Player is loading...

Embed

Embed code

Transcriptions

Note: this content has been automatically generated.
00:00:00
she needed to catch up in any lies so i'll try not to learn um
00:00:06
okay so i'm going to begin at the beginning um
00:00:12
and uh we just had launched a if anyone falls asleep that's allowed
00:00:34
i i don't get that that guy with their children don't get fat they die
00:00:41
so this holes set of mammals is utterly dependent for
00:00:45
good health on a massive amount of obesity
00:00:49
so the city isn't necessarily bad
00:00:56
this is your standard american
00:01:02
sixty nine percent are overweight and the it's difficult to
00:01:07
guess whether it's going up still perhaps it isn't
00:01:11
um but life expectation in the effect is states is
00:01:15
going down so it is become a limiting factor
00:01:20
it's also true the rest of the world we were quite a lot
00:01:24
in the emirates and they have a tsunami of diabetes because
00:01:29
they started to get fat when the price of oil went up some
00:01:32
while ago and it takes about ten year's fruit workgroup data bases
00:01:37
um but there's hardly anywhere that it as i'm president of the hospital
00:01:42
in beijing the triangle betty hospital and um they're absolutely full
00:01:49
a full from the day they opened so in the richer parts of
00:01:53
china it's clearly a major problem and it's spreading around the countryside
00:02:00
okay well what's particularly bad well i think that's due to
00:02:04
the big that motivates people you're not so sexually attractive
00:02:08
uh this is really important will want to be like the opposite sex
00:02:13
and the the opposite sex likes people who are most
00:02:16
healthy in general says the evolutionary background most stable
00:02:21
to look after children all their children and if you're in anyway distorted do become less
00:02:26
socially acceptable and um obesity falls into that category just a sixteenth in the stuff
00:02:34
uh the various other medical conditions um cancer was a bit of
00:02:38
a surprise when it was first identified about ten years ago
00:02:42
um we do knowing that obese people might have more can so
00:02:47
um but we haven't put it down schools all diabetes
00:02:50
it's clear who also arthritis and heart disease
00:02:55
a non alcoholic fatty liver disease whole time as there's quite
00:02:59
a few diseases that are increased in the obese
00:03:04
now is it a disease no i think it's completely normal
00:03:09
um we are species would um become dominant in the will
00:03:14
we tend to have two adults have an average of ten twelve children wild
00:03:21
uh which means in a food kept environment which was when we evolved
00:03:27
um actually the children had to kill each other to survive
00:03:31
uh that led to a number of characteristics um firstly were awfully murderous
00:03:37
given half a chance will not go colleagues on the head um
00:03:41
secondly uh we are very greedy um because if you don't grab the
00:03:47
last great if we could piece of fruit you you die out
00:03:50
um we're also based on the lazy side because we don't wanna waste
00:03:54
energy is is is describing your and of course actually average is
00:03:58
um so that's the standard given being i do pity politicians trying to governors
00:04:06
at any rate we change the environment now fruit is
00:04:09
plentiful available and you don't have to take any exercise so the
00:04:13
consequences are obvious but this doesn't fit with our best health
00:04:17
so we don't like the fact that we're becoming more more bees
00:04:23
as i speak probably another fifty people will die from obesity start
00:04:29
early from obesity it's kind of a pretty major problem
00:04:34
and we don't know what to do about it i'm a physician i look
00:04:38
after of these patients and i'm completely helpless i i tell them this
00:04:47
uh_huh and nothing happens they stay the same weight um a few
00:04:52
more annoyed by me um they've sometimes travel long distance to
00:04:55
say a special expert and at the end of the uh the
00:04:58
same weight so actually have taken out life insurance up
00:05:05
how should you take a low fat doctor low carbohydrate doctor high protein diet
00:05:11
or stand on your head and only eat red fluid all what
00:05:15
um one keeps being asked these questions uh when i was training we used to
00:05:19
be telling diabetics not to put sugar in the t. and so on
00:05:24
and then somebody when didn't unknowing trial and found out that those that did
00:05:28
live longer um which is really irritating thing challenge for the trees
00:05:35
uh so where the mixed up about all this um
00:05:40
i i put down various things which are are good and bad but actually you couldn't be more crude and
00:05:47
simplistic and hopeless what is a carbohydrate
00:05:53
well obviously carbohydrates that don't absorb very well
00:05:57
uh i'm getting to the last problem for mentioned that you showed train fact yes it's that good um
00:06:04
they rapidly absorbed things like mcdonald's hamburger bun um that ad
00:06:11
but why what sorts of starch i it's far more
00:06:15
complicated than this low car pike are not
00:06:19
it's far more complicated and saying a high protein diet is good
00:06:23
which particular high protein you're talking about a low fat diet
00:06:30
no more after thing that was bad news that then a a large number of studies which of
00:06:36
failed to demonstrate any difference between the talk went on on the
00:06:40
bottom control for fat intake by out of course correlations
00:06:45
so that might be confound as i was brought up with the age or t. hormone replacement therapy
00:06:51
for the mean oppose where first it was good because um men had heart attacks and when
00:06:57
when in turned into man after the main opposed and they got also text too
00:07:04
so we we we clearly should make sure they stayed within um
00:07:10
and then somebody actually did a stratified study showed that social class one
00:07:15
it didn't work so should last two it didn't work you
00:07:17
know exact or and it was all a matter of what do you remember to take your h. o. t. or not
00:07:22
as to whether it was good for you and so should last four and five kind
00:07:26
of forgot i'm eccentric setup so it turned out to be a correlation nautical was
00:07:34
um and then of course um we decided that was really bad news to make everybody take h. o. t.
00:07:40
um the similar sort of thing that blogs in those and because id ellen's heart disease
00:07:45
and then it swung round and actually now we think i think i didn't uh probably good for heart disease
00:07:51
so we've gone through a yes it is no it isn't yes it is half everybody's very confused um i
00:07:57
like mediterranean dot now when you stand on the shores of the mediterranean to watch the local people eating
00:08:04
it's high a cheese um pizzas and things exactly what you would think was not a good idea
00:08:11
um so the manager in the us the kind of think meant of our imagination
00:08:15
and when people get pushed i say only of oil well yes all evil and if you have up your olive oil taught
00:08:22
that does seem to be something that actually almost everybody finds a good so i think we can probably believe in that
00:08:28
um but when you look at the mono unsaturated each different mono unsaturated fat is different
00:08:35
so well that i guess it is good yes but the other ones maybe not so when you get substitutes 'cause the leg cast
00:08:43
expensive and actually with the recent infections in the only scroll it's difficult to get hold of um
00:08:50
it may not be that the substitute service good we'd be spent new and there's a
00:08:54
whole though the correlation studies i'm not just to those you might say um
00:09:00
but they're actually probably assessing social process and how much exercise
00:09:06
you take as much as the food you eat
00:09:08
so people that put themselves on high legume i don't know
00:09:12
the arts probably also go jogging we don't know there's
00:09:14
certainly probably higher income and the higher income is perhaps why they live longer i mean we don't know
00:09:21
it's not that it's necessarily wrong people try their hardest or movies come founders are they really succeeding
00:09:29
so where in an age of ever advancing
00:09:31
technology mice martha in isn't amazingly intelligent
00:09:35
x. p. now tells mandate it tells me i should wash my hands off
00:09:40
to going to the toilet all sorts of things picks please telling me
00:09:43
um so we're gonna sam so has it uh i think
00:09:47
one apple um we can now no trump can
00:09:51
decide he doesn't like somebody press a button and the
00:09:55
n. x. seventy silo whatever will kill him instantly
00:09:58
i'd really rather useful i mean i wouldn't mind ah
00:10:04
we can also print anything so model aeroplanes um somebody a
00:10:11
uh c. one hundred or something it's got a lot of its parts made by a printers
00:10:16
um there the where the future and we're now saying that we should do what grounds seeing patients
00:10:22
with the the shortly to be released loop losses number two
00:10:27
um because in it it'll have a complete rundown was side effects of all drugs
00:10:32
so when we stand at the end of the bed and see the page
00:10:35
particular drought we can look up all the complications which frankly you can't remember especially in my life
00:10:43
we can manipulate stem cells we can manipulate animals very effectively
00:10:48
with chris but um is i gave genetic manipulation
00:10:53
we can my crew biopsy tomorrow's look at the gym profile lots of different
00:11:00
bits and work out which bits actually most likely did you second risk
00:11:04
and then even perhaps decide which drugs going to be most useful certain cancer of the breast that's the case
00:11:11
now this is up close and personal um might also couldn't have children
00:11:17
um so she went in our special insemination and i've now got three lovely grandchildren
00:11:24
and they are absolutely adorable um but i first saw them as a single cell
00:11:31
nice
00:11:37
okay so the pharmaceutical industry's been trying very hard
00:11:43
if you discover treatment for the city um your bottom line will improve enormously
00:11:49
uh and uh they've been trying for a long time these
00:11:53
are all failed drugs that were introduced um i
00:11:56
think could be uh might be oops sorry i think would be a might be something one remembers
00:12:01
um but they're all things that have come and gone um people notice that when
00:12:06
you smoke pot you've got hungry so the idea was to happen and teapot
00:12:11
uh i'm kind of annoyed inhibitor um and that was going to
00:12:15
cause weight loss which you did great of a really effective
00:12:19
um unfortunately it made everybody miserable because actually one do you smoke pot
00:12:23
um and so the entire european population is in danger of the new
00:12:31
great drug
00:12:33
i don't think
00:12:36
yes what's on the market at the start ones in europe so the now
00:12:40
tracks um you preparing on this small weight loss lots of side effects
00:12:45
or is that i'm about half a percent of people you
00:12:49
put on only status still on it at the end of the uh it blocks the digestion of fat
00:12:55
and they tend to get all sorts of difficult is like
00:12:58
an increase more rebuilt um lots of friends et cetera
00:13:03
um the rather tight works well sex and uh actually does produce weight loss um
00:13:10
but actually the idea that we'll find out from the c. n. s. what we should do it
00:13:15
turns out the will of the ways i just remind you that assets out carolyn courses contraction
00:13:21
my little finger celebration of my saliva glands and it's really important if i develop perhaps i am
00:13:27
out sinus disease if you give a carolyn allergic inhibitor um then my memory will improve
00:13:33
uh sorry uh yeah i'm sure i don't know
00:13:42
the point is in your transmitters and not specific so if we
00:13:46
take something which stimulates appetite let's say n. p. y.
00:13:51
point five percent of the n. p. y. reset as a to do with appetite
00:13:55
ninety nine point five other functions because neural transmitters and not specific
00:14:03
what does work for reducing weight was of course discovered by accident
00:14:08
so just so they can produce mal absorption so they shorten the got
00:14:12
bought bought pass procedure unexpected fee cool fact to go up
00:14:16
therefore the subjects lose weight of course actually we got got that's massively too long to civilised thoughts
00:14:23
uh so we don't and movements reserve of digestion and so it doesn't produce stay after
00:14:28
re uh a tool uh what you in fact get is weight loss due
00:14:32
to some magic what is the magic why do you lose weight when you have
00:14:36
uh been lost what we think it's due to the got home loans
00:14:42
the question is is that weight loss safe i mean you've interviewed you asked a surgeon
00:14:47
to do a surgical procedure to just metal metabolism this doesn't seem quite right somehow
00:14:54
um i've always thought of surgeons intellectually down a summer um
00:15:00
but this is really affected and here with the first two majors that is one in the us say someone in europe
00:15:07
which demonstrated firstly that it was long lasting in its effect and secondly people live longer they
00:15:13
diabetes melted away and slightly less six well expected they had less market in fox
00:15:19
and with cancer rate was hard and that was really a bit of and i know we know when the cancer was hire any of these
00:15:26
but the proof that it was something to do with the b. c. directly came from reversing the
00:15:30
beast enjoying the cancer rates fell back again f. okay but it's expensive there's the death rate
00:15:38
and about half of the people have to be readmitted all speed with complications and it can't be
00:15:43
adjusted so if you don't get it quite right there's not much you can do about it
00:15:48
um it works we think whoops sorry i'm trying to get the point here is that this is work as a pointer
00:15:56
oh okay i'm in the bottom of the those which one to go to
00:16:01
produce ah yes but that works well thank you so this yeah
00:16:08
um suggest because we've shown that governments high will come back to it
00:16:13
um but it proves the brain of galaxies full because the one man's the release further down the got
00:16:19
shouldn't be released because that shows mal absorption and therefore when they are released
00:16:24
the brain says hey things are going wrong and doesn't this much
00:16:29
and the good effects on cancer and heart disease and diabetes are entirely
00:16:33
proportional to the weight loss buttons appear to be any magic
00:16:38
these ah forgot hormones i'm just reminded we also have one
00:16:43
stimulates appetite bongo among brethren coming from the stomach
00:16:46
very interesting like it doesn't detect who'd it's released indirectly by the innovation
00:16:52
to the big curious but that's the way it is um
00:16:57
carry cystic kind in is not very useful because it also
00:17:01
causes growth in the for cancer and anchor titus
00:17:04
so we can't use that therapeutic like but we can u. g. o. p. one box into modern p. y. y.
00:17:11
i we tried angrily probably kept everyone but effective just to
00:17:16
remind you also the physiology um that these uh
00:17:19
cells in the mucus was uh they sense and you too may tiny micro they lie and then
00:17:24
release the woman into the bloodstream but the uh there's the bloodstream but they're also innovative and the innovation
00:17:30
really matters of the sub mucus um lexus is really important in regulating got home and released
00:17:36
but in a way we don't fully understand but presumably the some feedback to the vegas
00:17:42
i'm using c. nice endocrine granules being stored in these got endocrine cells and they
00:17:48
can be staying by antibodies against the home and with immune aside chemistry
00:17:54
when you give an antagonist then you get an increase of
00:17:58
food intake which strongly suggest it's a physiological process
00:18:04
and when you look at people unnaturally thin they kinda have i got home and i mean they
00:18:08
have got disease they got home and levels are very high so his p. y. y.
00:18:13
after some procedures for ideal transaction re section rather and you can see it's very high
00:18:20
um so this led us when we were doing this research um
00:18:24
towards the end of the last century i like saying that
00:18:27
was the end of the last century we discover these things actually had an effect when uh put into the brain
00:18:34
and then we showed that they had an effect on the brain at physiological concentrations in the bloodstream
00:18:41
and then we got round to showing if you block the release you
00:18:44
add more and so on and put the thing together physiologically
00:18:48
so got home and do control appetite not just got physiology
00:18:54
do they have three types of action very short lived but you've got a peek
00:18:58
now immediately after lunch but it'll go down again the forty if not earlier
00:19:04
chronic play when there's some sort of got problem you've got screw
00:19:08
or pancreatic axe to grind failure show bowel syndrome except
00:19:13
for all of these things give rise to a chronically high
00:19:17
uh got home and level and the chronically reduced appetite
00:19:22
so that's the physiological really start to home and chronically but it also tells you that therapeutic lee
00:19:28
this is likely to be harmless 'cause it's what the body does itself to control food intake
00:19:33
and then if you have very high levels you feel sick and this is
00:19:36
a side effect limiting factor which is the reputedly been a nuisance
00:19:41
but if you have an immediate release of the got all menu immediately feel sick off
00:19:47
and he uh is an illustration of that solar ran the tide is a longer acting g.
00:19:51
l. p. one natural half life of g. o. p. ones about maybe three minutes
00:19:56
so therapeutic lot completely hopeless you kind of an injection of a three minutes
00:20:01
um but the now the company has put a little bit on
00:20:04
the side of it and that made it last a day and that's
00:20:07
become a best seller for diabetics are and now those expanded dramatically
00:20:14
lucy yeah the effect of the highest those that could be tested without really limiting nausea
00:20:21
so it is and that's the side of it so slack senders three milligrams
00:20:25
a day all around the time and you have to put up
00:20:29
with this initial nausea so you really did starting doses but notice it
00:20:33
stays are doesn't totally go away and that's the side effect
00:20:38
now we started working with an analogue walks into a modular jim
00:20:43
analogue actually blue gone so here's the blue gone sequence
00:20:47
and there's the table which is believed off in the office i love the pancreas to make it look good on but
00:20:53
not in the god and it's really spend as walks into module and at that table makes all the difference
00:21:01
so are we found option to model them was elevated in a um meals
00:21:07
and also in all sorts of diseases associated with low body weight
00:21:15
an interesting amy gave into grass these are growing animals putting
00:21:19
on fat so there's a say line control growth pam
00:21:24
yeah you see the option to model in injections and there if we had the flute in other ways
00:21:30
we give these animals the same amount of food is yours into modelling ones are eating actually
00:21:36
they don't lose anywhere near as much fat
00:21:39
so something else is going on which one can speculate mostly i the mal absorption or
00:21:45
increase in metabolic rate there wasn't any man absorption so that with the second
00:21:50
now being rather adventurous we ran around human trial
00:21:55
and we gave four weeks of walks into module and but it was well controlled double blind accent to
00:22:01
we found very good weight loss in the oxen to model in group but no side effects
00:22:06
um they will go given that revise so even the controls lost a little weight
00:22:10
that was a key thing to do because if you don't do that they will so i can't be bothered to this
00:22:14
trial i'm not losing any weight and disappear so if you wanna control would stay the you have to do that
00:22:21
okay so having seen me increase of energy expenditure we decided to test that in humans to
00:22:26
the two mains all spontaneous physical movement and basal metabolic rate
00:22:32
so we looked the basal metabolic rate by oxygen uptake
00:22:36
and that really didn't change but it's a rotten
00:22:39
procedure and very difficult to get accurately the could stand to lead a little uh um so
00:22:46
i don't think the negative on that was definitive but we did find
00:22:50
that when we wore something called an empty hoc which measures movement
00:22:53
and that they were moving about a lot more nowadays you'd use your apple
00:22:57
watch or whatever um but uh that increase movements suggested extra exercise
00:23:03
um so we ran another clinical trial was time crossover with everyone is the rent control
00:23:08
when they were on oxen the model and they clearly moved mo or so here's
00:23:13
the daily activity figures new state increase knocks in the model maybe less
00:23:18
and um when you put the whole thing to get up you found
00:23:21
that there was every reason for this very good weight loss
00:23:26
now fourteen to modern is thought to be a mixture blue could go on and live
00:23:30
with online peptide ones that we didn't use the two in the same combination
00:23:35
and we got the same effect has faults in the model in his the
00:23:38
energy expenditure increase with now thanks to my colleague professor gary frost
00:23:43
actually got the goods to fit better and uh we get better readings
00:23:47
and there is the increase of oxygen uptake showing that was an effect on basal metabolic rate now this was uh
00:23:54
an infusion studies so we could look at spontaneous exercise but we did get the same
00:23:59
so um when you mix the two you get a decrease of appetite and increase of energy expenditure
00:24:06
and you don't get any effect all gone on blue can yeah
00:24:10
genesis 'cause it's blocked by the increase release of insulin
00:24:13
so insolence much more interested in getting logan the genesis then plug on is in stimulating it
00:24:21
okay so that's options about another undirected got homer null
00:24:26
and so tartan got home and p. y. y.
00:24:30
um it comes along as well as the small intestine
00:24:34
so as you go through the day gets higher and higher and it's a good as cologne contractions are eating
00:24:41
um it's also high in conditions that cause white last naturally
00:24:48
and off to bypass as video p. one is raised here is that we use is
00:24:54
the lean controls and here's the pose bypass so it's really quite significantly elevated
00:25:01
now we didn't infusion um experiment um m. people who uh both of these and
00:25:07
then with the why why at physiological concentrations that we've been making the levels
00:25:12
by infusion you get after a meal and we could see um the when you look at the hunger
00:25:19
school was people fell less hungry during no p.
00:25:22
y. y. infusion actually for quite awhile afterwards
00:25:26
this differentiate some g. l. p. one is is the g. l. p. one infusions stops i
00:25:31
go back to the normal appetite but puppy why why it's a long lasting effect
00:25:37
um notice that is exactly the same as within the fat 'cause when
00:25:41
you get let in the fat people it doesn't work so
00:25:44
we now without that have that group as well as the thing
00:25:46
we and here's the food intake reduction which is quite significant
00:25:53
i'm actually very interesting lay the body is coordinated so p.
00:25:57
y. y. suppresses the hunger home and read in
00:26:02
but perhaps the most interesting findings this one in the
00:26:04
controls with the obese controls had lower p. y.
00:26:09
y. than the lead controls as if there was some way deficient in p. y. y. release
00:26:16
for the same meal so there's a possibility that once you get to these you suppress you p. why
00:26:22
why we think it is that way around and therefore it's very difficult to lose weight again
00:26:27
okay well how do we know this is really physiological will be infused it'll be did
00:26:31
functional m. r. i. i mean look the plot oxygen uptake in the various areas
00:26:36
and you can see here with me all you get this pattern of change with the functional m. r. i.
00:26:42
when you infuse the one and you get exactly the same
00:26:46
happen it's almost identical but a little bit more potent
00:26:50
um and you can see here that this infusion of the combine p. u.
00:26:55
r. y. n. g. o. p. what was bigger than effective fruit intake
00:26:58
well maybe there's some other factor involved about therapeutic davis look rather interesting it was quite potent
00:27:07
alright so the conclusions were the only way to treat obesity and
00:27:11
type two diabetes due to obesity is true bypass surgery
00:27:16
we think the major mediators the got home and and therefore there's a
00:27:21
go of medical bypass which could be adjustable remember the bypass itself
00:27:26
the surgical procedures and adjustable some people about uh this too little
00:27:30
and about six is too much and put some i've risk
00:27:34
so if we could get tablets we could perhaps get it just right and perhaps even openly treat everybody
00:27:40
so that was all go so we set up a new biotech
00:27:45
but i'm mentioned previously we set up directories now we got a new one is i get
00:27:51
and the design it is looking at got home and locks therapeutic play
00:27:56
um this the shows the backgrounds are his i'm diabetic animals given say
00:28:01
line given g. l. p. one this is the weight loss
00:28:05
pretty small and if you combine the two will mention a much bigger weight loss that probably synergistic
00:28:12
but they're interesting the there's a little change any reduction of food intake which
00:28:17
we treatises sorry got the nausea and vomiting 'cause rodents don't do that
00:28:23
this is that ah that'd perform i'll yes the very that betty because towns curve
00:28:31
before this uh on treatment and the silent at the end actually
00:28:35
um and he is just the g. l. p. one which does improve it
00:28:38
but is our combination of g. l. p. one p. y. y.
00:28:42
and as with the bypass um the diabetes completely gone away
00:28:48
so we made some three thousand five hundred four thousand dialogues
00:28:53
um of these got moments in an enormous number it was three thousand
00:28:57
the dominate the slide it's gone up of it since then
00:29:01
and we've got ones that last week so that's ten days that's the block level
00:29:07
going out so that's actually once a week we've even got some we think
00:29:11
last once a month or week or perhaps up an injection savant
00:29:14
people unlike injections um but once a month is probably except for those less effort than taking pills everyday
00:29:21
uh and uh we found all sorts of other things uh these analysts didn't do quite what we expected
00:29:28
um sometimes we had it increases fluid intake with a big weight loss
00:29:34
which is a fascinating finding um we also got much better instantly says some of them
00:29:41
and it became obvious that we were looking and i've now got two p. h. d. students ben jones
00:29:46
and and the might learn i'm working on various aspects of these
00:29:50
analogue that become an actual goldmine to see various things
00:29:54
happening and we found by stimulation some will use more psychic
00:29:58
n. p. and the others more read peter reston
00:30:01
uh we found alastair isn't another with the tail of what is a long chain molecule g. l. p. one
00:30:07
has its own actions in is important and that's recently been conferred
00:30:12
on by sequencing of the g. o. p. one receptor
00:30:17
and uh it explains why you can't make a small molecule to do these things
00:30:21
because the small molecule one bridge between the alastair a binding site any actual receptor binding site
00:30:27
we also found those various internalise ration recruitment of
00:30:32
um membrane modifiers membrane modifiers are important thing
00:30:36
receptor associated membrane proteins these can be pulled in so the different steakhouse
00:30:41
attending and c. g. r. p. reset plus and they are
00:30:44
functionally very different they are actually not actually the same
00:30:49
um so the d. n. a. sequences identical they vary from
00:30:53
each other whether they've got a ram connected or not
00:30:57
and the internalise nation ratio and whether molecules come together that is the g.
00:31:01
protein or set the timer eyes will not again makes a big
00:31:05
difference so actually we've come across a gold mine of secondary effects which
00:31:09
of told us that the g. protein receptor is far from simple
00:31:14
there's a tremendous complexity the and it's exploitive all therapeutic leaf we only know how to do it
00:31:21
this just to illustrate some of these themes so this is a a
00:31:24
beachhead last deeper intercepted between got along extra cellular the main
00:31:29
why would it turns out this is the alice their exact binding which then pulls it over
00:31:35
and that connection then allows activation so if you just have that little bit it doesn't activate
00:31:42
a similarly we've got several different part we've we've got partly one
00:31:46
and two yeah but that is something that you can also
00:31:49
by changing channel amounting to his tummy his thirteen in the active sequence
00:31:55
and no doubt funny alastair excite as well that we um for that and again internalise it so
00:32:01
actually this is the uh and go mine uh we've got a billions of obese people
00:32:08
um if we just take rich americans we probably got a billion of
00:32:11
them um we could get a market penetration of about five percent
00:32:17
we charge about that much i reckon the annual sales might be this much eat your heart out less uh
00:32:29
and it's an interesting concept because we're of altering or one of the major drives
00:32:36
so we're altering behaviour and one remembers the crash of a plane
00:32:41
on a mountain in the andes really couldn't get off
00:32:43
and they'll let each other all the whalers going of nantucket where they always to conscience boys and
00:32:48
if they didn't catch away all the couldn't come back 'cause they didn't have enough to eat
00:32:52
so they had the ships boys um because actually when you get really hungry if
00:32:57
you look at the person sitting next to you the justice also salute
00:33:03
it changes your whole behaviour you can't think of anything else
00:33:08
so we have a way old during these very fundamental drives and it's
00:33:12
going to be the beginning of a new era in pharmaceuticals
00:33:16
um whereby we can make i don't know the employees eve of nestle work harder
00:33:21
i mean you know who knows but actually you need therapeutic so this
00:33:29
i think probably not if you choose the right food you could probably get the release of right homelands
00:33:34
now so far this is been a completely barren area there's some hints this dude
00:33:40
releases more g. l. p. one that food except for but it's it's not precise
00:33:45
and it might be that this is the scientific getting into which particular foods
00:33:49
'cause by measuring the got on and you might find that which leads actually do produce
00:33:54
less obesity et cetera so i think as long to play for here thank you
00:34:08
i microphones working still very interesting i think you i i find it quickly
00:34:13
she she uh it's not easy for anyone working yeah it's basically trish
00:34:23
i would say it all all of the oh well when i i i found interesting just you see on
00:34:31
especially a c. i. a. o. especially i it's more
00:34:39
oh i you should i eat she showed us
00:34:44
i yeah that's the yeah the the question i yeah actually
00:34:56
i don't know
00:35:04
okay we have a lot of
00:35:09
well do you see the light for awhile well walls that
00:35:19
you know it's not the only use i know it's it's not very obvious so we've we've got cages
00:35:26
to do x. y. a line crossing and things um and there wasn't an obvious increase um
00:35:33
so i'm i'm actually not really certain there is some evidence that that's the case and
00:35:40
there are occasions where i feel like going for a jog and other occasions
00:35:43
unlike comparable that in the but it's a controllable of that and
00:35:47
and the variable way people don't feel like taking exercise which
00:35:51
could be a consequence i really don't know i
00:35:53
think it's something yet be on covered um but spontaneous activity might be more regulated than we think
00:36:01
no it's a yeah
00:36:06
what's interesting is if you look at very thin people a digital move a lot
00:36:11
so the other way round thin people a hyperactive i have a very thin friend
00:36:17
and every time we have into do you know i have to do with the copy or is that we give you the actually wanted away
00:36:25
i yeah lots of fish that are sure uh actors or or
00:36:35
or accepted and uh uh oh well i am i wonder
00:36:42
uh our mystery now here are offered i i i i well
00:36:49
yes i don't know about the market by and um but there are complications
00:36:54
and we got we've we've got this will study the sex and the
00:36:58
and where people have a higher incidence of both constipation and uh
00:37:02
rhea and and the minute they up normal plain um
00:37:07
and they continue to have a high level of nausea and statistically significant
00:37:13
and uh they vomit rob more readily than and one person would
00:37:18
but it's within country when people put up with it because they get good weight loss so
00:37:23
it's not a show stopper that they've taken the days to the very point where side effects of becoming significant
00:37:29
and actually if you try to control everything with what is a multiple will man system
00:37:34
and perhaps the vegas no well with the single i gave some one thing you are likely to do it
00:37:41
which is why we feel the right approach is a mixture g. l. p. one on b. y. y. which would
00:37:47
we have to get just a low level of side effects while at the same time having good way
00:37:57
try correlate
00:37:59
i am never like you see if any of these effects whether after
00:38:05
it you know i'm i'm i'm not taking them at the moment
00:38:10
a narrow uh and it's a good question
00:38:13
um it's like the micro by um there's an awful lot to study we just don't have the time to study but yes i
00:38:19
i don't really know has been shown to improve the those
00:38:23
and therefore measurements of intelligence or whether that actually
00:38:27
intelligence amelia the this is on the uh
00:38:31
um and clearly adrenalin does so it's perfectly possible uh maybe we enter in
00:38:36
years to come it will be on some intelligence people i don't know
00:38:40
it's that's the problem i think this adventure and a human pharmaceuticals too old
00:38:47
to the mind is as dangerous to society is the h. bomb
00:38:51
um in other words we could all be controlling each other in no time flat it's already bad enough having
00:38:56
angel dust and hair and what have you um but it could be much worse in the future
00:39:02
so we we here i i think
00:39:11
or three hours
00:39:23
ooh
00:39:26
the guard romans look indistinguishable within the meaning of the egg
00:39:30
because it's quite a lot of variation unfortunately one of the problems with
00:39:34
geriatrics surgeries knows surgeon and does the same procedure twice and
00:39:39
maybe two surgeons do the same procedure but completely uncontrollable and
00:39:44
we put cameras in the theatres and try and film and get them to pray does and
00:39:49
so on but the inside with doing this study at the moment it the study is
00:39:54
both measuring and also administering regular tied to people that have not
00:39:58
been quite so well to see if the easier to stop
00:40:01
um other people have done that and shane some effect it sort of intermediate is not yet caught
00:40:07
uh so it's an interesting question and but we don't have a a on on so if i was to some yes that it i'd say
00:40:14
the failure to respond was probably know due to a low release of documents that
00:40:20
we got another effect that everybody's differentially sensitive to the got home and
00:40:24
it might be that the release in an insensitive person isn't enough and you could boost it up and being insensitive they
00:40:30
wouldn't get the nausea so you know it's it's something that needs doing your it's a good question to see me
00:40:40
so uh one of the most consistent directory facts also thought
00:40:44
it is suggested to be increased protein levels and
00:40:49
it's or any relationship between i article hole and yes on my parade in
00:40:54
that you do get slightly greater increase the government i have a collie
00:40:58
because in a few starting particular amino acids and so on and one of the difficulties of course it doesn't last
00:41:05
uh and it works for about six months maybe by the end of
00:41:08
the year high protein diet is not producing any great spectrum wage
00:41:12
and so that means that it's a short term rather than the long term effect
00:41:17
uh it's it's overly difficult um my solution to obesity is actually very simple
00:41:23
uh and it could be taken up by next lay uh which is to mix a little too with food and then people it'll yes
00:41:33
that's the problem you say it's the quality of the flu um i
00:41:36
will eat a lot of chris chris it's another few saudi chris
00:41:41
um there is just the task for you for action
00:41:46
because people oh it shocks new yes not too poor job yeah well exactly um and i don't
00:41:53
plan on um and the the same is true the high protein dutch get sick of it
00:42:01
um sir is that a factor in causing weight loss i don't uh
00:42:05
it's it's a really difficult area to study there's no question but that very complicated
00:42:12
to push yourself it i i just think that it saves us
00:42:23
fact effect take off so i'm a trained endocrinology just
00:42:30
and we deal with female menstrual cycles and the sense it dies ration of the receptor is
00:42:37
actually critical for menstruation so that's one of the areas we absolutely know about it
00:42:43
i think on the other hand because we happen with other patients would you going um is
00:42:48
and p. p. produced sorry p. p. and p. y. y. producing you as
00:42:52
they don't seem to escape the two justices all enjoy l. seems and and humans don't escape
00:42:57
you die if you have guessed run about a level you don't escape that you just die
00:43:03
um you go on producing a basset so you would expect the the justice system not to wear
00:43:10
out or whatever and i think the actual and don't have down regulation more small amount
00:43:17
on like the endocrine system which depends on down regulation
00:43:24
if we look at who want according to member now
00:43:28
which she i mean she she issue i'm little
00:43:33
and i got i got you only get to me and she got me
00:43:41
who or what what what did you do you see the
00:43:49
consequences of doing more surgery on them more people
00:43:53
oh well what what he or or or do you mean off
00:43:57
to bypass a oh oh that's not yeah i well let's
00:44:01
see well the issue is a publication risque mountaineering gently that's nothing
00:44:05
to read yeah i'm looking at the twenty year follow
00:44:09
and uh it works fine i'm twelve we're well on
00:44:14
just remember that there was some longer ones one at any rate it there's no evidence of escape and there is an initial
00:44:22
fall by about eighteen months you've gone down and on the procedure but let's say you've gone down by about forty percent
00:44:29
are you then start time again and they become steady it about four years and then it stays there
00:44:35
now actually we're all getting fatter as we get older so this is
00:44:39
actually quite interesting um you gotta look at a control normal population
00:44:45
uh so that doesn't appear to be any long term escape
00:44:48
but there is a two three years readjustment whatever
00:44:54
yeah but the question is can we say to write your
00:44:59
i mean should everybody get this
00:45:01
what were considered the outcomes good people live longer
00:45:09
mm immortality the procedure yeah the mortality procedure years of our office and performing the pens
00:45:19
oh yes a lot when you come to meeting address you have you more elderly people that it
00:45:28
'cause actually you know you do live longer
00:45:32
she like
00:45:35
i'm not suggesting we should but where i
00:45:46
i i think i i i i i i i
00:46:02
i i i agree yes that would be much more useful i mean i think if you
00:46:08
went to you don't know pinks larry for twenty years you get pretty sick of it
00:46:13
so i i'd actually additive is much more practical way forward
00:46:18
but we haven't yet really identified one but theoretically there's no reason why not
00:46:23
um a specific set there's only got home and sells you could
00:46:27
find things specifically trigger them as as i my colleague
00:46:31
i'm just trying to do that and and then you could get an increase releases a tattoo mormons
00:46:36
no need to take any therapeutic you could have a new jersey tickles so to speak
00:46:43
i think it would work
00:46:48
sure well see i i i i i uh
00:46:57
oh yeah oh we are so slow show we are all up or act or actually a lot
00:47:10
i hear a structures are so take more exercise eat that's who
00:47:18
easy to say yeah well that's the the problem very politically is f.
00:47:22
d. a. m. a. x. actors not very keen on licensing
00:47:26
um obesity therapy because its head with these side effect free advice of
00:47:33
take more exercise which is independent good for you um id let it
00:47:37
so i'm i'm telling patients that all the time has a position i have
00:47:42
to look at the failures i can't just say oh this chap is
00:47:45
got not enough morals it's not my fault you really ought to obey
00:47:49
orders i see real life really obese people and i have
00:47:53
actually to be treated does that actually got that beaches are gonna do something so at that point appeal is a good idea

Share this talk: 


Conference program

Nutrition advocacy in action: the politics of sugar vs. fat
Marion Nestle, New York University, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 9:27 a.m.
Fat and carbohydrate recommendations - Have they changed?
Barbara Schneeman, University of California, Davis, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 10:14 a.m.
Promoting equitable health and wellbeing around the globe
Nancy Brown, American Heart Association, Dallas, USA
28 Sept. 2017 · 11:30 a.m.
Gut hormones and nutrition
Sir Stephen Bloom, Imperial College London, England
28 Sept. 2017 · 1:38 p.m.
Nutrition, metabolic health, cancer and NCDs
Elio Riboli, Imperial College London, England
28 Sept. 2017 · 2:27 p.m.
Infant and child nutrition and cognitive development
Wendy Oddy, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
28 Sept. 2017 · 3:51 p.m.
Microbes, metabolism and autoimmunity
Ramnik Xavier, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 9:06 a.m.
Lipid metabolism in high fructose fed humans
Luc Tappy, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
29 Sept. 2017 · 10:03 a.m.
Food, health and disease: The evidence and reporting the evidence
Dennis Bier, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 11:11 a.m.
Deeper down the rabbit hole of data, analysis, and inference errors and suggestions for digging back out
David Allison, Indiana University School of Public Health, Bloomington, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 1 p.m.
Neural circuits of food intake - is it all about calories?
Harvey Grill, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
29 Sept. 2017 · 1:55 p.m.