10:14 a.m.
Promoting equitable health and wellbeing around the globe
Nancy Brown, American Heart Association, Dallas, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 11:30 a.m.
Gut hormones and nutrition
Sir Stephen Bloom, Imperial College London, England
28 Sept. 2017 · 1:38 p.m.
288 views
Nutrition, metabolic health, cancer and NCDs
Elio Riboli, Imperial College London, England
28 Sept. 2017 · 2:27 p.m.
Infant and child nutrition and cognitive development
Wendy Oddy, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
28 Sept. 2017 · 3:51 p.m.
313 views
Microbes, metabolism and autoimmunity
Ramnik Xavier, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 9:06 a.m.
701 views
Lipid metabolism in high fructose fed humans
Luc Tappy, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
29 Sept. 2017 · 10:03 a.m.
265 views
Food, health and disease: The evidence and reporting the evidence
Dennis Bier, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 11:11 a.m.
102 views
Deeper down the rabbit hole of data, analysis, and inference errors and suggestions for digging back out
David Allison, Indiana University School of Public Health, Bloomington, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 1 p.m.
Neural circuits of food intake - is it all about calories?
Harvey Grill, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 1:55 p.m.

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