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well good morning everybody it's my very big pleasure to be here in geneva ah and talk about the
00:00:06
topic that is close to my heart is you have heard in the teens morgan twenty five years
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oh it is very strange if you imagine that i grew up here in double was
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um how can one occupied the whole life with air pollution there is almost no air pollution up there
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a particular not today anymore but that's how life sometimes goal was and if you ask me
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i still do remember one thing when i was a little boy in double was
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actually there were still such cards as you see here i remember whenever a
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coast man came when i was walking home up to the other
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uh and put to mean that clout i felt very embarrassed and i closed bibles
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um as a boy look like h. six or so looking back that was actually
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not a bad idea and i didn't have filters unfortunately so i just closed my nose
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ah well this is my biography here if you look might i agree from
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the exposure to air pollution perspective that's what happened in my life
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i started pretty good and moved up and up to scale of air pollution ending a couple of
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years in barcelona and then i thought lied now it's enough and i returned back to boston
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um as you do see apostle its ranking pretty well and actually even lower
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today than a few years ago and i will come back to that
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so what i would like to do with you i wanna walk you through
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these uh they're important cycle which we will call the air policy
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making cycle where we start with the problem yeah pollution exposure the
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red box moving to the question what the health effects are
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we don't stop there we wanna know what is the impact in the
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population before asking us about treatment and as you have heard originally
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i was a fixation and of course disease take evidence based maybe seen
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type of cycle uh also used in the field of medicine
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so let me walk through all these corners and uh i will start was to a
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air pollution exposure and just emphasise one very important message to all of you
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yeah pollution is march board and particles the p. and the particulate
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matter i do know you are all very interested in particles
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um given your interest in filters but that is much more and we should not forget about that
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it is a very complex mixture of gases of all that type of particles and
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if you even look at the park because there is more than just
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particles they can be distributed state can be described i size
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number mass blackness succeeded properties in many many other
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aspects characteristics and uh of course even if you look to buy this size
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oh you would probably agree there must be something with the size no matter which part because you choose even
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if you look this comparison your i would assume nobody uh would argue that
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viruses are not important not nobody would argue that bacteria are not important
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that if you have your hair in this soup you would agree with
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me that even to hear the size of particles has some relevance
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so this is the mixture of air pollution is absolutely crucial
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to measure to correct the rise what's going on
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the knee here before asking us about questions of its
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health effects this is just the example from switzerland
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this is the monitoring network of to swiss federal authority in addition
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we have many monitors around by the county auditory piece
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that is nothing else think actor rising air pollution and of course particles
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uh are characterised on filters uh which uh measure the mass
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um wait a in part of particle mass of different sizes
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well this is switzerland let me walk now a little bit further on the glow
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up i'm from this we talk about because institute it's very important that we
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actually carry out a global message and not just a local one this
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is the very unfortunate picture off the monitoring situation around the clock
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if africa for example would have an s. dance network
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of monitoring stations like switzerland there would be some
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sixty eight thousand monitoring stations distributed over does not and you see how terrible this look
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so there's enormous inequity inequity is icky topic are that will go through all my talk
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um if you for example goat to akron inaccurate colleagues of mine
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have done a very nice started to i'm just stands
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exposure to particles for example and other pollutants within the city of factor so what
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they did they were just walking in the c. d. along a trail
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uh not even long distance and they measured pollution and look at this
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these are the callers highlighting the level of particles p. n. two point five particles
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up to two point five my crummy present you see these range you could
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walk no matter where in genie mind would never get such high levels in our
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current depending on where you are on which corner of the c. d. you
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are you can be exposed to extremely high levels of particles i think today
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the level of particular yesterday and you knew i was around twenty years
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so where do is the particle come from air pollution come from
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they try to estimate the sources and you see these
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diversity of sources in a city like macro this is totally
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different from here many people are trash out burning trash
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a traffic of course all over the world basically source of air pollution
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of local pollution and general pollution but of wood and coal burning
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in our crap it's relevant it's not relevant here and we are currently doing a study impair on another major
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city with huge problems in air pollution so my p. h. d. student has done a lot of measurement
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supported by the local authorities these days benzene benzene is not a big issue
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here in geneva it is one as we have figured out in
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in data so they're very very high levels of these very nasty carcinogen
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of course the next step is to model their pollution so you don't
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only measure today you can model air pollution for very large
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areas based on a few measurements to understand that whole scale of
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to distill she let me move to the house effects
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so what does that mean air pollution effects on well i would distinguish too big domains
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because the whole research and also it actually the the evaluation and valuation and
00:06:48
uh impact assessment if there's a cute defects and long term effects if you look into the acute effects
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it's very clear what i mean was it these these are the effects
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of today's er yesterday said pollution on my house today or tomorrow
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so this is an immediate effect and i can tell you this is just one example
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of two time series of data the time series of the blue line attests
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in any seat in the word the reddish line or particle
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concentrations on a daily level and there have been hundreds
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probably so when even thousands of studies done all over the word and they always see and uh and
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conclude this same as hard because as air pollution as an o. two when others go up
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best rates go up it's about one to two percent for every ten micrograms per
00:07:39
cubic meter increase in the daily level of p. m. that mortality goes up
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seen again and again of course this cannot be the only tells the story
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if that was the only thing you would see would actually very much about this
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data but there are many many many other studies that have shown of course
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it's not only about they have some people will not not able to type a health problem they will
00:08:04
end up in the hospital the hospital iteration the rates go up as air pollution goes up
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cardiovascular problems my cotton in functions go up as air pollution goes
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up throw goes up every it's me out blot flopping
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et cetera a lot of respiratory disease problems you're just increasing as a permission increase
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well actually wary about a nice example of such a study this study
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is pretty unique it has been done with this max so this is not
00:08:31
exactly invited in london to participate in the study they were invited to
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more kinda hyde park i'm sure most of you know where to
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hide parties you defer layer and the midst of london
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they had also to work for two hours in the oxford street oxford
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street to street canyon at that time still a lot of
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a boss is actually diesel buses traffic a very very dense traffic
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a very to the place compared to the hyde park so at the if
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oxford street air pollutants wording that study period some three to six times
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higher depending on which market you would measures so very high
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level of air pollution compared to the hyde park and you see
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here what they observed among other things if this magic hat
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the last part of the long function which is normally if you walk out on
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that exposure at oxford street is lost in long function was much more serious
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then walking into hyde park and most surprisingly it would go
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on and on and on unfortunately the experiments stopped up
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to seven after seven hours because they did not anticipate that is consequences of this air pollution exposure would
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go and last for so long so what does that mean for an asthmatic well and
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that's my take walking through a place ah during rush hour like uh like to
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uh oxford street and many others uh although the pro with the word it would
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stuff they would feel reduction in their lawn function they may need more medication and it's
00:10:02
definitely not what you like to see it says rescission pneumonia patients with nasa
00:10:10
so let me move to the long term effects longterm effects what is that
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well this is now the big question does it matter where i leaf
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four years does it matter whether i'd grow up in the woods versus los angeles
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lifetime exposure well having you all here in switzerland of course i have to mention uh one of their
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famous worldwide famous studies initiated twenty five years ago almost thirty years ago
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in switzerland this we start the on air pollution in long and heart disease
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in about a led by professor nicole props that our institute in boston
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the study is still all wrong going on and what you
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see here is the map of switzerland colours of particles
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and the eight centres that have participated and we have followed up these people over
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the last thirty years now and uh followed up in measure to help us
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and we have assigned stay home outdoor air pollution to everybody to
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understand how this relates to all kinds of health problems
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let me just show one single example over is well there are many out this but this
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is a very interesting one because what we also measured his lawn function objectively measured
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a measure of health and the most interesting fun factor of long
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function easy does a very strong determinant of life expect
00:11:29
so it's not just about the health of the long but it is really a market of general helps
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what we have seen is the loss of non function which is nothing else then the
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speed of a chain getting older the loss of long function
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depended on the home out the reportage so people living at the residential place with higher pollution
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they have lost belong function faster than the with leaving clean the places and that's
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good news for those who leave you clean the places and bad news for the others
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let me move to another place where i have lived for a couple of years diseases angeles
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a famous for air pollution research um this is a talk psychological studies my colleague from the u. c. l.
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a. to have moved they're allowed to the skyway which is one of the spam is terrible places
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half a million cars per day running so they have expose their mice to long
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term exposure from the mice perspective that is a long term exposure model
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and the mesh shirts the development of after school roses and they were inhaling the air from the
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highway of course some mice would get filters to hear others would only received fine particles
00:12:42
other mice with only received the altar find that what you see here is these particles in
00:12:46
particular also the outer finds table cause really related to the development of adaptors to roses
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the classification of arteries the stiffness the thickness of arteries so this is
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a very important talks ecological finding and actually while i
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was in los angeles i've initiated research line
00:13:05
on investigating the same inhale men's so why is this a possible to do in humans
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ah well in a very nice feature about as close as is shown in this graph here so up here you have a normal
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artery and the more you go down to more see we're is the actors for roses what you see here is development
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happens mostly in the will of the artery and arteries corrode take how
00:13:28
to fight our to get sicker and sicker and stiffer and stiffer
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and at the end of course down here there's a higher risk that
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it will pop up and tell people suffer for example a cardiovascular
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event like a marketing function so the thickness of the artery wall can be measured
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non invasive fleas on a graphically and that is very nice so i have you start is uh in the
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us and actually others have then followed as well and i shall we just one famous example from germany
00:13:57
this very nice hides next or study they have observed that the
00:14:01
sickness of the artery the stiffness of the article suffocation
00:14:05
depends on your home outdoor label of air pollution of particles
00:14:09
in two point five you see here it's arranging
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in the range which is typical now also in switzerland so the more pollution you have the thicker are
00:14:17
the arteries and that means the more likely it
00:14:20
be steady develop actually cardiovascular diseases real diseases
00:14:27
um oh well cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of moby dick
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this on a global scale not only in the west
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and of course people with these diseases they tends to also die earlier
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the mortality life expectancy is the ultimate way of measuring the
00:14:47
effect of air pollution and there are many many studies
00:14:50
looking to stay metallic i just wanna emphasise one because it's one from europe
00:14:55
uh where we have also participated it is a huge one b. s. cape consort you mess
00:15:00
used a lot of studies including this we start is this apology study indeed
00:15:05
and we have looked into how people would die out of those school works or
00:15:10
would be used depending on the home out the label of air pollution
00:15:14
and guess what we have seen what others have seen in the u. s. cannot that other places with
00:15:20
every increase in the whole mouth or particle find particle concentrations
00:15:25
for five micrograms mortality would go up seven percent
00:15:30
and most interestingly because escape was such a huge studied either i it
00:15:34
to focus only on those people who lived in the cleanest place
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which means people who left at the place of the residence with less than twenty micrograms per cubic
00:15:45
meter on the end will mean yeah so this is on a global scale this is low
00:15:51
more than two hundred thousand people and we have seen exactly the same associations which is one of the many
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studies meanwhile actually show there is no threshold of no
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effect the higher air pollution the more people stuff
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well if you wanna go into summarising all the health effects i
00:16:13
can um advise you to reach for example these paper
00:16:16
uh this is somebody an overview on the adverse effects of air pollution there many others
00:16:21
might very last slide shows you the link to report that we have written
00:16:25
a few years ago so this is the ever longer and longer released of
00:16:29
health effects that have been shown to be related to and didn't approach
00:16:36
so you see this list is very long and you see that interesting actually
00:16:41
findings like diabetes disease only since a few years that people have
00:16:46
figured out that even diabetes metabolic diseases relate them to their pollution
00:16:51
including this we study on a present long disease has observed that so
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this is very interesting we haven't thought about that twenty years ago
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but meanwhile we understand much more also about the
00:17:01
many pathways that link air pollution with diseases
00:17:05
so one for example are inflammatory pass phrase inflammation and of course
00:17:10
it's important for many many chronic diseases and that's why these least gets longer and longer
00:17:15
and actually look smaller more similar to the least to be no since many years about the health effects of smoking
00:17:21
which is not a big surprise because in fact it's also combustion and
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their toxic cans in the smoke of the tobacco are similar
00:17:29
to what you see in the n. b. in there with the only important difference is that if you smoke you expose yourself
00:17:36
many fold times higher than with n. b. c. at least in the west and how
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well so this is what we can conclude there are many many effects now
00:17:49
described and you would see to quantify d. link between air pollution
00:17:53
and those effects but the question is of course is this important just is relevant
00:18:00
and you can imagine it reality like in all other signs in the last twenty for
00:18:04
five years you have made a huge progress in detecting smaller and smaller effects
00:18:10
so the question whether this is relevant or not is absolutely crucial
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so how can you do that the question is what is the
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burden of disease of mortality that is attributable to air pollution
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and this is a question we actually half lounge to develop the methods in switzerland
00:18:29
uh a couple of well almost twenty years ago and very
00:18:32
interesting story in fact it was dismissed government to asked
00:18:36
us when we did this about this study what could be allowed tell us how important that these for switzerland
00:18:43
what is the impact of traffic related their pollution on the hell's
00:18:46
in switzerland light that they wanna know that in the nineties
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they wanted to know that because switzerland tried to move
00:18:54
into that direction of internalise thing big external cost of pollution
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so they wanted to change the transit she's of the heavy duty
00:19:06
traffic screw switzerland based on the consequences of that traffic
00:19:11
and they included costs related to air pollution many other factors related to trap
00:19:17
so he asked this question of course you need to know what's the impact we have developed this method
00:19:21
and these were the famous numbers that have travelled around the word
00:19:26
aboard and with what we anticipated yes some forty thousand
00:19:29
test every year on it to be double to air pollution at that time at least in austria france and switzerland
00:19:35
it must be a little bit less today but these methods that we have developed have actually
00:19:41
initially the encrypted size and finally people agreed that this is the way to do it and it's still
00:19:47
done today on a very global scale you see many many studies we have assessed the impact
00:19:53
very soon one most interesting one is the word bank report on the cost of
00:19:57
air pollution so if you can quantify the impact on hell's and mortality
00:20:03
with the help of economists you also can quantified related costs
00:20:08
and that's what uh the world bank recently date
00:20:11
e. p. a. in the u. s. and other agencies and as mentioned in switzerland they
00:20:15
have done that before and the us has concluded also already many years ago that
00:20:21
investment in clean air are very much worth because that then each of
00:20:27
polluted air on the health system is about fourteen times
00:20:31
larger than the costs of investing in clean airports
00:20:36
so word bank report what do they conclude
00:20:39
ninety three percent of the attributable problems
00:20:43
r. o. q. ring in the developing countries so that is a terrible
00:20:48
conclusion and shows again this incredible iniquity children on the five
00:20:54
our sixty times more likely to die from air pollution
00:20:59
in the lower income count to stand what they are in our uh accountancy
00:21:04
non health effect of air pollution are very serious economic development quality of
00:21:09
life productive labour goes down income goes down productivity is affected
00:21:14
and of course it makes in general cities lex attractive and
00:21:17
uh of course this has also implications even on tourism
00:21:24
so all this is the map from mortals as mentioned many
00:21:29
places lack measurements station so there has been models have
00:21:33
been developed on a global scale so you see here these
00:21:36
dark colours show you where the biggest problems are
00:21:40
that's the end will average of particles and gases the basis
00:21:44
of these cost assessment of the word bank report
00:21:48
so these iniquity is very clear and actually if you look into the global burden of disease
00:21:54
he did we look if you go to each and every county you would figure out that air
00:21:58
pollution and this is the combination of indoor and
00:22:00
outdoor which is all combustion is the leading
00:22:05
risk factor in all those counters and it's the second
00:22:10
leading the risk factors um in the other cultures
00:22:15
and the third leading risk factor again invisible and and as you see these these
00:22:20
all the global south is not is saying the rest encountering on that list
00:22:27
actually the word bank reports is in mining so they relate to damage and
00:22:34
relation to the gross domestic product and you see this is very serious like almost eight
00:22:38
percent of the g. d. p. is lost into air pollution in east asia specifics
00:22:45
um of course it's lower in europe but still substantial
00:22:49
and a south asia you see very very high
00:22:52
contribution of air pollution to the last two an economic loss in these counties
00:22:58
and you see here does bars compare the household indoor air pollution combustion
00:23:04
for cooking and the end in one and in some regions
00:23:08
of the world household is more important than others definitely
00:23:11
not like in europe of course the combustion indoors is not an issue uh on the other eleven one
00:23:18
so well i hope i've convinced you that the burden related to air pollution is
00:23:24
serious so i'll ways that that knows is it is time to talk about the treatment
00:23:30
what should we do and of course what we should do it's about all this
00:23:36
and yes i'm sure you wait to hear from me that it is about filters arm
00:23:44
filters yes i totally agree that play a role but i
00:23:49
want to highlight this message of temple ground in
00:23:54
she was a famous or she's a famous um veterinarian protector of animals
00:24:00
actually and she works a lot and lobbies a lot for autism
00:24:05
i think the sentence is important to put here people are always
00:24:08
looking for dissing a magic bullet it will totally change everything
00:24:12
but there is no single magic bullet and one emphasise that he
00:24:16
because in my field of a pollution i tell you
00:24:19
each and every pollutant each and every probably see each and every health effect has a low b.
00:24:26
oh so some people just talk about they are saying that you should single problem entity if that is
00:24:32
the magic bullet and they believe that is the solution a
00:24:36
disease that wrong concept i just show you one restart
00:24:40
to put that message in one single example in the context because the study has just come out last week
00:24:47
again a large courting taiwan have followed up people to look how they develop
00:24:53
lost in kidney function kidney diseases are very important as well and they
00:24:58
have shown that the whole outdoor air pollution is again associated with
00:25:02
the loss of kit a function that is kind of a new are finding it was not on my to do list before
00:25:08
but it was not everything not all types of pollution home outdoors they have seen a clear association
00:25:14
significant with p. m. ten and with the course fraction of particles
00:25:19
it was not related with the smallest for parking with p. two point five
00:25:23
or we stood at this is just one example or many others
00:25:27
well you can always say well wait a minute there is more work
00:25:30
then you're particle or you were gas or your wallet tiles many
00:25:36
pass the ways in fact and many pollutants combining different pathways of effect
00:25:43
a result ultimately in very complex diseases more beat it is
00:25:49
and that's true also given that we have many many sources
00:25:54
well i mean actually fit talk about diseases look at this why
00:25:58
why does it even make sense that for example particles
00:26:02
are not just black and white well if you look how what happens if we inhale a particle
00:26:07
that if these deep you should how these particles peep hand on depending on their size
00:26:13
and it's not black whites there is the distribution so you see in
00:26:16
the tall grass sick to position which for some diseases is important
00:26:20
uh has two peaks so the very small ones but also
00:26:23
the bigger once they are very well deposits down the
00:26:27
others are more efficiently exhaled and of course depending on where you deported part because there
00:26:33
are different mac mechanisms in well so this is not the black and white
00:26:37
uh effect and there is not a black and white if it's coming to sources
00:26:41
so if you combine all that effects the pollutants to sources of course
00:26:46
the policy cannot be a black and white and yes and no need
00:26:51
so what my real messages we talk about symphonies it's to see if any of clean apple we see
00:27:00
air pollution isn't orchestral of complex pollutants course
00:27:04
by many sources the health effects
00:27:06
are excellent orchestrated by many past wait you know there are also some
00:27:11
toxicologist of physicians to believe only in one passed away and if you don't show
00:27:16
the pollution being associated with that passed away they don't believe distorted no
00:27:21
biology is far more complex there are many many pass wait actually to even get
00:27:26
the same disease even hence is not one pathway that results in kent
00:27:31
costing actions of course people are different not everybody reacted the same
00:27:36
way on the inhalation of tobacco smoke or of air pollution
00:27:40
and actually you all know these famous examples of home video old
00:27:43
people have smoked a whole life yes people are different
00:27:48
so the hosting actions is more is orchestrated by multiple modify in fact
00:27:53
and therefore we have an orchestration of clean up all this is that the
00:27:57
two neat and it must be tailored to the local situations and source
00:28:03
so this is the simple policy framework and of course it's application is less than simple
00:28:11
recreation on the level of emissions is very crucial
00:28:17
second important part is to set very clear science based
00:28:22
air quality standards so the government should be fine
00:28:26
how air pollution air quality should be in the c. d.
00:28:32
and then of course you have to define and you have to implement the locally tailored
00:28:37
management plans at that is complex that is not
00:28:40
easy it involves many sectors many departments usually
00:28:44
a transport urban planners and others and implementation of course of those plans is even more
00:28:51
difficult than defining the planes but these are the steps and of course you
00:28:56
from the filter perspective you must be very interested in the very first one
00:29:01
to some extent in the second one if it's about money touring but uh of
00:29:04
course emissions emission control is very crucial and in our regions that costs
00:29:11
twenty years of course we must talk about traffic traffic is essential that they
00:29:18
really important source and it's not only important because of the mass
00:29:22
but also because of the proximity of traffic to people compared to industries which
00:29:28
tends to be ah class that i'm very often outside c. d.'s
00:29:33
traffic is among us it's in the middle where people if and state
00:29:40
so in missions must be controlled at the source and in fact
00:29:45
all particles i mean it shows should stop and not
00:29:48
even only part because most of the gases have to be put in question is very clear that play a role
00:29:55
and actually what's coming out he plays a role in the atmosphere in the
00:30:00
building of secondary pollutants which are again the source of health
00:30:06
so yes please regulate the emissions and yes
00:30:10
of course filters are one element
00:30:13
of that about it's not the only one and in fact on
00:30:19
uh highlighting here pay but that also just came out uh uh
00:30:22
this week i think there is a place also for filters
00:30:29
that's the mask and i have to say we from a rest in perspective for years we have totally new what's that
00:30:35
because we're actually fundamentally disagree to promote peace as a solution
00:30:41
and uh if you reach this uh there was an interview with me and others about a new
00:30:46
study that was done in china this new study has very beautifully shown that in fact
00:30:53
having such masks it's das have an impact the benefit
00:30:58
on some of the health effects so it is true that in the extreme
00:31:03
exposure situation of the terrible c. d.'s mega cities in the
00:31:07
south of this word yes with filters you can
00:31:13
re to use some of these health effects not all of them and not entirely and of
00:31:18
course our message has always been this is not this solution dissolution is at the source
00:31:25
we must take care of and in their part and that's what i'm saying indeed to view of course
00:31:30
i fully agree there must be a science to show if you wear a field but is it working how is it working
00:31:37
and which filters are working and of course if some feel does do work
00:31:41
people have the right to protect himself rather than to hope that the government's make a
00:31:46
change in the end in there that will happen maybe twenty years from now
00:31:51
so there is of course a very difficult discussion how to deal with individual and with this site
00:31:58
emission control must go beyond filters are is to maybe
00:32:02
you all know do regulation the euro six standards
00:32:07
very nice and moves to work cleaning clearing the cars but of course
00:32:11
and i heard yesterday you had that big talk here as well
00:32:15
yes zero emission mobility and i'm sorry to say that this doesn't
00:32:19
look like a business model for the filtering does three but
00:32:23
yes future some future cars uh will not be
00:32:27
pays them compassion anymore at all but it
00:32:30
mentioned also urban planning verbal plan is our key partners if it's about air pollution
00:32:36
and and other environmental effects fuel quality fair trade
00:32:41
are very important levels uh issues in
00:32:44
policy making and i want to really emphasise an example on this shoot quality
00:32:49
which is a very important current example on a global scale just to show you again
00:32:54
where we are in terms of iniquity and where there is still a lot to do
00:33:00
so what this map shows is the distribution of the national
00:33:05
standards of sulphur content that is permitted to be
00:33:10
in diesel so these are the governments who have set the standards and you see these shoots range
00:33:16
not only in colour spot in the p. p. and so in switzerland we are below ten it yeah
00:33:22
if you move up here there are some counties will officially allow
00:33:25
more than two thousand p. p. m. south or in diesel
00:33:31
that is a very very bad because of course diseases source a very nasty air pollution
00:33:38
cell where what's happening here is really another message to the industry
00:33:45
a very interesting study has figured out ways intensive research
00:33:48
over three years the importance of three straight years
00:33:53
uh in this business by taking in africa they're responsible for
00:33:57
thirty five percent of the worldwide oil and fuel traits
00:34:00
yeah they had a very strongly involved in africa this we straight
00:34:04
as a whole in fact the full chain from the crude
00:34:07
oil to very fine there is the production storage of diesel and to selling in the gas stations enough to sell
00:34:14
that sounds like fantastic that's suisse traders who have access to all
00:34:19
these beautiful technologies owned this whole chain that sounds like
00:34:23
a great business model for environmentally sustainable way of doing business
00:34:29
well guess what what they do is unfortunately very different
00:34:34
they buy this actually clean oil from africa one of the cleanest or else is coming
00:34:40
from africa they sell it to your because they don't have their own refineries
00:34:44
your three straight as and others what they do day makes a bland
00:34:50
the word wild or else they blend them and put them
00:34:54
at different levels of quality depending on the local regulation
00:34:58
and what they sell to what did industries calling the african
00:35:02
quality is to they're just be easily in the world
00:35:06
absolutely horrible what stable and here they sell it back this these who
00:35:11
has a more than three thousand p. p. m. actually eighty
00:35:15
percent of the of the gas station sell these little uh with more than one thousand p. p. m. in i think
00:35:22
suisse traders uh do that in africa of course they could never do that in switzerland
00:35:27
so you see here these are the results of samples taken in africa at the gas station
00:35:33
so this is not as to read this is the reality so in maui on one
00:35:37
station three two thousand seven hundred and eighty p. p. and sulphur in these these
00:35:44
well i hope you agree that something is very wrong here disposal mouthpieces a business model
00:35:52
and of course the consequences are very clear if you then go to air pollution
00:35:56
a mortal steve's estimates of air pollution in different cities
00:36:00
in africa here no wonder that does make
00:36:03
us it does have a huge problem in air pollution given these very very dirty arm
00:36:10
the usual that he sold their traffic as you do knowing the
00:36:13
seed disease anyway nightmare because urban planning is not ready for
00:36:18
for swallowing be huge amount of traffic they here they actually get our
00:36:24
old cars that are sold to africa because they are not
00:36:28
uh legally uh allowed anymore on our street so
00:36:32
there is a whole range of uh inequity
00:36:35
around to deal which causes the c. d. to be terribly polluted and
00:36:41
of course as you have heard before this is a direct
00:36:43
cost of mortality and morbidity in these cities
00:36:49
so do we um global uh the world bank as estimated actually what the costs
00:36:55
would be two souls these problematic stores and you see this is actually
00:37:03
they're interesting first of all the costs on the diesel would be very load additional costs on
00:37:09
selling clean diesel in the way we do in europe and actually they would say if
00:37:14
within ten years a huge amount of money in the sub
00:37:18
saharan african if this policy would have been done
00:37:22
and you see this is a very simple policy the government can seem pretty side by january
00:37:27
next year old these lead all gas station should be as clean as in switzerland
00:37:33
the technologies they i mean it's not the problem to do it
00:37:37
and in fact that that's the good news berlin began around that and then the out on that
00:37:42
two thousand fifteen they have taken this decision and actually that's the
00:37:46
other good thing this very interesting report of these n. g.
00:37:50
o. d. c.s n. g. o. has resulted in a few african
00:37:54
it's a government taking that decision very recently as well
00:37:58
so it has moved actually the agenda because you can imagine this report has
00:38:03
created a very very big fast in use african counties who are
00:38:07
of course a very very disappointed to see how these businesses organise
00:38:12
regulation of ending concentrations is to other make very
00:38:17
important element of doing the right policy
00:38:21
the w. h. o. is leading forty works uh the reckon they're reviewing of
00:38:26
the whole literature on health effects of air pollution and based on that
00:38:31
it provides guidelines to all counters in saying what's the
00:38:37
levels should be w. h. o. unfortunately cannot put
00:38:42
values as a regulation that's the government's right to do that but they can
00:38:46
right these guidelines and actually right now we are updating the guidelines
00:38:51
again for to publish them uh maybe in two three years to
00:38:55
new version but even the old ones have been very clear
00:38:58
how air pollution should be regulated if you take this science serious
00:39:04
and if you take it serious that people should be protected from adverse health effects okay
00:39:09
so i just show you the one example here um p. m. ten
00:39:14
w. h. o. safety and will mean should not be higher than twenty micrograms per cubic meter
00:39:19
and you see here to very few counter is it's about nine not even ten pound choose who
00:39:26
have this value in their local regulation or a very similar ready
00:39:33
and the rest of the words in you'll be science uh take a sad of course euro as i have
00:39:40
shown you before europe has invested a lot in science in showing the evidence of peace out effect
00:39:45
but on the government side terrible yeah so they have all these counter is uh
00:39:51
who block the right policies very active against the right policies has in germany
00:39:56
and the netherlands and uh of course eastern europeans are very happy to not see more stringent
00:40:02
um uh regulations as well this is simply wrong this is against a protection of peoples well
00:40:09
and you see actually hid the sad situation on the global scale we have just published a
00:40:14
paper i'm ready recently looking into the worldwide situation
00:40:18
of regulation that this is a sobering
00:40:21
you see here for example in africa all only if third of the counties have even
00:40:28
at least one the regulation for one pollutant at the
00:40:32
whole majority of counties have absolutely zero regulation
00:40:39
so there is a lot to do
00:40:42
ah well if you go online or into the paper you would see
00:40:45
the distribution of these regulations how they comply with the proposed values
00:40:50
um i'll show u. p. n. ten and p. m. two point five because some counties regulate either one uh which is uh
00:40:57
also an option which is not too bad so you see here there are some counties green
00:41:01
or yellow but the vast majority have a real serious problem that a good age
00:41:06
and why do i emphasise that i mean i would not sell you regulation if he's would not work
00:41:12
but there is there is strong evidence on a global scale that it
00:41:16
doesn't work it works very well this is los angeles famous
00:41:20
smoke c. d. of the last century today is clean that in many european cities
00:41:27
today people know that belief surrounded by beautiful mountains i've seen
00:41:32
them almost every day when i was driving to my
00:41:35
a workplace in l. a. forty years ago people would not even know that there are mount
00:41:40
the same is true for switzerland you see this development in switzerland some belief
00:41:46
that the air pollution is the price to pay for economic development
00:41:50
it's total nonsense uh just as a reminder the g. d.
00:41:54
p. gross domestic product in switzerland has developed a very
00:41:57
well over the past twenty five years i don't think we can talk about having an economic disaster in crises
00:42:04
basically kilometres have grown up has one indicator of
00:42:08
people getting better at wealthier and wealthier
00:42:13
but told me this connection from emissions yeah i know x. one example
00:42:18
has gone down drastically i could show you the levels of particles of other pollute
00:42:23
drastic decline air pollution is getting lower and lower air quality is getting
00:42:29
better and better actually in all waste encounters not only in switzerland
00:42:34
so it's just proof of what and emphasising eek works
00:42:39
and it's worth doing because doing that is much cheaper than not doing it economically
00:42:48
well i could say well it's great that switzerland but i have shown you
00:42:51
before the big problem actually is that even the western in this three
00:42:58
acts and we have societies actually we are part of the problem
00:43:03
so this is shows just one side of the story but
00:43:05
what has happened a disease also he didn't hear switzerland and
00:43:09
all the western counties have outsourced pollution to other places
00:43:14
and and they have a nice paper just came out this week in nature i wanna emphasise it here they have
00:43:20
evaluated the burden of mortality of disease
00:43:26
duo to consumption and production in your count three and
00:43:32
all over the glow about just wanna emphasise too critical statements western europe and the us
00:43:39
in all those regions directive look that they are the only regions who cost substantially
00:43:44
higher air pollution in other counters to accommodate their own consumption in there from
00:43:52
and on the other side china india and asia they take the highest share of
00:43:58
air pollution for the production of the quotes that are consumed in other counties
00:44:06
so i would hope you understand um and that there is a neat
00:44:10
for change because what actually happened that's a consequence of that over the last
00:44:15
twenty five years to clean places get clean air and clean or
00:44:18
and polluted places get more and more clued so in some i want to emphasise and summarise
00:44:24
there has been enormous progress we do understand very well the
00:44:29
problem we know it's effects on but the research
00:44:34
policy making measurements monitoring are very an equally distributed over the world
00:44:40
and um it's a very clear duty for the citizens and the policymakers and for the industry
00:44:46
support more equitable way of approaching the problem and the solutions because the solutions are the

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Conference Program

Introduction
Joerg Sievert, COO, Freudenberg Filtration Technologies
5 April 2017 · 9:14 a.m.
Air Pollution and Health: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy-makers, Citizens, and the Industry
Nino Künzli, Deputy Director Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
5 April 2017 · 9:17 a.m.
2,726 views
Q&A - Air Pollution and Health: Challenges and Opportunities for Policy-makers, Citizens, and the Industry
Nino Künzli, Deputy Director Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
5 April 2017 · 10:02 a.m.

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