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You're sick eyes is very proud toward
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the social impact award to we should
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feel and which is a professor of
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computer science and the chair of
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information science at the university
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of Colorado wood older. Um and I wanted
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to say just a little bit about the
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social impact award when I looked at
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the definition of this award it said
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it's given to individuals to promote
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the application of human computer
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interaction research to pressing social
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needs and I thought that combination of
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applying original research to pressing
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social needs was I really apt
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description of relations contributions
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where she's done great research in the
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area of crisis informatics a field that
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deals roughly I'm legislation define it
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in great detail it deals with how
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people use information communications
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technology to deal with crises in what
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could be more of a pressing need in
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that so please join me in welcoming
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mention Hi everyone thinks line things
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that I really for this award as you
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will see in this talk the inroads that
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we have made in this area area are the
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result of many many hands. So I'd like
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to begin by offering my simple working
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definition of what races informatics is
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Chris informatics is the study of
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information communication technology in
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relation to actual or potential mass
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emergencies with a particular focus on
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the role of social computing in such
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situations now it's a social media is
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one large classes social computing
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technology and its advance has brought
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major attention to the nature of large
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social movements which include disaster
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response that we don't often think of
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disasters in quite that way either
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working on developing this field for
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the past decade starting just after the
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December two thousand and four indian
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ocean tsunami before hurricane Catriona
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hit in the US that falling August
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mobile phone diffusion was finally
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highly in the US after lagging behind
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the rest of the world. But the US still
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did not a recent data services so in
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the US we were not texting believe it
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or not still in two thousand and five
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not not greatly the very first camera
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phones were making their appearance in
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the summer of two thousand five but
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again this was happening outside the US
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and the world over there was very
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little in the way of social media in
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the way we think of it today and we did
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not have that term available to us at
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the stage was set for significant
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change after having worked in the area
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of mobile telephony and social
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computing in a range of what we call
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everyday environment is you know I
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began to wonder what could be possible
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when there was a collective turn to a
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set of time and safety critical needs
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in what situation for the very idea of
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collaborative technology you put to the
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test more so than during the massive
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social disruption of disaster events
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Catriona came along and started showing
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a west ass what that could mean for
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that I spent that spring semester
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camped out in the university of
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Colorado natural hazards library so
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looking for the conceptual theoretical
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and methodological connections between
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our home field of human computer
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interaction my other home field of
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computer supported corporate of work
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and social computing with what is a
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rich social science literature on
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collective action social convergence in
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relation to disaster. So what I'd like
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to do is talk is accomplished a couple
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of things a little too formally is
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outline the field of christ's
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informatics as I see it today really
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kind of you know from my point of view
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but trying to imagine the concerns of
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many but I want to do that by way of
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telling the story of how it came about
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through collaboration. I include this
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is part of the account not just because
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acknowledging the contributions of
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others is the right thing to do of
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course but because I think I'd like to
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have you consider how the
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diversification of skill sets had
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direct bearing on this field scores
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sent to whatever extent it has achieved
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it to its success. So let's see you.
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This workgroup from one investigator
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basically too soon after my very first
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group of graduate students and you will
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know these folks and see reviewing is
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here I don't know if she ended up there
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she and that and these these folks are
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now at universities and research
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institutes and government agencies of
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their own doing some terrific work
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expanding this work even for their in
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nine in two thousand nine a large NSF
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grant expanded and intellectually
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diversified faculty base it see you. Um
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as well as with the our partner
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university of California remind with
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queer mark how many of you will know
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but other than Gloria these we're not
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HCI faculty these were people in our
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people in computational linguistics a
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point sharing telecom policy and so on.
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And then more students including join
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white movies think tennessee's work all
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also be talking about today who are
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getting ready to graduate shortly and
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the menu students were affiliated with
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these other faculty themselves to are
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intellectually diverse as all people
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are but I would like to make the point
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that I found I have found that these
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are students have come from a range of
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disciplines in their bachelor's or
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master's degrees sticks come work in
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this area and I think that's really has
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led to the richness and I think the
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broader impact of the work new club
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faculty collaborations of the last two
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years have further diversified our
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portfolio if you will with colleagues
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in civil engineering communication
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environmental design and what the
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national centre for atmospheric
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research with meteorologist you're all
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just to themselves are trained as also
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trying to social sciences and then I
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have to recognise two of our colleagues
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that you will know from the kite
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community I mean there's Ascii and
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Alexander source that could impose
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talking with a grip over these ten
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years. And that he was waving people
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working in this area our our traffic
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set of PHD students including two who
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are here at high this week Melissa
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because and rubber so and then rubber
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said will be speaking later on Thursday
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I'll tell you more a little bit about
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that so you can have the opportunity
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attend attend that talk as well. And so
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you can see this is the real
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correlation of effort across
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disciplines a lot of cross disciplinary
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advising interaction and cooperation.
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But I think has been an important part
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of this account. So together we had
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publisher and study research on events
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utterly events listed here in this
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rough time line and collected data on
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many others social media data basically
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but other data kind as well. And if and
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we've of course a published across
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events as well we theorise about issues
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that are driven by events alone. And in
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total are group has produced over
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seventy papers dissertations and MSI
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thesis documents in this deck in this
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time frame which I'm really proud of
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and we've had a commitment to making
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this work available to a very very wide
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audience which is mostly good but
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actually introduces some concerns that
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we have to think about how we think
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about what what happens when our
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research can have impact on talk about
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that and just a second including as
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well a very large practitioner audience
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in this again as I think a central
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objective in our in our research the
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development of this new area would not
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have happened without the generous
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support of the US national science
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foundation and it's here again that I'd
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like to make the point that the
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diversification beyond HCI allowed for
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the diversification of grants forces
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that then was able to find that work
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and then became cut this virtuous
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cycle. So we've been able to seek not
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just funding from the computer science
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directorate which in the American
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context is where much HCI research is
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funded but also in the engineering
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directorate and in the geo spacing
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geotechnical director it's and so
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because this problem as you can imagine
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is is pretty cross kind cut cutting and
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so again I I just want to state how
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valuable this is into building and
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sustaining momentum to allow us to
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really drive in a dedicated fashion
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towards a topic that I think I think
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deserves deserves that kind of
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attention and and having that kind of
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reach and I I reflect what's happened I
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see how the HCI sensibility plated
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persisted role in all of this even
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though there has been a great deal of
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specialised leadership across are group
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and across time and give me pause
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because I often think that the role and
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I'm speaking a little bit I'm speaking
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for myself and I'm really pretty happy
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projecting a little bit on to you but I
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think it's fair to say that many of us
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often feel that HCI when we're trying
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to collaborate on large far reaching
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projects it's often tacked on as kind
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of something that in service to others
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I think this happens a both research
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and industry and I think perhaps in
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resistance to that sometimes we find it
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easier to collaborate with people who
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are much more like ourselves because we
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believe or at least I believe there is
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basic research to be found in HCI
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itself. So what happens if we went a
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step further and consider what could
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happen when the HCI sensibility will be
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this multidisciplinary projects what
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happens when it leaves different
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disciplines with an engineering
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computer science in different
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disciplines within social science I
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think what happens is that because we
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had the training that we have and the
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sensibilities that we have we're able
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to carefully articulate a set of
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research questions that can set a
00:09:12
course for ambitious cross cutting
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research. So one and offering today in
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this talk is a structure for how to
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think about the field of Christ
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informatics as it exists today and it
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came about from the doing of it's as a
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very interactive way of looking at the
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field in looking at the all the
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products of the various groups now that
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are working in the space and I hope you
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see that you see I sensibility coming
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through in addition to the mix of all
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these other disciplines. So before I
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get into this so I need to do a couple
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of access staging one of discussing I
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will win a little bit of detail
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actually but our system a logical
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commitments are to this area and it's
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this is also an idea I've been kind of
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trotting out playing with and I hope to
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do more of it this summer in at at some
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other venues. But I think it service
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both the purpose of seeing what you
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think about it. But also that kind of
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against it waiting ourselves there. So
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that's when I posted in the second act
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will be to then move into the disaster
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area the domain and then do some
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articulation as some differences I'd
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like you to be aware of their before we
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don't talk about the five branches. So
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I see currently that there are three
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major epistemology isn't each the I am
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willing to be wrong about this and had
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this for the refined but just for the
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purposes of being clear about where we
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are and where I am this is how I see
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the world. Um and I see first as impure
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cold research as a major at this module
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stance of HCI and this is in general we
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must associate with the sciences and so
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many others I think still in HCI feel
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the need to work in reaction to a
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different forms of empirical work to
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justify stick critical age the eye for
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example so this is that you Alexei I
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this is a very dominant kind of stands
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critical studies and theories are what
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we most a sissy with humanities but
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we're seeing more and more of that in
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in in HCI and then this terms I like so
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much research to design which is
00:11:07
anywhere phrase and I believe Jerry for
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these Ian Johnson women are the ones to
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credit with that term I think it's a
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new term better reflects this I think
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and at a an ongoing commitment that
00:11:16
we've long had that the ability to
00:11:19
understand things first comes to the
00:11:21
creation of things especially if there
00:11:23
don't have analogies for whatever it is
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it's being created in in the that
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already exist or group and I imagine
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that I I live in a computer science
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department so I have to explain this
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often I work and speak to different
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emergency manager groups I have to
00:11:38
explain this quite a bit to time
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perhaps doing a little over explaining
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here but I'm just gonna go with it for
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now but we're strongly impure call I
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think as our group is growing and in
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diversifying working T worse trying to
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bring in more critical. So analyses
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into the work that we do and I think
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perhaps I underestimate how much
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critical analysis we do because as
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you'll see when I talk about branch one
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I feel that what we've done is sort of
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abolish with the typical troops that we
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assume are is the story of disaster and
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you can't do that if you want to get a
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critical view but only the very
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strongly into this kind of impure cool
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view empirical research that then
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follows. So let's so let me just for
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their dive into this empirical form of
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great this is going to develop as a
00:12:24
matrix as you'll soon see so empirical
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science we have impact positivist an
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interpreter this forms of enquiry
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positivist very simply forms of enquiry
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is what we most strongly associated the
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sciences many of us are taught the
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scientific method in school so we think
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a poetic of experimentation the goal of
00:12:40
this parts of us research is to prove
00:12:42
knowledge and so what we have there is
00:12:44
hypothesis testing but of course what
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happens when you don't what we don't
00:12:48
yet know what knowledge needs proving
00:12:50
well then you find yourself perhaps
00:12:52
wanting to align more with interpretive
00:12:55
S forms of enquiry and it's also impure
00:12:57
call it's also progress as many of you
00:12:59
know it builds knowledge it formulates
00:13:01
thesis statements its data driven it's
00:13:03
highly interactive and I think the
00:13:06
basic building work that we've been
00:13:07
doing in christ's informatics falls
00:13:09
mostly into these interpreters and and
00:13:11
interprets find it in great and and so
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and then there's what this means to H
00:13:15
the alliance this with the matrix comes
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and I think there are two ways to
00:13:19
describe the goals of HCI and that's
00:13:22
summit informative and somebody
00:13:25
research is to study something that is
00:13:28
preexisting or is already occurred
00:13:30
without deliberate intervention whereas
00:13:32
and there can be a and and some of
00:13:35
research could be your positivist or
00:13:37
interpret that so where as part of this
00:13:40
research asks does X for example
00:13:42
influence why and how much interpretive
00:13:45
is some and somebody research asks how
00:13:48
does how does X influence why it makes
00:13:52
the you know particularly you have very
00:13:54
strongly I think formative goals where
00:13:57
the research is meant to be conducted
00:14:00
in such a way as to inform the design
00:14:02
artifacts but also policies procedures
00:14:05
and so on. And it's this idea of
00:14:07
formative that drives that the you know
00:14:09
the very familiar radii tenants that we
00:14:12
espouse of iterative design engaging
00:14:15
with users that's the formative
00:14:17
research that we are committed to more
00:14:19
many of us are committed to and this
00:14:21
too can be there positivist we're
00:14:22
interpret this. So positivist formative
00:14:25
work might ask does this design choice
00:14:27
have some effect and that's where AB
00:14:29
studies will sits right large scale
00:14:31
maybe studies for example among others.
00:14:33
Um interpreted this formative research
00:14:35
might then ask well how does this
00:14:38
design have an effect. And so I would
00:14:41
say that in the work over these ten
00:14:42
years there are examples of where we
00:14:44
worked in most of these cells at one
00:14:47
point or another but we work I would
00:14:49
say in this interpret this line of
00:14:51
enquiry primarily and we work in this
00:14:54
formative interpretive list point of
00:14:56
intersection. But certainly
00:14:59
interpretive is but it is the most
00:15:01
dominant my work personally and and and
00:15:04
the reason I'm making the point of
00:15:06
saying this is one to kind of sit
00:15:07
against it with the work suggests that
00:15:09
this field is a growing field that
00:15:11
we're trying to discover what the
00:15:13
problems are and how to articulate them
00:15:15
fast to then do sit subsequent work
00:15:17
design work other kinds of
00:15:18
interventions and so on. Um but I would
00:15:22
also like to say that constitutes basic
00:15:24
research this goes back to a little bit
00:15:26
of Lawrence introduction and the reason
00:15:28
why I feel I it's important to say this
00:15:30
is that I think the social import
00:15:32
hacked of our work is really important.
00:15:35
But I think I think even I thought not
00:15:38
long ago that to have social impact one
00:15:40
had to be various it very closely to
00:15:42
applied research which is not a bad
00:15:44
thing but as it turns out I think it's
00:15:46
very possible and in fact an obligation
00:15:49
of scholarship in the world today to
00:15:52
conduct basic research and imagine what
00:15:54
the cat impact can be bike carefully
00:15:56
sort of monitoring and imagining what
00:15:59
those translation efforts will be so
00:16:00
one can do basic research and have
00:16:02
social impact that's that's the that's
00:16:04
my but my argument okay I'd like to set
00:16:07
the stage once more by distinguishing
00:16:09
between I'd like to I would like to
00:16:13
know it'd into discussion of the the
00:16:16
the different kinds of crises that we
00:16:17
might considering what do we mean by
00:16:18
crisis and before I talk in further
00:16:22
detail I want to make the distinction
00:16:24
between hazards with exhaustion is
00:16:26
verses and dodges agents my group has
00:16:30
worked across a range of hazards
00:16:32
actually both kinds of hazards but our
00:16:34
biggest contribution has certainly been
00:16:36
in examining social media behaviour
00:16:39
social computing behaviour in relation
00:16:41
to events that have exalted this agents
00:16:44
those that cannot be apprehended or
00:16:46
easily apprehended like a hurricane
00:16:48
like a tornado like a big terrorist act
00:16:50
that that apparently comes from the
00:16:52
outside and cannot be immediately dealt
00:16:54
with in the event of the experience of
00:16:56
the disaster as it's being lived in
00:16:59
that moment. And this is that just a
00:17:01
decision to endogenous agents agents
00:17:03
that are from within and this often
00:17:06
means that there's a perception that it
00:17:08
can somehow be stopped and so often
00:17:10
this behaviour is perceived as criminal
00:17:12
okay so the reason why this is
00:17:15
important to distinguish is that I
00:17:19
think it has significant impact on what
00:17:22
we understand the online online proud
00:17:25
to do it also has impact on what the
00:17:27
offline crowd as already in place crowd
00:17:30
but significantly I think it has even
00:17:33
greater chain attacked on the on line
00:17:36
crowd because he there's such a large
00:17:38
observant audience coming sometimes
00:17:40
from the whole world looking at some of
00:17:42
these major events. So one examples of
00:17:45
Virginia tech shootings which is
00:17:47
something we did examine with
00:17:48
therapeutic and others that you saw on
00:17:51
the screen earlier and in that and then
00:17:53
it was the names of those who were
00:17:54
killed or injured he was cut was the
00:17:57
subject of what the crowd was trying to
00:17:58
search for and I know the shooter we
00:18:01
set at the scene there so there was
00:18:02
nothing to apprehend at that point in
00:18:05
the Boston bombings it was the pursuit
00:18:07
of the perpetrators that was the
00:18:09
salient problem that the and and and as
00:18:11
many of you might know the crowd got
00:18:13
that wrong the rhetoric community got
00:18:15
that wrong too great detriment actually
00:18:17
and so within tardiness agents the
00:18:20
system drives itself towards the
00:18:22
apprehension identification of in
00:18:24
individuals is a general statement I'd
00:18:27
like to make but I think it's an
00:18:27
empirical one that can be that can be
00:18:29
something worth examining even further
00:18:32
but in general I observe that the
00:18:34
character of the interaction between
00:18:35
people online and with the perception
00:18:38
of the agent is quite different and it
00:18:40
dries towards issues of blame justice
00:18:42
and forensics in the case of natural
00:18:45
hazards or other exhaustion as agents
00:18:48
there are lots of problems to solve the
00:18:50
but it's a much more diffuse kind of
00:18:51
information in question answer kind of
00:18:54
environment there are the the problems
00:18:56
are still significant they're not
00:18:58
necessarily minor but there are just so
00:19:00
many that it defies the crowd's
00:19:02
attention writes the crowd is doing
00:19:04
lots of different kinds of things. And
00:19:05
so therefore this online crowd
00:19:08
instructions itself differently social
00:19:10
structures are different in these
00:19:12
different kinds of environments. So the
00:19:15
field of christ's informatics it should
00:19:17
it continue when I hope it does should
00:19:19
address a whole range of hazard see all
00:19:23
the bad things that can happen right I
00:19:25
mean that's fine but but like you more
00:19:27
bombings and NX but now that field is
00:19:30
maturing and I think it's important
00:19:33
that we make it distinct distinction
00:19:35
between the expectations of a field in
00:19:37
expectations of a lab or the
00:19:38
expectation that all there are the
00:19:40
expectations of the paper and so now
00:19:43
that we have that a wide audience
00:19:44
people we one paper and try to make
00:19:46
some very broad implications from that
00:19:49
without appreciating what these
00:19:50
concerns are so in other words just
00:19:52
because there is all this behaviour
00:19:54
occurring on mine when bad things
00:19:56
happen doesn't mean that it's all the
00:19:58
same thing it doesn't mean that there
00:20:00
should be a singular interpretation of
00:20:02
what's going on of course in that
00:20:05
actually a very technologically
00:20:06
deterministic you things to to think
00:20:09
such things. Um and I think because
00:20:12
crisis informatics research is now
00:20:14
being read by a very wide academic and
00:20:17
practitioner audience it's being
00:20:19
misread because readers don't
00:20:21
understand this even just this
00:20:24
distinction between different kinds of
00:20:25
eight agents and even authors do not
00:20:28
understand this distinction. So though
00:20:30
there's this wonderful story perhaps
00:20:32
the impact of this field there's now
00:20:34
off now this thing that we have to be
00:20:36
very careful how we tried and how we
00:20:38
communicate to our audience what it is
00:20:40
that we mean what the impacts are and
00:20:42
we turn in fact some basic ideas in HCI
00:20:45
like technological determinism and and
00:20:47
other things I'll be talking about just
00:20:48
a little bit about how about what and
00:20:50
how this means of how we do our
00:20:51
research. So the court phenomena of
00:20:54
interests just just to reiterate is not
00:20:56
social media the core phenomena are the
00:20:58
different kinds of hazards we should
00:21:01
see different kinds of collective
00:21:02
action information seeking into in
00:21:04
relation to different kinds of events
00:21:06
and we do okay. So now they turn to the
00:21:09
five branch that christ's informatics
00:21:11
what I'm going to be doing is I'm going
00:21:14
to animate them with examples largely
00:21:17
from our own work which again is mostly
00:21:21
about exhaustion is agents. So the
00:21:23
branches I think still stand up even
00:21:25
when you talk about endogenous agents
00:21:27
but the branches. I've written them for
00:21:30
the start in such a way that they don't
00:21:32
dictate what the results are they
00:21:33
describe the different topics with in
00:21:35
this field that could be examined. So
00:21:37
some of the results all used animate
00:21:39
the ideas might be in contrast to other
00:21:43
advantage you read about or perhaps you
00:21:45
yourself study. So this would just be
00:21:47
another conversation that we would have
00:21:49
about what about what that what what
00:21:51
what what the city of these different
00:21:53
branches might mean okay I think that's
00:21:55
one the consequence of having done this
00:21:57
work for one being able to have the
00:21:59
privilege to be able to be dedicated to
00:22:01
it for a while so that we can make
00:22:02
those distinctions that we and that we
00:22:04
should make those distinctions okay so
00:22:07
the five print as an overview artists
00:22:09
first I'll talk about social computing
00:22:11
as it's perceived in relation to
00:22:13
professional emergency management and
00:22:15
why it's hard for emergency management
00:22:16
to adopt segments I will show how a
00:22:22
second line of research capitalises on
00:22:24
the spontaneous social media activity
00:22:27
that actually occurs in response to
00:22:28
disasters and what people are trying to
00:22:30
do their mother problems and
00:22:31
opportunities are there there all talk
00:22:34
about the challenges of collecting
00:22:36
crisis data and that how and
00:22:39
specifically I mean social media crisis
00:22:41
data and how the collection is already
00:22:44
a kind of sampling decision that limits
00:22:46
the kinds of things that can be done
00:22:48
that down the road how that's another
00:22:49
point of caution about how we're going
00:22:51
to read and conduct this research going
00:22:53
forward. And then for all spend the
00:22:55
most time summarising the internal
00:22:57
social structures that arise online in
00:23:00
response to disaster events but I will
00:23:02
come back to in a sense branch one with
00:23:06
how what happens nominally speaking
00:23:08
online is has connections to emergency
00:23:11
we're actually in the physical world.
00:23:13
This is a point I bring up here because
00:23:15
we've been this that criticism that's
00:23:17
been level that is pretty severely
00:23:19
about you know you know all that stuff
00:23:20
about what's happening online but how
00:23:22
does that help people on the ground and
00:23:24
so I'd like to talk about that book is
00:23:25
that some it informative kind of
00:23:28
research enterprise and so we'll close
00:23:30
there okay so to help keep track I have
00:23:34
colour coded each sections is the blue
00:23:37
section and this will hope you keep
00:23:40
track of where we are and talk maybe
00:23:41
even help me keep track of we're gonna
00:23:42
talk as and some of the topics as
00:23:45
you'll see some of the ideas are
00:23:47
overlapping and often deliberately so
00:23:49
with this will help you keep track of
00:23:50
where we are so what about to talk
00:23:59
about now I'm eventually going to the
00:24:00
ideas of how to fix professional
00:24:02
emergency management but to the extent
00:24:04
that perhaps not units audience how are
00:24:07
not familiar with disaster I am also
00:24:11
imagining that in a sense we the
00:24:13
general public belongs in this category
00:24:16
of concern to and it's here where I'd
00:24:19
like to dismantle that ropes of what
00:24:22
disaster response is and how people
00:24:24
react to it any bearing that has on
00:24:26
social media and how we study that and
00:24:29
yeah so let me start there okay so
00:24:34
Christ informatics as or research field
00:24:36
disrupts more comfortable frames of
00:24:38
reference about who does what in
00:24:40
disaster. So when we consider
00:24:42
technology solutions are impacts we
00:24:44
must expand our understanding to go
00:24:46
beyond what formal formal responders
00:24:49
need these emergency responders you see
00:24:51
here perhaps in terms of situational
00:24:54
awareness which is of course something
00:24:57
that everyone's trying to achieve an
00:24:58
emergency managers are trying to
00:25:00
achieve have an overview situation to
00:25:02
know what's going on people to make
00:25:03
decisions about where resources are
00:25:05
gonna be allocated because a disaster
00:25:07
that's a necessary condition disaster
00:25:10
is a disaster if the problems XXC
00:25:13
outstrip the resources that can be
00:25:15
allocated to solving a problem right.
00:25:18
So hard problems have to be made you
00:25:20
and you make them by having an overview
00:25:21
of what's going on. So situational
00:25:24
awareness is as holy grail but we have
00:25:27
to go beyond honest and recognise that
00:25:29
people on the ground to air victims of
00:25:32
disaster are trying to do the very same
00:25:34
thing they're still trying to figure
00:25:37
out what to do even when bad things
00:25:38
happen to them. So look what they did
00:25:40
here here in the in the aftermath of
00:25:43
the two thousand five hurricane katrina
00:25:45
and then read it which closely followed
00:25:47
it one of the few walls in a huge use
00:25:49
master damage the big sports arena to
00:25:52
make it a bulletin board for missing
00:25:54
persons and they could no pictures
00:25:56
member they had no phones no camera
00:25:59
phones they didn't know they were going
00:26:00
to be the pictures that they have them
00:26:01
there would be no way to print them out
00:26:03
and put them out and distribute them
00:26:04
they're all just worn not pieces of
00:26:06
paper and cardboard these bulletin
00:26:10
board is really natural phenomena that
00:26:12
he certainly before the advent of ICT
00:26:14
and he's built imports happened
00:26:15
everywhere across the region in the
00:26:17
more than one hundred eleven official
00:26:19
right across shelters. But also in
00:26:22
other places hotels and other public
00:26:25
areas across the US gold coast region.
00:26:27
And it's the best they can do under the
00:26:29
circumstances now it probably didn't
00:26:31
work out very well as a way to find
00:26:33
people unless unless these photographs
00:26:35
themselves by female helped perhaps
00:26:37
because the only people going to be
00:26:39
shelters where the people who were
00:26:40
bought the rights to be the shelters
00:26:42
they were all tagged with wrist tax
00:26:43
right. So it's not entirely clear who
00:26:46
they were advertising too but as zero
00:26:49
you one set in one of our lab meetings
00:26:51
in two thousand and seven people do
00:26:52
this thing do this kind of activity
00:26:55
because they're desperate the desperate
00:26:57
move right. So if they know that this
00:27:00
isn't going to be the way they can
00:27:01
solve their problems but there's trying
00:27:03
to find their absolutely it makes the
00:27:06
point that everyone is striving for
00:27:08
situational awareness everyone even
00:27:10
under their very limited impoverished
00:27:12
circumstances information harbours
00:27:14
circumstances and otherwise are
00:27:15
striving for situational awareness. So
00:27:18
so you just two important things to
00:27:20
this landscape first expands the
00:27:23
audience to get outside that shelter.
00:27:25
So here are to be reports that are you
00:27:28
located and and I envisioned here on a
00:27:30
to earth representation from the Google
00:27:33
person finder database and their
00:27:35
representatives tweaks and these were
00:27:37
the missing person finder people
00:27:39
reports following the tsunami in Japan
00:27:42
okay it's the same behaviour but now
00:27:44
there's potentially a global audience
00:27:46
to assist second social media exposes
00:27:50
the informal work conducted by the
00:27:52
public. And because we're trained in
00:27:55
HCI and perhaps ECW we know that the
00:27:58
very idea of informality isn't is
00:28:00
important to understanding real life
00:28:02
and of course. I could we have to think
00:28:04
of Lucy such men's contributions and
00:28:05
her colleagues yeah and her work in
00:28:08
plan since action that sticks this so
00:28:10
clearly the idea is that what we say we
00:28:13
will to does not reflect how things get
00:28:15
actually actually get done. This is
00:28:17
them or idea to keep in mind we build
00:28:20
technology we build policy or
00:28:22
especially when we built our policy
00:28:24
about technology because all of that is
00:28:26
an artifice the construct build on
00:28:28
rationalise logic about how things how
00:28:32
people do things and how people think
00:28:33
should be done because it's so much
00:28:36
easier to design for things how should
00:28:37
be done that how they are done of
00:28:39
course what happens is we miss all this
00:28:43
very important informal work that has
00:28:45
already happened in disaster has always
00:28:47
happen to disaster but digital traces
00:28:49
expose it to us in new ways. So we
00:28:53
think about disasters which we know are
00:28:55
not part of anyone's plan. Um we have
00:28:58
to really think about even we were
00:29:01
trained in this kind of thinking what
00:29:03
what we're doing when we bring our own
00:29:06
kinds of pisces to this problem so I I
00:29:10
love this but I find it extremely
00:29:11
moving and I think it illustrates this
00:29:13
point really well so here we see the
00:29:15
public mixed with formal response you
00:29:18
could tell by the the clothing that
00:29:20
they're wearing in the rescue
00:29:21
activities from the two thousand and
00:29:23
two earthquake in Turkey which was a
00:29:25
devastating earthquake they have many
00:29:26
devastating earthquakes that one was
00:29:28
particularly bad and we see this
00:29:31
blender formal and informal roles at
00:29:34
work here and we see orderly
00:29:36
cooperative work even though it's
00:29:38
clearly improvised work right. It's not
00:29:41
planned work nobody was planning for
00:29:43
that's the lesson here is that we
00:29:45
simply will not be willing to hear once
00:29:47
again and for this context that
00:29:49
informal roles an informal work exists
00:29:52
and that they accomplish important
00:29:54
things such an understanding counteract
00:29:57
the mess of victim hood and other false
00:30:00
depictions of public conduct in
00:30:02
disaster especially those with
00:30:04
exhaustion as agents contrary to what
00:30:07
you see in the movies people are not
00:30:10
panicked they are not in a daze they
00:30:12
are not looting these are things that
00:30:14
get magnified hugely if we continue to
00:30:17
think about disasters as things that
00:30:18
need to be policed because people are
00:30:21
perceived as helpless and therefore
00:30:23
suddenly somehow a dangerous then we
00:30:27
are first of all doing a humane job
00:30:28
responding to disaster. And second all
00:30:31
this energy that we think about what we
00:30:34
think the problems are is being
00:30:36
misplaced. So if you ever gonna
00:30:38
disaster event yourself you will know
00:30:41
this terrible things could be happening
00:30:43
around you trouble things might be
00:30:44
happening to you but if you're not an
00:30:47
injured victim and maybe even if you
00:30:48
are you are still assessing the
00:30:51
situation you're still making decisions
00:30:54
you might be distraught you but you
00:30:57
still have your brain you are still
00:30:59
acting based on your ongoing analysis
00:31:02
of what's going on on around you you
00:31:04
never stop being smart right. So my
00:31:07
point is this if we believe the movie
00:31:09
version of disaster we bring those
00:31:12
ideas to social media front as well.
00:31:14
And it's another which than their place
00:31:16
of social convergence we magnify the
00:31:18
problems that we imagine must be there
00:31:21
and the more we do that the more we are
00:31:23
distracted by things like bad
00:31:25
information without really
00:31:27
understanding what it is we mean when
00:31:29
we say that information that it
00:31:30
deserves its own analysis of its own.
00:31:34
And we are characterising that very
00:31:36
well and therefore we can solve those
00:31:38
problems very well. If they're they're
00:31:40
even as we imagine them. Um and then of
00:31:43
course we miss this fascinating stuff
00:31:44
the version of this that happens
00:31:47
online. So our group is on a great deal
00:31:51
of work we have emergency managers in a
00:31:54
participatory fashion in various ways
00:31:56
over the years. And it's pretty clear
00:31:59
that the problem of adoption social
00:32:00
media for them is is bigger than most
00:32:03
imagine a lot of criticism is levelled
00:32:05
emergency managers for being slow and
00:32:07
not quick to to adopt new technology in
00:32:12
being afraid of new technology the
00:32:13
course problems are actually far more
00:32:15
complex than that there's really issues
00:32:17
of liability that they have to navigate
00:32:19
around. So how do they suddenly again
00:32:21
have to make decisions when they have
00:32:23
fewer resources the problems they have
00:32:25
and they turn social media can we can
00:32:27
they be sure word how when the state of
00:32:30
the art disliking so far behind them
00:32:32
them being able to get a situational
00:32:34
awareness kind of depiction of what's
00:32:35
going on. They have to be very cautious
00:32:38
about making decisions in relation to
00:32:39
it that's a very kind of simple
00:32:41
simplified way of looking at the array
00:32:43
of things that are facing but that's I
00:32:44
think a fair statement to say about
00:32:46
what the what the critical issue is but
00:32:49
I believe that this will come about
00:32:51
through change and it's going to come
00:32:54
about through change the practise so I
00:32:56
think of all the things that we have
00:32:59
looked that I think that the points the
00:33:00
the most fundamental point can be
00:33:02
boiled down to one takeaway lesson here
00:33:05
and that's that changes and changes in
00:33:07
social media policy and they do exist
00:33:10
even other partial we'll come about
00:33:12
through changes in local practise and I
00:33:15
have a fort we excerpt from hurricane
00:33:17
see any into doesn't it well as it was
00:33:18
rolling in and making landfall in the
00:33:22
in the US eastern seaboard that I think
00:33:25
brings this point home really
00:33:26
parsimonious lee. So this was a part of
00:33:29
a set of research that was presented by
00:33:31
Amanda Hughes and we think tennis at
00:33:32
high last year. So we have portraits
00:33:35
this is the first we just by the fire
00:33:37
department of new York these are we
00:33:39
produce exactly except we have
00:33:41
anonymous a little bit information as
00:33:42
agency. Um and FDNY says to announces
00:33:46
makes this declaration please note do
00:33:49
not tweak emergency calls please call
00:33:52
nine one one which is the emergency
00:33:54
line in the US if it's not an emergency
00:33:56
please call three one one and then some
00:33:59
text. And by the way has tags were born
00:34:01
out of disaster itself we credit
00:34:05
Christmas scene the who invented the
00:34:08
convention of the hash tag in the at in
00:34:11
the weight in the experience of the two
00:34:13
thousand seven southern California
00:34:15
wildfires that's another message and
00:34:17
all this is the disaster site of
00:34:18
innovation. So not even an hour later
00:34:22
about forty five minutes later somebody
00:34:24
writes directly to FTNY and says my
00:34:25
sister's family is at this address
00:34:29
water's rising twelve feet need help
00:34:31
phone number first floor drowned kids
00:34:34
it's care FCN vibrates back a couple
00:34:38
minutes later and says please keep
00:34:41
trying to call nine one one we see the
00:34:44
first hedge. I'd I will try to reach
00:34:46
just batteries now. So she's should
00:34:49
start their policies already starting
00:34:52
to you rode we're not even an hour in
00:34:54
CD about yeah and then many treats go
00:34:58
by there's lots of interaction I'm
00:35:00
showing you an excerpt here FT and my
00:35:02
breaks back not three hours after the
00:35:04
initial declaration and writes what
00:35:06
number of people and says don't want
00:35:09
new York street rely on this as an
00:35:10
alternative to nine one one button
00:35:12
notifying dispatchers of all
00:35:14
emergencies tweed and so this is the
00:35:16
point change happens in these so it's
00:35:19
your technical systems and all systems
00:35:21
really through bottom up processes
00:35:23
bottom up practise it's not top down
00:35:25
one so this is situated action situated
00:35:28
cognition in action and this is how
00:35:30
these things work. And this is how
00:35:32
we'll see change okay branch to the
00:35:35
biggest point of entry I'm moving along
00:35:37
because I have too much for this talk
00:35:38
so I actually actually probably see
00:35:40
that even a little bit more so the
00:35:42
biggest point of entry into the space
00:35:44
is this idea of how to drive leverage
00:35:48
leverage is a common word leverage and
00:35:50
drive data from the naturalistic leek
00:35:52
rings or some media streams that make a
00:35:54
disaster and it brings a lot of people
00:35:56
into this problem space even certainly
00:35:59
those two you may or may not care about
00:36:02
say social science commitments to the
00:36:04
problem space and there I am glad for
00:36:07
it actually because this is going to be
00:36:09
a multidisciplinary solution it's gonna
00:36:12
be a whole field solution to figure out
00:36:14
how to deal with two major constraints
00:36:17
for good data derivation and that's
00:36:19
true that is the optimisation for speed
00:36:23
and the optimisation for
00:36:24
comprehensiveness we currently candy
00:36:25
both that's the holy grail and so we
00:36:29
have to think in the meantime as we're
00:36:31
as we're trying to contribute to this
00:36:32
as others are trying to solve this
00:36:34
problem along with us and in the
00:36:36
application of other domains we ask
00:36:39
ourselves in our group what can we do
00:36:41
to drive data it's are still hopeful to
00:36:43
responders but that it's over a period
00:36:46
when things are happening but doesn't
00:36:48
get us into ethical dilemmas one we
00:36:50
can't be comprehensive about reporting
00:36:53
how many people are injured for example
00:36:55
or dealing with the absence of
00:36:56
information that we don't know yet know
00:36:58
how to quantify or qualify what that
00:37:00
means the absence of information could
00:37:02
mean somebody's impact really hurt not
00:37:04
that they can be heard right they could
00:37:06
in fact be really hurt okay so so one
00:37:11
area that we've done some work in this
00:37:12
area it was we try to apply this
00:37:15
compromise is in the area of
00:37:17
geotechnical reconnaissance audio
00:37:19
technical reconnaissance in so this is
00:37:21
what we do with civil engineers and
00:37:23
with the the department transportation
00:37:25
in the US and environmental design. So
00:37:28
do you think or common sense is spongy
00:37:30
gear teens geotechnical extreme event
00:37:33
reconnaissance teams to pull a two
00:37:35
disasters around the world or
00:37:37
international teams it appointed
00:37:39
disastrous internationally you know
00:37:41
five to six people to study the impacts
00:37:44
of hazards on the build infrastructure
00:37:46
naturalistic Lisa like us they want to
00:37:48
use the world is their natural
00:37:50
laboratory to get accurate accurate
00:37:51
rails of the hazard load on the
00:37:54
physical build environment. But the
00:37:56
mobilisation of international teams is
00:37:58
challenging it six pence who I mean
00:38:01
more than usual because there are no
00:38:03
flights into that area like truck
00:38:05
cancelled flights are but there are no
00:38:06
hotel rooms there are no rental cars
00:38:08
"'cause" they're all taken up that's
00:38:10
what happens disasters as massive
00:38:11
convergence of tons and tons of people.
00:38:14
So it's really hard to get into a
00:38:15
disaster site even if yeah I even if
00:38:18
it's not the transportation that's been
00:38:20
compromised it can sometimes be
00:38:23
dangerous so there was a team that was
00:38:25
going to planning to deploy to Japan
00:38:27
after these not me there but the risk
00:38:30
of radioactivity curtailed what they
00:38:32
were trying to do and it could be just
00:38:35
so easy to get wrong how do you deploy
00:38:39
team a five to six people to study the
00:38:42
isolated spots of so we'll look or
00:38:44
factions that occurs after seismic
00:38:46
activity when what you want to know you
00:38:48
wanna be able to see these places a
00:38:50
lick of actually to be able to see what
00:38:52
the effects are on the building
00:38:54
structures right now I will then have
00:38:55
future attacks on the building codes a
00:38:57
new forms of engineering of of our
00:39:00
infrastructure. So how do you how do
00:39:02
they find those points of the
00:39:04
confection along this eccentric longer
00:39:05
fault line so the idea is and also
00:39:10
adjustable my thing is the cleanup
00:39:11
begins right away even in most
00:39:13
devastating earthquakes and disasters
00:39:16
so so you can't take these measures if
00:39:18
you're not there right away. So the
00:39:20
idea is to use social media to help the
00:39:23
teams navigate within a highly diffuse
00:39:25
events in the geographical space
00:39:27
account having some intelligent
00:39:28
navigational tasks that then that also
00:39:31
than say by the way don't go that way
00:39:33
as you normally would you have to go
00:39:34
this way because the road is damage. Um
00:39:37
but also to use as a proxy for when you
00:39:39
can't be everywhere at once which which
00:39:41
can't so we tackle this using are only
00:39:44
for the okay so in Colorado in false
00:39:47
doesn't thirteen we had a massive
00:39:49
massive flash flooding we had an annual
00:39:52
a year's worth of rainfall in four
00:39:53
days. So we had flash flooding
00:39:56
everywhere and this is the kind of
00:39:59
topic as you might imagine that if you
00:40:01
really want to do meaningful work you
00:40:03
often have to be there and so alas it
00:40:06
came to us and we were able to conduct
00:40:10
a series of studies then that that then
00:40:12
that were much like this. So these
00:40:15
photos that and this but these two
00:40:16
photos initially you I'm illustrate the
00:40:18
kind of data thereafter so this is
00:40:20
water rushing down but turns out to be
00:40:22
a multi use path so you can see
00:40:24
obviously the before. And the after and
00:40:26
it I don't know if the resolution on
00:40:28
this projectors showing you but there's
00:40:29
just sheets of rain coming down so this
00:40:33
is the kind of data thereafter and so
00:40:34
what we did was we quickly extracted
00:40:36
videos and photos an overly those data
00:40:38
with floodplain data a satellite
00:40:40
imagery other kinds of data to use it
00:40:43
as a cases really have formative design
00:40:45
kind of study to imagine what we could
00:40:48
do to support this geotechnical
00:40:51
reconnaissance. Um the open circles
00:40:54
that you see here are known places a
00:40:56
bridge flooding and the closed dots are
00:40:58
that we that we were able to locate
00:41:00
nearby and with this we can retrieve
00:41:02
obviously the cup we content and verify
00:41:05
relative to other things that we see
00:41:07
like the satellite imagery but we also
00:41:09
learned that with your is whether who
00:41:11
that whatever's our right and that's
00:41:14
valuable because if that person is
00:41:16
located nearby we can contact them if
00:41:19
that person located nearby actually
00:41:20
this person turned out to live right at
00:41:21
that intersection of those two areas.
00:41:24
So we know this person is already
00:41:26
there. So we're not deploying new
00:41:28
people to the space so one temptations
00:41:30
is to say well why don't you just make
00:41:33
the crowd problem and ask people to
00:41:36
send you in reports of what they see
00:41:38
because you don't know tapping at this
00:41:39
intersection what we can do that
00:41:41
because if we don't know what's going
00:41:43
on we send people there we don't know
00:41:45
what they're encountering right and so
00:41:48
this is why we have to be very
00:41:49
concerned about how these even tiny
00:41:52
with seem like small interventions that
00:41:54
happening other crowd sourcing
00:41:56
situations have different applications
00:41:59
here. Um so anyway but we can find this
00:42:01
person he's already there I know to he
00:42:03
he's already there he might have other
00:42:07
photos another videos that you didn't
00:42:08
think to post right so that's more
00:42:10
data. So it's not just that use of the
00:42:12
whatever date that was a social media
00:42:14
data it's using it to find who you
00:42:17
could use for providing data and not
00:42:20
introduce more problems I also would
00:42:22
like to offer this as an example for
00:42:24
how you can think about testing
00:42:26
solutions that don't introduce
00:42:28
additional problems so when we're
00:42:30
thinking about how you extracted a
00:42:32
rapidly we can afford to get it wrong
00:42:34
for doing geotechnical reconnaissance
00:42:36
but we still are taking the people
00:42:37
cycles also have to be meaningful you
00:42:40
can just be a plate waiting right. But
00:42:43
we can still get it wrong if we don't
00:42:45
have a representative sample it's okay
00:42:48
we haven't presumably haven't heard
00:42:49
anybody. So a lot of people ask people
00:42:52
I'm doing technology for disaster how
00:42:53
do we test it all on the things you
00:42:55
might do with something like this is
00:42:57
testing in a problem that will let you
00:42:59
make Schwartz working properly whatever
00:43:02
that solution might be but not risking
00:43:04
human life and limb and there are other
00:43:07
things to say about that but I'm gonna
00:43:08
skip over that for now okay so but
00:43:11
building solutions to really help the
00:43:13
team situational awareness this is like
00:43:15
what I said as I said earlier the holy
00:43:17
grail and this is because of course
00:43:20
tweaks for example as you might know
00:43:23
are by and large on their own not
00:43:26
individually content for they're
00:43:28
they're not saying they're not there
00:43:30
but they they don't occur in wrap it in
00:43:32
large numbers and they're hard to find
00:43:35
and so this is the world's most perfect
00:43:37
we I think in in my opinion we founded
00:43:40
in two thousand and nine and it's still
00:43:42
my favourite sweet tutor was different
00:43:44
than a bit. So remember the metadata
00:43:46
was different. So this year is doing
00:43:48
some really clever things here. She we
00:43:51
get the time stamp and date stamp for
00:43:53
free. But she includes a link to it
00:43:55
will pick which is of this feature
00:43:58
which she tells us she confirms that
00:44:00
the red river in Winnipeg which was
00:44:02
under threat of flight. And it's north
00:44:04
of the university of Manitoba behind
00:44:06
the log building in university college
00:44:07
so it's really precise location
00:44:09
information which you could improvise
00:44:10
geo coding information I think provide
00:44:12
us I mean provide whoever's whomever
00:44:14
she doctor audience was okay and so we
00:44:18
get the who what where and this this a
00:44:20
a person you to confirm the way. So she
00:44:23
was doing recipient design. So she
00:44:25
wasn't present meaning that just
00:44:26
because she posted it on April a that
00:44:30
was taken on April eighth. So she was
00:44:32
really thinking about this is data
00:44:34
likewise it is going to be treated. She
00:44:37
didn't she presumed for audience should
00:44:40
not presume that it was taken. I
00:44:44
wouldn't know when it was taken so she
00:44:46
attaches that information to this to
00:44:48
this to this photo. So if we had lots
00:44:52
and lots and lots of tweaks like this
00:44:53
we may be able to sell the situational
00:44:54
probably earns problem next week to
00:44:56
driving data but there are other things
00:44:59
that are making this hard in addition
00:45:00
to the absence of a lot of this kind of
00:45:02
data is that you know social media data
00:45:04
are mounting in volume everyday there's
00:45:07
balding styles of communication there's
00:45:09
mixes of languages in any one one
00:45:11
hundred forty characters we we see it
00:45:13
in blogs and they spoke as well. Um but
00:45:16
there are also multiple housings that
00:45:17
occur on the planet at any one time so
00:45:20
when we were trying to distinguish
00:45:21
between between someone earthquake in
00:45:23
there it with another it became very
00:45:25
hard to do. So just in one a random
00:45:27
sample of a day was it was a big
00:45:28
earthquake doesn't well "'cause" rick
00:45:30
earthquake I give an assignment to my
00:45:32
students I didn't have time to work for
00:45:33
the homework assignment night at want
00:45:35
them to answer some questions about
00:45:37
retreating behaviour well turned out
00:45:38
they couldn't do it because they at
00:45:41
least at least ten other earthquakes on
00:45:44
the planet that day that we're being
00:45:47
wheat we didn't read about much more
00:45:49
small much smaller than the Costa Rica
00:45:50
earthquake but you couldn't tell easily
00:45:52
with how manual Reading what we treat
00:45:56
or associated with what so this is
00:45:58
become really challenging so there's
00:46:00
different automated process ease that
00:46:02
we and others thankfully around the
00:46:04
world are trying to do inc and also
00:46:06
human computations a part of this. But
00:46:09
the problem continues to be hard
00:46:11
because there was that perfectly I told
00:46:13
you I told you about but here's a more
00:46:16
typical tweaked okay so usually people
00:46:26
laugh more money. So that way you can
00:46:28
laugh so this is not really this is a
00:46:31
more difficult we but we should not be
00:46:34
dismissive of the street this week is
00:46:35
actually quite valuable tells a lot of
00:46:37
information you don't know that yet but
00:46:40
you will so hold on to whatever
00:46:41
thoughts you have and what we're to
00:46:43
that to you in a minute. So branch
00:46:45
three brings as to how we collect
00:46:48
social media data in response to
00:46:49
disaster so and it's how you it's how
00:46:53
you collect the data that you know that
00:46:56
that was a valuable to eat beyond what
00:46:58
it said it was how you collect it and
00:47:01
that's why the collection of this is so
00:47:03
much a part of the science of and
00:47:05
interpretation of what we do with our
00:47:07
data. So the next slide is really the
00:47:11
most profound results of all the risky
00:47:14
research we've done over a decade. So
00:47:17
here it is okay so actually I know I A
00:47:23
But we know this right. So then why do
00:47:27
we treat our data and what I if you
00:47:30
look at social computing research in
00:47:33
general not even just for disaster
00:47:35
research but especially where I live I
00:47:38
see it in disaster research all the
00:47:40
time. We see that people are collecting
00:47:44
on high signal stuff right "'cause" and
00:47:45
and this happens for any kind of big at
00:47:47
that right there only collecting on the
00:47:49
it's there's so much volume of the only
00:47:51
they have to choose what they're
00:47:52
collecting ons they're clicking on the
00:47:53
high signal stuff and ignores the
00:47:55
context of the before after this
00:47:57
happens in machine learning this
00:47:59
happens in human analysis you know
00:48:03
we'll have an adheres on the annotate
00:48:04
we try to eat human computation tasks
00:48:07
will also look at this to be but we in
00:48:09
absence of the before after we have
00:48:12
done this we're trying to correct this
00:48:13
problem by introducing new ways of
00:48:15
looking at this. But still have it be
00:48:17
automated supplementing are qualitative
00:48:19
analysis but this is what you see in
00:48:21
their public record today and it's a
00:48:22
real problem and it's going to prohibit
00:48:25
our ability to move forward in ways
00:48:26
that really start getting at what will
00:48:29
become the more complex issues around
00:48:30
disastrous all show you just a minute.
00:48:32
So you would never do this in real life
00:48:34
you would never take a real centre one
00:48:36
sentence out of context when you're
00:48:37
passing by the hon here always people
00:48:39
talk about different things. Um but we
00:48:42
do it here and we do it especially with
00:48:44
weather. So now we go back to this to
00:48:46
be now imagine you could be whatever
00:48:49
you'd like to be could be a machine we
00:48:51
can be human whatever you'd like to
00:48:52
imagine in your head if your machine
00:48:54
you get ten thousand it's to liberty
00:48:56
like this if you're human you get a
00:48:57
thousand to annotate it. And this is
00:49:00
presented to you and it's all you have
00:49:03
just this content here. And you have to
00:49:06
make judgements about whether it's on
00:49:08
topic or off topic if it's relevant or
00:49:10
if it's truthful. And I'm betting that
00:49:13
most of you would say you just can't
00:49:14
know the answer to that right
00:49:16
especially because of the two
00:49:16
euphemisms we have a properly spot over
00:49:19
but it's the wrong for so as I said in
00:49:23
context history turns out to be pretty
00:49:25
informative. So I'm gonna show it you
00:49:27
know in context. And I'd like to tell
00:49:29
you why we're looking at this kind of
00:49:33
thing so so you can imagine the problem
00:49:35
that we're after so one the things that
00:49:37
we're sitting in our group right now
00:49:38
with and car is how the public makes
00:49:42
decisions about risk a risk around
00:49:45
coastal hazard in particular and in
00:49:47
particular hurricanes. So there's a
00:49:49
whole line of enquiry around what it's
00:49:52
called protective decision making so
00:49:54
how people perceive risk and how they
00:49:56
decide to evacuate we know that you
00:49:59
know they get about an evacuation order
00:50:00
they won't necessarily evacuate this
00:50:02
because they're not people are rational
00:50:05
but not rational on the way we think
00:50:06
they are so beep so so we're just
00:50:08
responders others get really upset like
00:50:10
about what they just listen to the
00:50:11
evacuation order well it turns out you
00:50:14
they can't exactly maybe they are L
00:50:16
maybe have you know a single mother
00:50:18
with three children or you know they
00:50:20
don't have any money to go somewhere or
00:50:22
it turns out really going that way
00:50:23
isn't a very good idea based on other
00:50:25
information that they have and so what
00:50:28
there's just larger idea of how people
00:50:30
take protective action even if they
00:50:32
can't evacuate and then there's the
00:50:34
question of when how what kind of
00:50:35
protected action today take before they
00:50:37
actually decide to evacuate in in in
00:50:40
face of this direct. So that's the
00:50:42
general problem that we're trying to
00:50:43
examine and use a social media record
00:50:46
as a real time lots of we hope these
00:50:51
kind of decisions some research or try
00:50:52
to figure out if we can use it that way
00:50:54
to get these this kind of precision
00:50:56
about where one people make decisions.
00:50:58
So okay so here's our same guy and he
00:51:00
starts out with that we that says
00:51:03
people are really overreacting about
00:51:05
this damn hurricane. So this is a very
00:51:07
now I'm actually gonna you're machinery
00:51:09
human and you're looking at just this
00:51:11
isolation I think you would just to be
00:51:13
on topic and relevant okay and we would
00:51:15
catch it probably because of the word
00:51:16
hurricane although a lot of us we're
00:51:19
not filtering on her fingers was too
00:51:21
noisy for her king sandy so we probably
00:51:23
wouldn't of cotton street but it was
00:51:25
put to you I think you would think it
00:51:27
was a valuable and we would think of
00:51:28
this person is dismissive right but
00:51:31
then look at what happens. So he says
00:51:33
I'm about to put my I found on the
00:51:35
charger that's all he tweaks if it if
00:51:38
you all you saw was this in isolation
00:51:40
you would not know this had anything to
00:51:41
do the hurricane you could not make a
00:51:43
judgement about that. And then you know
00:51:45
thing in order then we get our dear
00:51:47
flying in this guide to eat and then we
00:51:49
get our fourth week that for me
00:51:51
personally resolves what happens
00:51:53
before. So then he he says I'm about to
00:51:55
make something to eat before the power
00:51:57
goes out and I'm willing as a human
00:52:00
judge it would make an adjustment to
00:52:02
believe this has something to do with a
00:52:03
hurricane the power going out does that
00:52:05
for me it helps me resolve the I found
00:52:07
on the charger is probably about power
00:52:09
and then it tells me that that you're
00:52:11
flying in the sky to be is the weather
00:52:13
eat right but the weather report right
00:52:16
and then of course also we see the turn
00:52:19
in his the changes his mind from people
00:52:21
are overreacting about this damn
00:52:22
hurricane to stuff is really out of
00:52:25
control I better charging my phone to
00:52:27
get something right but that classic
00:52:30
way of collecting data in this space
00:52:32
for these extreme events lots of
00:52:34
activity is to collect on keywords
00:52:37
maybe there have tags maybe they're not
00:52:38
but they're like as unique as possible
00:52:40
place names and all sorts of things. So
00:52:42
this is the only time we capture this
00:52:43
guy is with this thing to eat where
00:52:45
he's writing the governor Christie use
00:52:47
the governor of new jersey want the
00:52:48
state so that that is affected. And he
00:52:51
there's no problem down here so it's
00:52:52
actually kind of funny knowing we is
00:52:55
it's kind of finding deteriorates the
00:52:57
governor to ask when is it safe again
00:52:59
to head back on that clearly is make
00:53:01
you the hurricane but we're not sure if
00:53:03
it has anything to do with his
00:53:05
protective decision making right. It's
00:53:06
almost like he's act asking on behalf
00:53:08
of others because the wiki phrased in
00:53:10
the way he's writing to governor
00:53:12
christie. And then he finally says and
00:53:15
this the only evidence we get he says
00:53:17
it feels so great to be home sigh. So
00:53:22
never did he say you've got a tyrant we
00:53:24
finally gave you an extra never easy
00:53:26
say I'm evacuating I'm getting out of
00:53:28
here I'm going home I'm going away like
00:53:30
phrases that you might think would be
00:53:32
good phrases to detect evacuation our
00:53:34
project a decision making right. So we
00:53:39
have to look at the whole of the stream
00:53:41
to get some sense of what's going on
00:53:42
why do we do this why do we continue
00:53:45
what is that a war in social computing
00:53:48
research to look at things that we
00:53:50
might we were statement by statement.
00:53:52
And I think it's this to any of the
00:53:54
data structure that's doing it to us
00:53:56
and I'm really worried about this I
00:54:00
think the tear any of the data
00:54:01
structure in this case the tear any of
00:54:03
the two iterator structure compromises
00:54:06
research design we forget that it's
00:54:07
actually dictating what it is that
00:54:09
right kind of choices that we're making
00:54:11
it must be really really careful about
00:54:13
this for all social computing research
00:54:14
in general. So what do you do to solve
00:54:16
this problem well it's not
00:54:17
automatically easy but if you're
00:54:19
dedicated to working in this you've got
00:54:21
a your do it or work with others you
00:54:23
worked Rory had the competition
00:54:25
capability to first first clicked on
00:54:29
keyword collection and then go through
00:54:31
you get your keywords you could your
00:54:32
treats based on the keywords you find
00:54:34
you find your users by having collected
00:54:37
on those terms discover you have you
00:54:39
know user three for example that said
00:54:41
two things. And you you're curious what
00:54:43
I wanna know what here she said before
00:54:44
after so then you go back what we do is
00:54:46
we go back and collect we call the
00:54:48
contextual streams. So we get all the
00:54:50
streams of what they said before and
00:54:52
after these found rates. So the finding
00:54:54
of the first weeks is just the first
00:54:56
step then there's at least a second
00:54:57
step in here. And then I'd like to this
00:54:59
helps is bridging to branch for is we
00:55:01
do this for everybody or whatever
00:55:03
sample it is that we decided that we
00:55:04
need to do this for based on whatever
00:55:06
the criteria are and this is just of
00:55:08
course impressionistic but what I'm
00:55:10
trying to show you that this is where
00:55:12
then all the interaction between other
00:55:13
people lies we need to have this data
00:55:16
in order to see what it is people are
00:55:18
doing with each other and all we do our
00:55:21
collect on these words that we thought
00:55:23
would be important then we really don't
00:55:25
understand for example what it means to
00:55:28
evacuate. So the problem of course is
00:55:32
that takes data just explode when you
00:55:34
do this ago becomes and the manageable
00:55:36
and so one must have automated
00:55:39
assistance in order to even get at
00:55:41
eventually content or qualitative or at
00:55:44
that you know the virtual ethnographic
00:55:46
analysis or whatever it might be that
00:55:47
you might do with this there's no
00:55:49
question that you need some automated
00:55:51
assistant so we can't analyse it just
00:55:53
linguistically "'cause" the linguistics
00:55:54
and telling us enough so we need new
00:55:57
techniques for example and that
00:55:59
includes filtering on what people do
00:56:03
through non linguistic behaviour and
00:56:05
social media and then looking at what
00:56:07
they say then build models from that so
00:56:09
let me give you some examples of that
00:56:11
in keeping in mind that like first anti
00:56:13
for example they were five million
00:56:14
people who participated in that
00:56:16
conversation and certified figure out
00:56:18
who the evaluators were a five million
00:56:21
people you must you must actually have
00:56:22
assistance anyway so some of things
00:56:24
that we're looking at that we have a
00:56:25
pet and are looking at now are are are
00:56:28
these things so one kid starting
00:56:30
Christmas machine were at Colorado they
00:56:32
were looking at follower deltas so it
00:56:36
was more telling to look at the
00:56:38
changing of power count then look at
00:56:41
the initial power council changing
00:56:43
power count was a good predictor of
00:56:46
people who had very good information
00:56:48
and therefore we're actually closest to
00:56:49
the ground so was a good predictor of
00:56:51
people who were on the ground
00:56:53
experiencing an event by looking at the
00:56:55
following alters deltas pacing is
00:56:58
another thing that we might that we're
00:57:00
starting to look at so if somebody's
00:57:02
treating for example a great deal and
00:57:04
then set it suddenly stopped weaning
00:57:06
well that tells you a lot about that
00:57:08
person that suggest you might want to
00:57:10
investigate what's happening there or
00:57:12
they don't we very much at all meant
00:57:13
suddenly they start Reading a lot.
00:57:15
That's another kind of signal geo
00:57:18
typing switching is another thing that
00:57:19
we're looking at so the people choose
00:57:21
to turn geo tagging on off. I think can
00:57:25
tell you something about what the what
00:57:27
the audiences that they're trying to
00:57:28
reach and that is another dimension
00:57:31
another behavioural dimension that
00:57:32
might be valuable and then another
00:57:33
thing that was doing a lot of time on
00:57:35
right now is this idea of movement
00:57:37
derivation which connects to the
00:57:38
evacuation research I was telling you
00:57:39
about and the idea is here again to
00:57:43
look at among the various small number
00:57:45
of people who do you have to tagging on
00:57:48
can we figure out by comparing to prior
00:57:50
behaviour if they have evacuated or if
00:57:54
they have sheltered place turns out
00:57:56
this is incredibly messy it sounds like
00:57:58
it should be just like a oh but it's
00:58:00
not that's because people once you know
00:58:03
they'll go to the shore don't take
00:58:04
pictures and all go for coffee as
00:58:07
they're really trying to figure out
00:58:08
what should we do here. They do all
00:58:09
this kind of movie that sort of
00:58:10
disguises itself as regular activity
00:58:13
turns out it's it's connected to
00:58:14
evacuation so there's a there's a fair
00:58:16
amount of work at inferences has begun
00:58:18
here but the idea is what we're going
00:58:19
to is is that we can build we configure
00:58:22
the evacuated are are project to they
00:58:24
might be through their movement
00:58:26
behaviour and then we look at their
00:58:27
linguistic behaviour build our our
00:58:31
theories and then eventually are
00:58:33
machine classifier models based on that
00:58:36
linguistic behaviour the people that we
00:58:37
know we have found and then you can
00:58:40
apply apply those classifiers to the
00:58:43
much much larger world of attention of
00:58:46
those who participated with out geo
00:58:48
coding. This is work that Jennings the
00:58:51
Anderson is leading cap and still mean
00:58:53
a coke and and are in car colleagues
00:58:55
another lesson we've learned in all of
00:58:58
this in this kind of attraction to
00:59:00
driving information and people having
00:59:03
ideas about how disaster should be
00:59:05
right the movie version of disaster is
00:59:08
to be where the lure that information
00:59:11
this is like the second stomping ground
00:59:13
for people who want to work in the
00:59:14
space for situational awareness and one
00:59:16
that that's be pretty hard is able you
00:59:18
know all figure out where all the bad
00:59:19
information is and and especially in
00:59:22
hazard with sergeants agents I mean I
00:59:24
think that the indulgent agents we have
00:59:26
different story going on as explained
00:59:27
earlier but this is they presume is
00:59:29
also to be to be equally true with its
00:59:32
exactness agents and I think it's a bit
00:59:33
of a red herring I think it's a hard
00:59:35
problem to solve but it's not that hard
00:59:37
it's it it's the easiest of the hard
00:59:39
problems I worry and set about the
00:59:42
hyper locality in hypertext centrality
00:59:44
of data. So data that's true for me
00:59:48
what about where it might evacuate
00:59:50
might not be true for you in the back
00:59:52
of the room and were as close as you
00:59:54
know we can reasonably expect to be and
00:59:56
so I might have to evacuate this way
00:59:58
and you might have to back with that by
01:00:01
the by the way I checked those doors
01:00:02
Nazarene block so you can't exactly
01:00:03
that way. So you might also have to
01:00:05
evacuate this way the point is is that
01:00:08
even within very small amounts of
01:00:09
spaces and the information that is true
01:00:13
right this like this pursue that is it
01:00:15
true. So much research around is social
01:00:19
media data true which is which is a
01:00:21
strange question to me is we discovered
01:00:23
very quickly that it's a relative
01:00:24
concept same with it the temporally of
01:00:27
data. So information that scroll true
01:00:30
at time one is not really time to and
01:00:32
being able to discern this data we
01:00:35
don't I don't have a way to figure out
01:00:37
if this you know where is this bad
01:00:39
actor coming from three IBIP addresses
01:00:42
or whatever else that is really the
01:00:44
critical problem. We're starting to do
01:00:45
some work in that area but only just
01:00:48
barely and I really hope there are more
01:00:49
people who continue to work in the
01:00:51
space okay. So branch for so branch for
01:01:00
has to do with how the social
01:01:02
structures a rice how social structures
01:01:04
arise from the primordial soup of
01:01:07
social media. So we've come to
01:01:09
understand like how this happens by
01:01:12
looking at different levels different
01:01:13
units of analysis interpersonal group
01:01:16
organisation and institutional levels
01:01:17
an hour of analysis money just kind of
01:01:19
show this to hear hear very starkly
01:01:22
representing the informal and the
01:01:24
formal emergency management and the
01:01:26
public here I hope you realise this is
01:01:30
kind of a this is just for visual
01:01:32
purposes and it's the best I can do
01:01:35
with my graphics skills but anyway the
01:01:37
point is is that these social
01:01:38
structures are rise out of of people
01:01:40
I'm help people begin to share
01:01:42
information with each other. And they
01:01:44
witness other sharing information
01:01:46
that's this interpersonal unit of
01:01:48
analysis we want to know much like I
01:01:50
described earlier what is that that
01:01:51
they're saying and how are the
01:01:53
expressing themselves. Um the second
01:01:56
level of analysis is what I I just what
01:01:58
happens next which is what people start
01:01:59
working together and they operate on
01:02:02
and through the communications that
01:02:04
they produce because remember to tell
01:02:06
those it'll traces become the material
01:02:09
upon which they can work it becomes the
01:02:12
sight of production right. So not only
01:02:15
their own interactions with the
01:02:16
interactions that they're witnessing
01:02:17
and seen others do. And they so they
01:02:20
start newly mobilising around digital
01:02:23
digitally distributed information not
01:02:24
everyone does this but some will start
01:02:26
seeing things happen and say oh I bet I
01:02:28
could ask so once I get bad asses
01:02:29
person about where I can get the
01:02:31
supplier Clyde barrow that generator
01:02:33
they know something about this piece of
01:02:35
information do they know where somebody
01:02:36
is or I saw somebody needed help
01:02:38
antibiotics I've got antibiotics let me
01:02:40
start doing yes mister helping here and
01:02:42
so what happens is that these groups
01:02:45
star forming and developing and some
01:02:48
really develop into serious group
01:02:50
sometimes they last for days sometimes
01:02:53
they last for weeks sometimes alas just
01:02:55
for hours that they try to accomplish
01:02:57
something. And utilities grassroots
01:02:59
groups and this completely parallels
01:03:01
what we see happening in the physical
01:03:02
space in crap and bars where speak
01:03:04
about this very nice looking at the
01:03:07
hundred year history of disaster events
01:03:09
and this gets us to this organisational
01:03:10
level of analysis and then where I
01:03:12
think some really interesting questions
01:03:14
are merging now that we and I hope
01:03:16
others will be investigating is that
01:03:17
we're starting to see shapes of course
01:03:19
in these information relationships
01:03:21
within the whole of the institution of
01:03:22
emergency management so we can't ignore
01:03:25
what is happening from to eat. But the
01:03:27
level of to eat all we have to
01:03:29
institution emergency management and we
01:03:31
we fall it this that really follow and
01:03:33
how we get there okay so as I said
01:03:36
those people once found if they find
01:03:39
each other through the expression of
01:03:40
their questions and answers and
01:03:42
concerns express on source yeah well
01:03:44
sometimes start working together just
01:03:46
they do in the physical world. And this
01:03:47
quote but that was from work that Kate
01:03:50
starboard and I publish back and
01:03:51
doesn't eleven about the he dearest
01:03:54
quick I think explains this really well
01:03:55
in one of our subjects wrote to us and
01:03:57
said in the beginning I worked alone I
01:03:59
sorta recognising people this is on to
01:04:01
what are you seem to have good
01:04:03
information and we would support each
01:04:04
other we read to each other we help
01:04:06
find information for each other. And
01:04:09
then whenever colleagues in all of this
01:04:12
a person became a colleague because
01:04:14
they were one of the people who found
01:04:15
each other says eight days after the
01:04:17
events says I am stand we've gotten
01:04:20
supplies then we say people from the
01:04:22
rubble you brought them doctors we had
01:04:24
best team we are following putters and
01:04:27
he's going to call themselves onto
01:04:28
eaters and crisis treaters. And the
01:04:31
subset of this group then went on to
01:04:32
further formalise into a nonprofit
01:04:35
organisation and it was one story of
01:04:38
not a large number but a significant
01:04:41
number of groups that did this kind of
01:04:43
formalisation they developed it sounds
01:04:45
the cottage industry that rose out of
01:04:48
these new opportunities for these
01:04:50
volunteer technical communities as they
01:04:51
call themselves to emerge and operate
01:04:53
disaster anyways open street map is a
01:04:57
large organisation is that you might
01:04:59
know about it on the pocket PDF of maps
01:05:02
and they to this was a different a
01:05:04
slightly different story but I followed
01:05:06
a similar trajectory so they already
01:05:08
existed right they already had a
01:05:09
purpose of generating geospatial data
01:05:12
that was open and available for number
01:05:13
purposes. So the over some meaty
01:05:16
themselves internally mobilised in the
01:05:19
wake of he if you remember many
01:05:21
government buildings were destroyed
01:05:23
many government officials were killed
01:05:25
there was a real need for geospatial
01:05:26
data this is what open street map look
01:05:28
like the day before the earthquake
01:05:30
there's very little content and I don't
01:05:34
know if you can see you maybe can see
01:05:36
this is this there's a great deal of
01:05:38
content now here and if you could see
01:05:40
on the slide this project version of
01:05:43
the slide twenty one days after the
01:05:45
events of the whole country was really
01:05:47
matter very very high level of detail
01:05:50
in work that rubber so then Jennings
01:05:53
Anderson and others did we found there
01:05:55
were four hundred forty six mapper is
01:05:57
eighty three of them were brand new but
01:05:59
they were already a lesser members and
01:06:01
so and then we saw the same behaviour
01:06:02
happened four years later in the
01:06:04
Philippines in preparation for in in
01:06:05
the wake of typhoon you'll on the high
01:06:08
and and rubber this is the paper that I
01:06:11
mentioned earlier the Robert so it will
01:06:13
be speaking about later in the week
01:06:15
about how and why the patterns of
01:06:18
mapping actually look quite different
01:06:20
these colours represent different users
01:06:21
here between these two events even of
01:06:24
the phenomena were very similar and it
01:06:27
was a technical consequence avenue
01:06:29
mapping innovation that supported
01:06:31
mapping but he you will talk about how
01:06:34
it comes about through this idea of
01:06:36
always them scene itself as a as a
01:06:39
different kind of player and this
01:06:41
larger ecosystem of data production and
01:06:43
data reuse. So it's really a story of
01:06:46
institutional change that gets realise
01:06:49
of course in these technological and
01:06:51
social innovations and the way we see
01:06:54
it is that was some of the data
01:06:56
producing organisation was responding
01:06:57
to lots of external pressures in the
01:07:00
sort of in the given that they're
01:07:03
they've experienced a great deal of
01:07:04
success in achieving what they wanted
01:07:06
to be common source of good geospatial
01:07:10
data they then have this obligation I
01:07:12
think is how they see themselves to
01:07:15
then think about how they deliver that
01:07:17
data to others and so this is what you
01:07:19
see I think in this in this change it's
01:07:21
happening OSM so come Thursday last
01:07:24
session last talk. It'll be worth it
01:07:26
remote you for we're doing at a little
01:07:30
bit more work in this area to around
01:07:32
the Alex of course then we're trying to
01:07:35
open up the database which is again
01:07:38
another kind of tear any of the
01:07:39
database your near the data structure
01:07:41
tyranny of the database where am I cook
01:07:43
a PD as rubber will explain always them
01:07:46
can't see itself very well. It's not
01:07:50
like with the PDA where you have all
01:07:51
the documentation with talk pages in
01:07:53
history pages we can study with those
01:07:55
collaborations look like very very hard
01:07:57
to do all this time because the
01:07:58
databases impenetrable. So getting the
01:08:01
Anderson rubber. So they can understand
01:08:03
Rena coke in time you a Mccallum there
01:08:05
are mere and are working on this and we
01:08:08
have some open source code now
01:08:10
available to be able to look at the
01:08:13
user centred view of who's making club
01:08:16
edits to the map and how much and when
01:08:19
and all of that and this work is being
01:08:21
presented this week actually in Chicago
01:08:23
by Jennings at the American association
01:08:25
for Java first okay my last scratch
01:08:29
okay this is good almost there okay so
01:08:32
I one of the so what I think they
01:08:36
mentioned is one the criticisms that's
01:08:37
an levelled at S and I think it's been
01:08:40
it's great great gets a chance to
01:08:42
respond so now I bulk or will for are
01:08:44
you are you here oh I can say things
01:08:47
about "'em" is not here I know he's
01:08:48
here please not here so he has been I
01:08:51
think especially critical but it's been
01:08:52
very productive for us about saying you
01:08:56
know this is all you know all the stuff
01:08:57
that's happening online but what what
01:08:59
relevance does it have to what's
01:09:00
happening on the ground and is there
01:09:02
any relevance and I think the answer is
01:09:04
yes and I'm not not this is not
01:09:06
speaking of advocacy but I think the
01:09:09
challenge and setting it well means
01:09:11
that we can if we can study it well
01:09:13
then we have no right to write a paper
01:09:15
about it doesn't tell you what that
01:09:16
looks like because it's a very hard
01:09:17
thing to study right you have to I
01:09:20
think the connections have been very
01:09:21
kind of the femoral and tiny and minor
01:09:24
right and actually minor they're
01:09:26
important but there we know of course
01:09:28
people look at things online to get
01:09:29
help from people online I can't quite
01:09:31
remember if they got it from their
01:09:32
friend on face book core when sell
01:09:34
their neighbour on the street you know
01:09:35
later that day they can't make those
01:09:37
kinds of connections it's hard to say
01:09:39
that we that makes it anything
01:09:40
meaningful to say to you but what I
01:09:43
think we are seeing is that as these
01:09:46
events are unfortunately happening and
01:09:49
as these social structures are starting
01:09:50
to have some persistent sometimes and
01:09:53
then hours trying to replicate
01:09:54
themselves before starting see patterns
01:09:56
we're discovering in a new they're
01:09:58
being exposed other ways in which
01:10:00
people are using social media in other
01:10:01
kinds of environments makes ten that
01:10:03
really quickly what's happening in this
01:10:06
disaster that they're experiencing.
01:10:07
They are there is more transfer more of
01:10:10
a relationship between what's happening
01:10:12
normally speaking offline and online
01:10:15
that then therefore becomes study about
01:10:17
we can witness it now "'cause" it's
01:10:18
extended has some kind of duration. So
01:10:21
now we can study it it also means
01:10:23
sometimes have to be in the right place
01:10:24
at the right time to study it and this
01:10:26
is once again where the floods we
01:10:27
hadn't call rather be possible for us
01:10:29
just to be there to know what what to
01:10:31
study the other answer I have to that
01:10:34
criticism that's is that we must design
01:10:38
and create those opportunities those
01:10:40
connections as well so that goes back
01:10:41
to both the summit informative research
01:10:44
that I argue in the beginning that is
01:10:45
in play here right so that design
01:10:47
interventions when we did have just a
01:10:49
few examples before I close. So we have
01:10:53
two three forty what we have told video
01:10:57
what oh darn okay so okay so we so in
01:11:05
what what do I do and why we looked at
01:11:08
again response where floods the
01:11:09
evacuation of thirty eight courses that
01:11:12
were marooned or skimming them around
01:11:14
on a mountaintop you don't be an I You
01:11:16
to be on a mountaintop in your room and
01:11:18
what all the roads going out are no
01:11:21
longer passable and so in her
01:11:24
dissertation work she looks at how this
01:11:27
ensemble the people who could only meet
01:11:30
virtually because they were not in
01:11:33
colour out of many of them they we're
01:11:34
not on this on top was came together
01:11:37
and what they what the cast kind of
01:11:39
wide net for this expertise around what
01:11:41
it means to be a horse person to be
01:11:44
able to figure out this unusual problem
01:11:46
exactly thirty horses down mountain a
01:11:48
three hour journey down to a new ranch
01:11:51
and so the story goes is that the
01:11:54
expertise the interest of it it's
01:11:57
objective knowledge that expertise
01:11:59
shares enabled a degree of trust around
01:12:02
strangers that enabled the planetary
01:12:04
support of remote planning with many
01:12:06
unknowns but was still solitaire and
01:12:09
hyperbole and that's often where the
01:12:12
social media activity gets dismissed
01:12:14
mystics and what's not thirty forces
01:12:15
you told us it was fifty and so what
01:12:17
silliness is happening online here in
01:12:19
social social medial and well so they
01:12:22
have this area gets propagated lots of
01:12:23
things happen around it then what
01:12:25
happens is once they come on to site
01:12:27
after big workers orchestration once
01:12:30
again this problem gets mitigated once
01:12:32
again through their expertise through
01:12:34
online witnessing of the are on site
01:12:36
listing of the obituary their own
01:12:38
materiality working demonstration of
01:12:39
their own expertise which we establish
01:12:41
credibility and then kind of put we
01:12:43
measured what the response should be
01:12:46
we're developing outsourcing systems
01:12:47
around Boston found issues we are
01:12:50
working a great deal in the American
01:12:51
west this goes to the designing the
01:12:53
interventions and what with still a
01:12:55
Colorado on their own experiment
01:12:56
apparent how to include volunteers in
01:12:59
responses to natural has which we're
01:13:01
not getting into law enforcement stuff
01:13:02
but around natural hazards and then
01:13:05
most recently we're trying to the topic
01:13:06
of resilient infrastructures and
01:13:08
resilient communities and this once
01:13:10
again opens up the opportunities for a
01:13:13
diverse disciplinary commitment to this
01:13:18
topic so we are working with civil
01:13:20
engineers environmental designer's
01:13:22
decisions scientists urban planners
01:13:25
with at the university actor in Norway
01:13:26
where I have an evaluation as well as
01:13:28
you inverse of Colorado and so this
01:13:30
again speaks is kind of diversification
01:13:32
of what HCI research can be so the five
01:13:35
branches of Christ informatics research
01:13:36
as I see it today about a close now. So
01:13:45
just bear with me okay thank you. So
01:13:48
okay so as you can see disasters of the
01:13:50
sites of human innovation victims are
01:13:52
creative helpers are creative
01:13:54
responders are created and researchers
01:13:57
must be creative and vigilant and
01:13:59
respectful and integrative of so many
01:14:02
different forms of investigation and
01:14:05
all of that is I would argue is what a
01:14:08
CI researchers researchers are so good
01:14:10
at doing we are hard workers I think we
01:14:13
want to tackle very hard problems and I
01:14:16
think it's possible first H see eye to
01:14:18
accomplish a great deal on behalf of
01:14:20
many it is possible to manage both be
01:14:23
applied without losing any commitments
01:14:26
to the basic scholarship that also
01:14:28
drives research in in the most
01:14:31
essential ways and I think it's in fact
01:14:32
what scholarship demands of us today.
01:14:35
So I propose that together we consider
01:14:37
in our research going forward how can
01:14:39
or it's the artwork have greater social
01:14:41
impact. And I propose to you and to me
01:14:45
is it a matter of expanding the base of
01:14:47
collaborations for more intellectual
01:14:49
diversity no we sure that the research
01:14:52
we're doing is it being foiled by the
01:14:54
very technologies the new technologies
01:14:56
that were encountering. Um are we being
01:14:58
pulled in by its imperatives making us
01:15:01
unwittingly complicit in technological
01:15:03
determinism. And can we return to basic
01:15:06
H the I tenants in constructs that help
01:15:09
guide or understanding that behaviours
01:15:11
for becoming differently complex in the
01:15:13
face of all this new innovation. And
01:15:16
finally imagine the powerful things
01:15:19
that can happen when it's the eye
01:15:21
leads. Thank you very much for your
01:15:22
attention I didn't leave much time for
01:15:33
questions I'm so sorry we start a
01:15:35
little bit late and I'm here for other
01:15:37
question two minutes points as we have
01:15:38
two minutes oh two questions. So thank
01:15:49
you for the talk my name is jasmine
01:15:51
Jones I'm there JP university my
01:15:55
question about the okay this article
01:15:59
you can these things a little louder
01:16:00
fairly my question is about so the
01:16:02
epistemology not logical it using
01:16:04
making with the separation between
01:16:07
exactly in that it is it was wondering
01:16:11
if you have any thoughts on situations
01:16:13
that might be a mixture of both I'm
01:16:15
thinking about like people look right
01:16:16
where it was kind of this big exactness
01:16:19
issue but there is also this issue
01:16:20
quarantine which kind of yeah great
01:16:24
that's a great example I think I
01:16:25
thought about that one in just in
01:16:26
graduate Colorado for a little while
01:16:28
when you were an undergraduate yeah
01:16:30
yeah great nexus you can so the think
01:16:32
about ebola is that in other kinds of
01:16:35
had an X is that of course at other
01:16:37
button inhabited by people. So it
01:16:40
becomes this endogenous agent right so
01:16:42
it becomes like you know tracking who
01:16:44
is inhabiting the agents we after more
01:16:47
fries that so I would say that would
01:16:49
behave a lot like an endogenous intense
01:16:51
in in my opinion. But of course there's
01:16:54
still then I mean and there might be
01:16:56
you know there is just one single
01:16:57
answer to it to we might depending on
01:16:59
the way we're whatever research
01:17:01
question we have about this we might
01:17:03
need to play with the frame right about
01:17:05
whether it's important to think about
01:17:07
it for this research question as an
01:17:09
exhaustion agent for example versus
01:17:11
others as an endogenous agent I would
01:17:13
say I didn't do much social your
01:17:15
research on that but just kinda very
01:17:16
casually looking at anecdotally what
01:17:18
was going on. I would say that the kind
01:17:20
of behaviours we were seen in social
01:17:22
media we're we're very much more
01:17:25
aligned with and dodge in the US sorry
01:17:27
in the US we're very much aligned with
01:17:30
this kind of and dodging this way of
01:17:31
thinking around about the age of that
01:17:33
we have to act we handed watching you
01:17:35
know study and figure out who's
01:17:37
responsible for you know letting the
01:17:39
nurse walk out of the hospital or
01:17:41
something. So that would be my answer
01:17:43
that thank you thanks hi yeah enjoyed
01:17:49
your talk a lot john Thomas from
01:17:51
problem solving international. So I am
01:17:54
wondering what you think about global
01:17:57
climate change I realise that it's
01:17:59
happening over a long period of time
01:18:01
but maybe in terms of our ability to do
01:18:04
the things that are necessary in order
01:18:05
to impact the maybe it is a crisis and
01:18:08
maybe some of the things in crisis
01:18:10
informatics really need to be brought
01:18:12
to bear yeah you know so sure I think
01:18:16
yeah white of course and I I do you
01:18:22
know this is where the there's okay so
01:18:24
couple things there's there's always
01:18:25
struggle with the limits of english.
01:18:27
And crisis and disasters and
01:18:29
emergencies and what we call things and
01:18:31
how things and fall in or out of that
01:18:33
because we have to label them I think
01:18:36
four ish I think the attention that the
01:18:39
field is moving in is attending to the
01:18:44
outcomes of class climate change so
01:18:46
it's attending currently to the the
01:18:51
string of hurricanes and the damage
01:18:53
that it can do it's and we struggle
01:18:56
with how to deal with even things like
01:18:57
trout which are also protracted and
01:19:01
prolonged an outcome of climate change
01:19:03
that unclear how to what it I clear
01:19:07
that the social on computing frame is
01:19:10
the thing we should put two that we may
01:19:12
be looking at that differently we might
01:19:14
be looking at for example changing
01:19:18
behaviour right incentive icing
01:19:19
behaviour to do to behave differently I
01:19:23
would say at least in the war in in the
01:19:25
contributions that we've been able to
01:19:26
make the limit our work is does have
01:19:28
its limits for sure we have not looked
01:19:32
we have not tried to change behaviour
01:19:36
as a result of these kinds of threats
01:19:39
but I think that ability that does that
01:19:41
need to change behaviours we see in
01:19:43
other forms of each yeah I like people
01:19:44
becoming more green than exercising
01:19:46
more and all this that could absolutely
01:19:49
find a place here which is why so often
01:19:51
try to bring many people to the fold
01:19:52
here and try to describe a try to
01:19:54
explain the disaster is not an easy
01:19:56
problem it cuts across all aspects of
01:19:59
human society all aspects and and it's
01:20:02
a great place to be thinking about
01:20:04
these problems people don't have the
01:20:06
horizon is just so far out so I think
01:20:08
it's possible but I don't think is a
01:20:10
huge amount work being done in that

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SIGCHI Social Impact Award Talk
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