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sorry my presentation would talk about a specific application of each of the
style and not just a little much to start bonded with
she wanted to to provide drainage of composite material for handicapped landfill
cap in the we have been seen before that uh
this type of product can be using other part in the landfill
such as for each shape production which should the collection
but the normal yes please this is what is foreseen and it's a
load for for example now are coming over the counter this immediately
the the user would your compose it uh and the jews and
it takes is merely for scene alone only for the capping
particularly related to the capping the there is a rule that is the european uh
documented this ninety ninety nine thirty one c. e. that was dated april of nineteen ninety nine
that was dating indication about the way it capping for a landfill should be designed
he was taking a course starting with the gas spending layer that was married only for a uh mm
norman's out of those uh and as others waste is a a and not for you know the network daily
or when i mean one thickness of hard for me to with a minute maximum productivity of pantomime shaped
left official waterproof reinforce levels weighty waste is only that he's in jail membrane
what are the range layer with the minimum thickness of half a meter that should be kept go to avoid the
the development or whether read outside the damage layer itself and
on top of that a top story one meter
the is that active uh has to be taken county by county neatly this was taken by
a a glacial on the you that was a set in two thousand and three that was for we more
or less the same rules but it was quite strict because was not following in the beginning that
the use of any alternative and was dividing go into three categories landfill
has out those known as an office and you have that
the function of the capping system according to the
european and also to the national regulation i
is uh first of all to provide insulation waste is from the external environment or
control the water from the precipitation that can enter into the
landfill body but also from the the surface water
that can enter into the waste itself that's so the runoff that can come from outside
and finally to avoid the risk of subsequent and sliding going in the capping itself
the typical yeah what are these for c. enough for the three cases so it has a taco thickness that
but the ranges between two and two and a half meter
and this is something that uh immediately uh is uh
can give some and doubt about the possibility to achieve the
the third that thought that the the last task that is
the be avoiding that he's cop subsidence and sliding yeah
when you have to provide the two and a half meter of
ground larva or play material on top of the landfill
so those are the schemes that has already been discussed the but
the problem that are connected is that the those that dignity
out of uh sometimes not compatible with the geometry of the landfill
ball this particular when the landfill has been uh uh
cultivated the well before the regulation or without following any regulation
in some cases the use of natural material that is expensive or is difficult that
to be achieved because it's not available are closer to the side to
the huge quantity of not or not either these necessity to follow strictly the regulation
makes it very difficult to to get into the probably the quality control of the material
itself because having the same materials coming from the same source is almost impossible
and then guarantee that the the property seven matches before
the who landfill is almost impossible and the
this is what a russell was say in the beginning a lot of
cases the use of natural materials is not properly environmentally friendly
because uh you have uh to transport a huge amount of material
you have a cost in terms of transportation of pollution
of uh will reset that yep yep to escalate mountains you have discovered it's or you
so yeah but it be your impact or intentional over the imbibe the that you have damaging
the regulation that is not forcing the presence solve for you person date is in particular trendy
justin date is that can guarantee a reduced weight and thickness and then reducing that
the apply the stress and then reducing the risk of subservience
that was one of the aim of the landscaping
you reduce the costs for the production believe it in distillation
show you load the owner up to save some money
you can be the proven answer to for information about the the flow capacity and the drainage allay your
and you came for sure guarantee it technically equivalent solution
i mean to the financial known what to add what you need that to provide
that this type of application it is uh if you trade show no that
is achieved by age it is tied it is a low free passage a
perpendicular to the material uh preventing that the solid particles to pass so
and the drainage need human that hello free passage with dean and the thickness of the material
several type of product that available on the market with different shape it according
all the production piper but each of them at the same parr also
to intercept the water perpendicular to the layout and to drain need that would be in the late itself
so if we substitute the natural way yeah right we get
officially other for example with the first case that
for a a unit the ways that we can save a half a meter
but we could use it in the important way the way the
the reduce uh the the deduction is high uh if we consider known as
out of those sort of a week or so that has out
those weights this where the deduction is up to one meeting we passed
from two and a half meter to one and a half meter
obviously most of the clay layer can be substituted by an active usually about
this is not the topic of my discussion about this uh said before
they play can be substituted b. g. c. ed or sometimes we did you membrane
the problem is choosing the the drainage of composite that that that can be accepted
the as an equivalent material to the grammar layer that is going to substitute
and to be a set it the it has to be proven that that material
that has a easy equivalent to the to the net or the way
you that initially it that is replacing that means that can guarantee in equivalent
or whatever or gas discharge it to the materiality substituting ending case uh
of uh the water a a collection layer on top of the linings sees them
the racial composition prevented the development of what i read that the
best to guarantee the drainage of the water that can enter
into the captain system during a critical or rainfall event or
whose intensity is known from a design point of view
now the big problem easy twenty five which is the following it initially yet or
that is on this will buy these subjected to a uniform rate
only could supply because this is governed by differential equation
in the case of the landfill are normally the length uh is much bigger than the thickness oh
taking into account the beast apple shape is very
complicated very complex and is not strictly miss
sure simplified yet conservative approaches suggested ball and consisting naval waited the
maximum flow that can pass through a natural drainage layer
d. been they probably conduct the beauty of the grain and know that that energy
the natural drainage and then the really great in the offer the layer itself
so the flow rate according to the dub c. low is given by a day hydraulic
conductivity time say the area through which the flow expressing times the grainy into
if we consider one meter uh material as it always happens so we did using date except
we had the you will need the flow rate to it is given by the determined by the hydraulic conductivity
time the thickness time they're they're really great in the last i calculate these day you arrive to compare
b. is a flow rate to weed the the flow rate of the
joe compose it under the same design condition and the flow rate
of the joe compose it can be tested according to standard easy
and i saw twelve nine five eight or whether you apply
eh the joke on posey to sorry to see the arrow or it but i can see
you put a digital compose it on that i is structurally discoverable to apply vertical stress
then you apply a difference in whatever right between uh the eh
and transcend the x. it uh off the sample itself or
and you apply a steely full when the flow is is t.
v. and remains constant you measure the amount of water
then you increase the water or you change the water at the at the at the end the you've got
chapter like the one that you see on the right the bottom corner
where the where the in the y. axes they probably floor a trendy x. x. is the compress it stress
they're separate four hundred three beeps integrate into this one a point five and point
one at that correspondent was little bit or any inclination that the is that
ninety degrees and thirty degrees out about five degrees on the orders on them
this is the next day so it gives an information about the shorten performance
too but with the the long term performance of the last several
a possibility one is to for for example america's standard score g. r.
i. d. c. eight uh it was developing two thousand one no
it starts from tested that uh our uh perform uh uh for over one hundred hours
so in order to able waited at actually in the flow rate with diamond
and the ease perform after the making of that but for for banning compressing
crypt best of that should last at least ten by ten thousand however
and you calculate the effect or safety as a racial between that
yellow work flow rate tender quiet for eight or a the
allowable transmit receive it in the right person see it
yellow were bowler doesn't seem to for a pay is a calculated as the flow rate talk
presents t. v. t. after one hundred hours of test to divide it by production factor
take into account the create put that to the material can and that was but also
the chemical and or biological clock bingo that are related to the durability of
the material and the fact that the the material cannot be clogged or can added
that reduction in the possibility to do all the water to enter into it
now which is the future uh yeah they need to get the the maximum level or to the product uh
i brought a most so of the just the producer to make a big effort to develop a new
type of product that we'd be normative solution not believing in mind you need that to the discourse
so possible action out of uh mainly the that acted toward evaluation of the
global behaviour of the system and not of did you complete that one
little no it is improving the mechanical interaction between geo compose it in the other part of the
body of system in order to improve the stability or improving they product behaviour but your composite
without increasing the weight or if possible or by trying to reduce the weight itself
the first type of uh actual now i i could be
achieved by increase of the sheer resistance at the
interface between different type of material that sure compose the
torture competence so let that are uh uh
taking part of the toddler forming 'cause that that that forming a day is that the government getting sick
and those can be evaluated through labour to test the the first one is the tilting table or that comes
sees that you do boxer dapper one uh can slide
overalls uh on the over the lower one uh
i don't know what box uh is starting to the the the cost and the rate and the light
the friction anger that is that a lot of the interface that that is base exactly
eh at the contact between a bit too boxes so it is not enough and apples boxes stop the slide
the second type of test is it that she up as
the whereby you apply day interface that you want
less that between the the lower and upper boxer uh the apple boxes speaks the the and uh
in eh you need that you apply vertical this workshop the the what box set you free to more for
typical results for those type of interface that ranging between five and thirty five degrees uh
and as you can see those up best uh that uh this is coming
from by blogger everybody's a huge amount of values that are available up
you may be over fee and the normally the critical interfaces for like it being a out between
uh is with your membrane and aegean it origin in the age or you compose it that
and uh so far that tentative was the use of tax sort of membrane now with your
compulsively to feed that because this was increasing a lot of the fiction and or
in development at that was achieved the recently in the last five
years say is a consisting in creating by composite materials so
that data and material consisting in a a a
conventional high density polyethylene g. on it the
with a lady uh it's the no it could be need a city to that is extruded together
with that unit to do the the process so it's a part of that unit itself
that is ghetto to increase the fictional behaviour or the product when it is placing
contact with this new movement membrane so if we summarise the results off
uh it back component material that that the blue line on the top or both in the rhino but
conditioning we compare the value with getting table that there's two round to be around and up
five p. p. h. get these the corresponding to it these more or less
twenty five centimetre sawyer and the the share box that it is
from pink in p. a. uh in the bar vote
you can see that the for the no but there you are
the best performance is obtained by the by component that
in dry condition then that he is uh the traditional
that your compost to do that tested membrane uh
it additional uh with a texan membrane in what condition
and then the the big component in what condition
but when the search obviously is going to bother then came p.
a. get is just fifty centimetre story then the by component
has a performance that is better or small aspect to the
conventional that you're composing the with the technology membrane
if we consider that the regulation as for one with that story that you
can imagine that uh the advantage i use it immediately ab didn't
so some cases this was a case where a a a landfill over a d. a. a. x.
or state that after twenty out from the cloth lot of was having that suffering uh
manage your infiltration water due to the fact that it was
constructed following the regulations so using play in naturally or
the clay was subjected to see the or cracks of through which the whatever it was entering or
and uh it you won't ever in order to save
his nanny decided to dismantle completely the opposite partner
into place on top of the clay layer a it's
more for high density polyethylene joe membrane now
these type of joe composer and then and the the top sawyer on top of everything they place that
uh install of uh uh energy plant uh in order to
get back some of the money they were spending
another case uh that these uh uh not that important in
terms of volume uh quite interesting that for the application
was a landfill where at the axes think a geo membrane uh
ease on place was founded to have some wholesome to have some problems out
rather than taking out or the capping system and you or whatever decided to uh act only
in the portion on what i have read the material was a softening damage it
so the mighty the top story then the drainage layer
was excavated the only where the whole sweat founder
a small fight as the polyethylene membrane was a place there's a patch on top
of the eh part that that was a interested by the whole or
and uh a on top of that uh these type of ritual composite want to store
the because it was a guaranteeing a proper friction without the need to have a
encourage strange because it was not possible to be this type of strange
not the case we have to unite being yeah about the more
or less the same application us move joe membrane with
the ranger compose it the and the top of that uh h. u. matter to retain one meter of sorry
second last uh uh improvement to use the modification in the structure and in
one of the modification the polymer uh in the past the date
most widely used type of region g. on it's like
where only produced by extrusion off identity polyethylene
as other type of party messages probably probably and we're very for dry land that low temperature
this is was there because all of uh the um the shape
or or uh the problem and chainsaw for probably properly in
eh but the ones so this same type of four problematic chains uh
i have on their go again uh eh orientation on now
by a a bi directional by directionless traction go
eh the these fragility tends to be much more of a a doctor mart much more reduce that
so the strategy on it uh that there is a a
shape but of a a a train an uh
let's say capital to guarantee high drainage or was that a lot the they are very light uh
uh the yellow to be stored with the baby light uh
uh wait and just the style on top of
uh eh a special type of elimination process says to be started because the normal flame
i mean issue number was destroying completely did unit for but the whole matter that
by problem emission was the was the but the product is coupled to guarantee high
what of discharge or even with a very high pressure and the most of all is capable to guarantee
a receipt will thickness that remains well above a ninety percent oh good regional one uh
even after applying the a pressure off one and the k. p.
a. for about a five hour on the hour so anymore
is a case where a these type of product to use use
we are in that's north in thirty telling more than uh
and we can come to the conclusion that the use of drainage property or use a solution not
that he's a technically bag unsustainable are these as being conform bide thousand that
sample all over the world even before uh the regulation was coming up
the dentist systemic can be designed in order to guarantee to design added that and if we
do the landfill owners and uh at the end of the day to the entire community
the top level of quality and safety much higher than the
quality and safety that you cannot she would naturally material
the best meant the research and development uh and the consequent the pollution in production process
so that that undergoing the last the upset by almost a or they just did this producer that
coming out uh almost every yeah with the new product with new shape with new performance not
are guaranteeing the the market the cheaper and more perform material so
does a low we to reduce the cost of the works in the meantime

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Conference program

Introduction and coordination of the presentations
Daniele Cazzuffi, IGS Past President CESI SpA, Italy
6 April 2017 · 2:06 p.m.
The contribution of geotextiles to the global sustainability agenda
Russell Jones, IGS President Golder Associates, UK
6 April 2017 · 2:10 p.m.
Q&A The contribution of geotextiles to the global sustainability agenda
Russell Jones, IGS President Golder Associates, UK
6 April 2017 · 2:28 p.m.
The behavior of earthworks with geotextiles after several decades
Jean Pierre Gourc, UJF Grenoble, France
6 April 2017 · 2:31 p.m.
Q&A - The behavior of earthworks with geotextiles after several decades
Jean Pierre Gourc, UJF Grenoble, France
6 April 2017 · 2:51 p.m.
New Horizons for Nonwoven Applications in Geotextiles
Pete Stevens, Terram Solutions Sales Manager, Berry Global
6 April 2017 · 3 p.m.
The role of nonwoven geotextiles in geosynthetics and key global markets and trends
George Papagiannis, Sales & Marketing Manager Thrace Nonwovens & Geosynthetics, Greece
6 April 2017 · 3:30 p.m.
Q&A - The role of nonwoven geotextiles in geosynthetics and key global markets and trends
George Papagiannis, Sales & Marketing Manager Thrace Nonwovens & Geosynthetics, Greece
6 April 2017 · 3:38 p.m.
Correct design and proper applications of geocomposite drainage systems for landfills capping
Piergiorgio Recalcati, Technical Director Tenax SpA, Italy
6 April 2017 · 3:41 p.m.
Daniele Cazzuffi, IGS Past President CESI SpA, Italy
6 April 2017 · 4:01 p.m.

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